DRUSES, or DRUZES (Arab. Druz) , a
See also:people of
See also:Syria (for the derivation of the name see
See also:History section below), distributed nowadays into three isolated groups, of which the most numerous inhabits
See also:Jebel Hauran (Jebel Druz), E. of
See also:Jordan (about 55,000); the second, the cazas of Shuf and Metn in
See also:Lebanon (about 50,000); the third, the cazas of
See also:Hasbeya, Rasheya, W. al Ajem, Horns, Hamadiyeh and Selimiyeh in
See also:Anti-Lebanon and
See also:Hermon (about 45,000) . The first
See also:group, which has been greatly increased by migrants from the second, since the
See also:establishment of the privileged Lebanon province (1861) under Christian auspices, lives apart from other peoples in semi-independence . The second is now confined to the
See also:southern Lebanon, and even there is greatly outnumbered by
See also:Maronites, who, in the whole "
See also:Mountain," stand to Druses as 9 to 2 . The third is counterbalanced everywhere by a large population of Moslem and Orthodox Syrians . The Hauran, therefore, has become the stronghold of the Druses, offering nowadays the best
See also:field for studying their
See also:peculiar customs and religion; and the group there still increases at the expense of the other groups, despite efforts on the
See also:part of the
See also:government to check Druse
See also:migration by both conciliatory and repressive
See also:measures . The actual distinction of the Druses, as a racial unity, despite their dispersion, depends so exclusively on the peculiarity of their
See also:common religion, that it will be well at once to give an account of Druse creed and practice as they are understood to stand at the
See also:day . How this religion may have grown up and come to be theirs will be considered later . Religion.—Druse religion is a secret faith, and the following account is given with all reserves . There are many indications that a more
See also:primitive cult, containing elements of Nature worship, preceded it, and still survives in the popular practices of the more remote Druse districts, e.g. in the eastern Hauran . The Muwahhidin (Unitarians), as the Druses
See also:call themselves, believe that there is one and only one
See also:God, indefinable, incomprehensible, ineffable, passionless . He has made himself known to men by successive incarnations, of which the last was Hakim, the
See also:sixth Fatimit'e
See also:caliph . How many these incarnations have been is stated variously; but seventy, one for each
See also:period of the
See also:world, seems the best-attested number .
Jesus appears to be accepted as one such incarnation, but notMahomet, although it is agreed that, in his
See also:time, the " Universal Intelligence " (see later) was made flesh, in the
See also:person of Mikdad al-Aswad . No further incarnation can now take place: in Hakim a final
See also:appeal was made to mankind, and after the
See also:door of mercy had stood open to all for twenty-six years, it was finally and for ever closed . When the tribulation of the faithful has reached its height, Hakim will reappear to conquer the world and render his religion supreme . Druses, believed to be dispersed in
See also:China, will return to Syria . The combined
See also:body of the Faithful will take
See also:Mecca, and finally Jerusalem, and all the world will accept the Faith . The first of the creatures of God is the Universal Intelligence or Spirit, impersonated in Hamza, Hakim's
See also:vizier . This Spirit was the creator of all subordinate beings, and alone has immediate communion with the Deity . Next in
See also:rank, and equally supporting the
See also:throne of the Almighty, are four Ministering
See also:Spirits, the Soul, the Word, the Right Wing and the
See also:Left Wing, who, in Hakim's time, were embodied respectively in Ismael Darazi, Mahommed
See also:ibn Wahab, Selama ibn Abd al-Wahal and Baha ud-Din; and beneath these again are spiritual agents of various ranks . The material world is an emanation from, and a "
See also:mirror " of, the Divine Intelligence . The number of human beings admits neither of increase nor of decrease, and a
See also:process of metempsychosis goes on continually . The souls of the virtuous pass after
See also:death into ever new incarnations of greater perfection, till at last they reach a point at which they can be re-absorbed into the Deity itself; those of the wicked may be degraded to the level of camels or
See also:dogs . All previous religions are mere types of the true, and their sacred books and observances are to be interpreted allegorically .
