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DROSHKY (Russ. drozhki, diminutive of...

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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 591 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DROSHKY (Russ. drozhki, diminutive of drogi, a wagon), a light four-wheeled uncovered carriage used in Russia. Properly it consists of two pairs of wheels joined by a board. This forms a seat for the passengers who sit sideways, while the driver sits astride in front. The word Droschke, however, is applied especially in Germany to light carriages generally which ply for hire. DROSTE-HULSHWFF, ANNETI'E ELISABETH, FREIIN VON (1797-1848), German poet, was born at the family seat of Hulshoff near Munster in Westphalia on the loth of January 1797. Her early mental training was largely influenced by her cousin, Clemens August, Freiherr von Droste zu Vischering, who, as archbishop of Cologne, became notorious for his extreme ultramontane views (see below) ; and she received a more liberal education than in those days ordinarily fell to a woman's lot. After prolonged visits among the intellectual circles at Coblenz, Bonn and Cologne, she retired to the estate of Ruschhaus near Munster, belonging to her mother's family. In 1841, owing to delicate health, she went to reside in the house of her brother-in-law, the well-known scholar, Joseph, Freiherr von Lassberg (1770-1855), at Schloss Meersburg on the Lake of Constance, where she met Levin Schucking (q.v.); and there she died on the 24th of May 1848. Annette von Droste-Hulshoffis, beyond doubt, the most gifted and original of German women poets. Her verse is strong and vigorous, but often unmusical even to harshness; one looks in vain for a touch of sentimentality or melting sweetness in it. As a lyric poet, she is at her best when she is able to attune her thoughts to the sober landscape of the Westphalian moorlands of her home. Her narrative poetry, and especially Das Hospiz auf dem Grossen St Bernard and Die Schlacht im Loener Bruck (both 1838), belongs to the best German poetry of its kind. She was a strict Roman Catholic, and her religious poems, published in 852, after her death, under the title Das geistliche Jahr, nebst einem Anhang religioser Gedichte, enjoyed great popularity. Annette von Droste-Hulshoff's Gedichte were first published in 1844 during her lifetime, and a number of her poems were translated into English by Thomas Medwin. The most complete edition of her works is that in 4 vols. edited by E. von Droste-Hulshoff (Munster, 1886). The Ausgewahlte Gedichte were edited by W. von Scholz (Leipzig, 1901). See Levin Schiicking, Annette von Droste-Hulshoff, can Lebensbild (2nd ed., Hanover, 1871)—her letters to L. Schiicking were published. at Leipzig in 1893; also H. Hueffer, Annette von Droste-Hulshoff and ihre Werke (Gotha, 1887), and W. Kreiten, Annette von Droste-Hulshoff (2nd ed., Paderborn, 1900). DROSTE-VISCHERING, CLEMENS AUGUST, BARON VON (1773-1845), German Roman Catholic divine, was born at Munster on the 21st of January 1773. He was educated in his native town and entered the priesthood in 1798; in 1807 the local chapter elected him vicar-general. This office he resigned in 1813 through his opposition to Napoleon, but assumed it again after the battle of Waterloo (1815) until a disagreement with the Prussian government in 1820 led to his abdication. He remained in private life until 1835, when he was appointed archbishop of Cologne. Heve again his zeal for the supremacy of the church led him to break the agreement between the state and the Catholic bishops which he had signed at his installation, and he was arrested by the Prussian government in November 1837. A battle of pamphlets raged for some time; Droste was not re-installed but was obliged to accept a coadjutor. His chief works were: Uber die Religionsfreiheit der Katholiken (18x7), and Uber den Frieden unter der Kirche and den Staaten (1843). See Carl Mirbt's article in Herzog-Hauck, Realencyk. fur prof. Theol. v. 23.
End of Article: DROSHKY (Russ. drozhki, diminutive of drogi, a wagon)
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