See also:Gospel and the
See also:Koran are both regarded as inspired books, but not as religious guides . The latter
See also:function is performed solely by the Druse Scriptures . As the
See also:admission of converts is no longer permitted, the faithful are enjoined to keep their
See also:doctrine secret from the profane; and in
See also:order that their
See also:allegiance may not bring them into danger, they are allowed (like Persian mystics) to make outward profession of whatever religion is dominant around them . To this latter indulgence is to be attributed the apparent indifferentism' which leads to their joining Moslems in prayers and ablutions, or sprinkling themselves with
See also:water in Maronite churches . Obedience is required to the seven commandments of Hamza, the first and greatest of which enjoins truth in words (but only those of Druse speaking with Druse); the second, watchfulness over the safety of the brethren; the third, absolute renunciation of every other religion; the
See also:complete separation from all who are in error; the fifth, recognition of the unity of " Our
See also:Lord " in all ages; the sixth, complete resignation to his will; and the seventh, complete obedience to Ms orders . Prayer, however, is regarded as an impertinent interference with the Creator; while, at the same time, instead of the fatalistic
See also:predestination of Mahommedanism, the freedom of the human will is distinctly maintained . Not only is the
See also:charge of secrecy rigidly obeyed in regard to the
See also:alien world, but full initiation into the deeper mysteries of the creed is permitted only to a
See also:special' class designated Akils, (Arabic `Akl, intelligence), in contradistinction from whom all other members of the Druse community, whatever may be their position or attainments, are called Jahel, the Ignorant . About 15 % of the adult population belong to the order of Akils . Admission is granted to any Druse of either sex who expresses willingness to conform to the
See also:laws of the society, and during a
See also:year of
See also:probation gives sufficient
See also:proof of sincerity and stability of purpose . There appears to be no formal distinction of rank among the various members; and though the amir, Beshir Shehab, used to appoint a
See also:sheikh of the Akils, the person thus distinguished obtained no primacy over his
See also:fellows . Exceptional influence depends upon exceptional sanctity or ability . All are required to abstain from
See also:tobacco and
See also:wine; the
See also:women used not to be allowed to
See also:wear gold or
See also:silver, or
See also:silk or
See also:brocade, but this
See also:rule is commonly broken now; and although neither celibacy nor retirement from the affairs of the world is either imperative or customary, unusual respect is shown to those who voluntarily submit themselves to ascetic discipline .
While the Akils mingle frankly with the common people, and are remarkably
See also:free from clerical pretension, they are none the less careful to maintain their privileges . They are distinguished by the wearing of a
See also:turban, emblematic of the purity of their
See also:life . Their
See also:food must be
See also:purchased with
See also:money lawfully acquired; and lest they should unwittingly partake of any that is ceremonially unclean, they require those Jahels, whose hospitality they
See also:share, to supply their wants from a
See also:store set apart for their exclusive use . The ideal Akil is
See also:calm and dignified, with an infinite capacity of keeping a secret, and a devotion that knows no limits to the interests of his creed . On
See also:Thursday evening, the commencement of the weekly day of
See also:rest, the members of the order meet together in the various districts, probably for the
See also:reading of their sacred books and consultation on matters of ecclesiastical or
See also:political importance . Their
See also:meeting-houses, khalwas, are plain, unornamented edifices . These have
See also:property attached to them, the revenues of which are consecrated to the
See also:relief of the poor and the demands of hospitality . In the eastern Hauran, there are
See also:hill-top shrines containing each a black
See also:stone, on which rugs, &c., are hung, and these seem to perpetuate features of pre-Islamic Arabian cult, including the sacrifice of animals, e.g. goats . They are held in reverence by the
See also:Bedouins . The women assemble in the khalwas at the same time as the men, a part of the space being fenced off for them by a semi-transparent black veil . Even while the Akils are assembled, strangers are readily enough admitted to the khalwas; but as long as these are present the ordinary ceremonies are neglected, and the Koran takes the place of the Druse Scriptures . It has been frequently asserted that the image of a calf is kept in a
See also:niche, and traces of phallic and gynaecocratic worship have been vaguely suspected; but there is no authentic information in support of either statement .
The calf, if calf there be, is probably a
See also:symbol of the execrable
See also:heresy of Darazi, who is frequently styled the calf by his Orthodox opponents .
See also:Ignorance is the
See also:mother of suspicion as well as of superstition; and accordingly the Christian in-habitants of the Lebanon have long been persuaded that the Druses in their secret assemblies are guilty of the most nefarious practices . For this allegation, so frequently repeated by
See also:European writers, there seems to be little evidence; and it is certain that the sacred books of the religion contain moral teaching of a high order on the whole . As a formulated creed, the Druse
See also:system is not a thousand years old . In the year A.U . 996 (386 A.H.) Hakim Biamrillahi (i.e. he who
See also:judges by the command of God), sixth of the Fatimite caliphs (third in
See also:Egypt), began to reign; and during the next twenty-five years he indulged in a tyranny at once so terrible and so fantastic that little doubt can be entertained of his insanity . He believed that he held
See also:direct intercourse with the deity, or even that he was an incarnation of the divine intelligence; and in A.D. ioz6 (407 A.H.) his claims were made known in the mosque at Cairo, and supported by the testimony of Ismael Darazi . The people showed such bitter hostility to the new gospel that Darazi was compelled to seek safety in
See also:flight; but even in
See also:absence he was faithful to his god, and succeeded inwinning over certain ignorant inhabitants of Lebanon . According to the Druses, this
See also:great conversion took place in A.D . 1019 (410 A.H.) . Meanwhile the endeavours of the caliph to get his divinity acknowledged by the people of Cairo continued . The advocacy of
See also:Hasan ibn Haidara Fergani was without avail; but in 1017 (408 A.H.) the new religion found a more successful apostle in the person of Hamza ibn
See also:Ali ibn Ahmed, a Persian mystic,
See also:felt-maker by
See also:trade, who became Hakim's vizier, gave
See also:form and substance to his creed, and by an ingenious adaptation of its various dogmas to the prejudices of existing sects, finally enlisted an extensive body of adherents .
In 1020 (411 A.H.) the caliph was assassinated by contrivance of his
See also:sister Sitt ul-Mulk; but it was given out by Hamza that he had only withdrawn for a.
See also:season, and his followers were encouraged to look forward with confidence to his triumphant return . Darazi, who had acted independently in his apostolate, was branded by Hamza as a heretic, and thus, by a curious
See also:anomaly, he is actually held in detestation by the very
See also:sect which perhaps bears his name . The
See also:propagation of the faith in accordance with Hamza's initiation was undertaken by Ismael ibn Mahommed Tamimi, Mahommed ibn Wahab, Abul-Khair Selama ibn Abd al-Wahal ibn Samurri, and Moktana Baha ud-Din, the last of whom became known by his writings from Constantinople to the
See also:borders of India . In two letters addressed to the emperors
See also:Constantine VIII. and Michael the Paphlagonian he endeavoured to prove that the Christian
See also:Messiah reappeared in the person of Hamza . It is possible, even probable, that the segregation of the Druses as a people
See also:dates only from the adoption of Hamza's creed . But when it is recalled that other inhabitants of the same mountain system, e.g. the Maronites, the Ansarieh, the Metawali and the " Isma`ilites," also profess creeds which, like the Druse system, differ from Sunni
See also:Islam in the important feature of admitting incarnations of the Deity, it is impossible not to suspect that Hamza's emissaries only gave definition and form to beliefs long established in this part of the world . Many of the fundamental ideas of Druse
See also:theology belong to a common West
See also:Asiatic stock; but the peculiar history of the Mountain is no doubt responsible for beliefs, held elsewhere by different peoples, being combined there in a single creed . Some
See also:allowance, too, must be made for the probability that Hamza's system owed something to doctrines Christian and other, with which the metropolitan position of Cairo brought Fatimite society into contact . History — There is
See also:good reasonto regard the Druses as, racially, a mixture of refugee
See also:stocks, in which the Arab largely predominates, grafted on to an
See also:original mountain population of Aramaic
See also:blood and Incarnationist tendencies . The latter is represented more purely by the Maronites (q.v.) . The native tradition regards an immigration of
See also:Arabs into S . Lebanon, under Khalid ibn Walid in the 9th century, as the beginning of Druse distinctiveness and power; but it also accepts
See also:Turkoman and Kurdish elements in the original Druse state .
About the same time, or a little later (in the reign ofSaladin), it believes that Hermon was colonized by a population of 15,000 Hira and Yemenite Arabs, who had sojourned awhile in Hauran . The name Druse is met with first in Benjamin of
See also:Tudela (c . A.D . 1170), and its origin has been much disputed . Some authorities see in it a descriptive epithet, derived from Arabic darasa (those who read the
See also:Book), or darisa (those in possession of Truth) or dugs (the
See also:clever or initiated); but more connect it with the name of the first missionary, Ismael Darazi . As soon as we begin to know anything of the Druses they were living in a feudal state of society, as
See also:village communities under sheikhs, themselves generally subordinate to one or more amirs . In the time of the first
See also:crusades the
See also:main power was in the hands of the Arslan
See also:family, which, however, suffered so severely in
See also:wars with the Franks, that it was superseded by the Tnuhs, who, holding
See also:Beirut and nearly all the Phoenician
See also:coast, came into conflict with the sultans of Egypt . One of these latter, Malik Ashraf, about A.D . 1300, forced outward compliance with Sunni Islam on the Mountain, after defeating the Druses at
See also:Ain Sofar . Meanwhile, however, the Maan family, lately immigrant from N .
See also:Arabia, was growing in power, and throwing in its lot with the Osmanli invaders in the reign of
See also:Selim I., it was promoted to the supreme amirate about 1517 . Fakr ud-Din Maan II. increased Druse dominion until it included all the N .
Syrian region from the edge of the
See also:Antioch plain to Acre, with part of the eastern
See also:desert, dominated by his
See also:castle at Tadmor (
See also:Palmyra), and the important towns of
See also:Tripoli, Beirut and Saida; and forming further ambitious designs, he intrigued with Christians and broke with the
See also:Turks . In 1614 the
See also:pasha of
See also:Damascus moved against him with a large force, and compelled him to fly from Syria . He sought the courts of Tuscany and Naples and tried to enlist
See also:Frank sympathies, inventing (probably) the curious myth, so often credited since, that the Druses are of crusading origin and owe their name to the
See also:counts of
See also:Dreux 1 I Sophisticated Druses still sometimes claim connexion with Rosicrucians, and a special relation to Scottish freemasons . He landed again at Saida in 1619 and recovered his old position . But in 1633 Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha was sent against him with a large army, and succeeded in capturing him with his sons . The family was sent to Constantinople, and two years later strangled . The
See also:dynasty struggled on till the end of the century, amid
See also:civil war, in which the parties seem to have been divided by the earlier Arab factions of Kaisites (Qaisites) and Yemenites, the Maan belonging to the latter . The Shehab family, originally Hira Arabs, which had governed Hauran under the early caliphs of Damascus, and thereafter held power in Hermon, intermarried with the Maan; and in the latter's day of weakness sided with the Kaisi
See also:faction and obtained the supreme amirate of the Mountain . But it appears never to have professed the Druse creed, remaining Sunnite . Haidar Shehab, third of the
See also:line, inflicted a notable defeat on the pasha of Saida (capital of an Ottoman eyalet since 1688) and the Yemenite Druses at Ain Dara, near Zahleh, in 1711, and proceeded to consolidate Shehab power, breaking up the old feudal society and substituting for the sheikhs mukatajis (tax-contractors), who had penal jurisdiction . The Yemenite Druses thereupon emigrated in large numbers to the Hauran, and laid the foundation of Druse power there . The Turks recognized the status quo, and made terms with the Shehab amir in 1748; but his power was none too well secured against the opposition of the Kurdish Jumblat family, even though he was supported by the Talhuk, Abd al-Malik and Yezbeki families; and it appears that some members of the Shehab joined the Maronite faith in the
See also:middle of the 18th century, causing a suspicion of secret apostasy to fall on all the family .
It is said that the amir Beshir, who succeeded about 1786, was himself a crypto-Christian . This remarkableman, who ruled the Mountain for fifty-four years, maintained his power by taking the side of one
See also:rebel pa.sha after another, betraying each in turn, and cultivating relations with European admirals . His earliest ally was Ahmed " Jezzar," who established himself in Acre in contumacious independence
See also:late in the 18th century . Beshir supported Jezzar against
See also:Napoleon in 1799 and earned the friendship of
See also:Smith . Falling out with Jezzar, Beshir fled to Cairo in 1805, attached himself to Mehemet Ali, and returned to take up the reins . Once more chased out by the Turks, he was again in the Mountain in 1823, allied with Abdallah, on whom Jezzar's
See also:mantle had ultimately fallen at Acre, and maintaining friendly relations with the "
See also:English Princess,"
See also:Lady Hester Stanhope . He now finally worsted the Jumblat . The invasion of Syria by Mehemet Ali in 1831 caused Beshir to desert Abdallah and throw in his lot with
See also:Ibrahim Pasha; but he was not cordially followed by the Druses in general, and had good excuse for revolt in 1839, and intrigue with the
See also:admiral in 1840 . Ibrahim, however, by his possession of Druse hostages, restrained the amir, and after the
See also:bombardment of Acre, the Turks called him to account for his record of
See also:rebellion and treachery . He fled to Malta on a British
See also:ship, but was induced to go to Constantinople, where he died in 1851 . His successor, Beshir al-Kassim, openly joined the Maronites, and instigating these against the malcontents of his own people, brought enmities, which had been growing for a century, to a
See also:head, and initiated a devastating internecine warfare which was to continue for twenty years . The state of the Lebanon went from
See also:bad to worse, and at last, in
See also:January 1842, the
See also:Turkish government appointed
See also:Omar Pasha as
See also:administrator of the Druses and Maronites, with a council of four chiefs from each party; but the pasha, attempting to effect a disarming, was besieged in
See also:November in the castle of
See also:Beit ed-Din by the Druses under Shibli el-
See also:Arrian .
At the instigation of the European
See also:powers he was recalled in
See also:December, and the Druses and Maronites were placed under
See also:separate kaimakams (
See also:governors), who, it was stipulated, were not to be of the family of Shehab . Disturbances again broke out in 1845, the native mukatajis refusing to obey the kaimakams . The Maronites flew to arms, but with the assistance of the Turks their opponents carried the day . A superficial pacification effected by Shekib Effendi, the Ottoman
See also:commissioner, lasted only till his departure; and the
See also:Porte was obliged to despatch a force of 12,000 men to the Lebanon .
See also:Forty of the chiefs were seized, the people was nominally disarmed, and in 1846 a new constitution was inaugurated, by which the kaimakam was to be assisted by two Druses, two Maronites, four Greeks, two Turks and one Metawali . All, however, was in vain: the conflict was continued through 1858, 1859 and 186o; and the disturbance culminated in the famous Damascus
See also:massacre (see SYRIA) . The European powers now determined to interfere; and, by a
See also:protocol of the 3rd of May 186o, it was decided that the Lebanon should be occupied by a force of 20,000 men, of whom
See also:half were to be French . A body of troops was accordingly landed on the 16th of
See also:August under General
See also:Beaufort d'Hautpoul; and Fuad Pasha, who had been appointed Turkish commissioner with full powers, proceeded to bring the leaders of the massacres to
See also:justice . The French occupation continued till the 5th of
See also:June 1861, and the French and English squadrons cruised on the coast for several months after . In accordance with the recommendation of the European powers the Porte determined to appoint a Christian
See also:governor not belonging to the
See also:district, and
See also:independent of the pasha of Beirut, to hold
See also:office for three years . The choice fell on Daud Pasha, an Armenian Catholic, who was installed on the 4th of
See also:July . In spite of many difficulties, and especially the ambitious conduct of the Maronite Jussuf Karam, he succeeded in restoring order; and by the formation of a military force from the in-habitants of the Lebanon he rendered unnecessary the presence of the Turkish soldiery .
The privileged province of Lebanon (q.v.) was finally constituted by the Organic
See also:Statute of the 6th of
See also:September 1864, and the subsequent history of the Lebanon Druses is one of gradual withdrawal from the jurisdiction of that state, in which they see their
See also:ancient independence irretrievably compromised, and their religion subordinated to Christian supremacy . Many now emigrate, when occasion offers, to
See also:America . Meanwhile, the Hauran, the old seat of the Shehab family and Hermon Druses, had been steadily receiving a Druse influx, since the day of Ain Dara (see above) . Towards the close of the 18th century some 600 families left Lebanon for the Hauran, in discontent with the rule of the Shehab dynasty, and their place and property were taken by 1500 families driven out of Jebel Ansarieh by Topal All in 1811 . The Hauran Druses increased by the middle of the 19th century to 7000 souls . They had successfully resisted Ibrahim, the
See also:Egyptian, in '839 in the Lija, and asserted complete independence of the Turks, living under a theocratic government directed by the chief Akil in Suweda . A great effort, made by Kibrisli Pasha in 1852 to subdue the Hauran, came to nothing . In 1879 the population numbered 20,000, and by a murderous
See also:raid attracted the
See also:attention of Midhat Pasha, then vali of the province of Syria . After experiencing one disaster he defeated their forces and imposed a kaimakam, at first
See also:drawn from the Talhuks, but subsequently chosen from the Atrash family of Kunawat . But the Druses still refused to pay taxes, to serve in the Ottoman army, or to recognize the kaimakam, and maintained their
See also:contumacy under the lead of the Jumblat, till 1896; when, as the result of a military expedition under Tahir Pasha and a great defeat at Ijun, a compromise was arrived at, under which the Druses agreed to pay taxes, but to serve in their own territory only as a frontier guard . The government was put into the hands of a mutessarif
See also:resident at Sheikh Saad, under whom are kaimakams at Suweda and . Salkhad .
Since thatepoch there has been
See also:comparative peace between the Druses and the government, largely because the latter, having learned wisdom, leaves the people very much to itself, maintaining only a small garrison of regular troops, and enlisting Druse
See also:police for service in Jebel Druz itself . The Druses are allowed to carry on their feuds with the Bedouins of the E . Desert as they will, so long as they do not disturb western districts . With the
See also:recent opening out of the W . Hauran by railway, the Druse sheikhs are beginning to acquire commercial ambitions, and to
See also:desire peace . The Hauran Druses are a vigorous, independent folk, with a well-deserved reputation for courage, very astute, and hospitableto Europeans, especially the British, with whom they have an old tradition of friendship . But, like most persecuted but semi-independent peoples, they are both cruel, and, by our
See also:standards, treacherous . They are a handsome
See also:race, the women being often beautiful . The latter no longer carry the head-
See also:horn which used to support the veil dropped over the
See also:face out of doors . But their
See also:dress is still black with the exception of red slippers, and the veil is never abandoned, not even, it is said, during sleep . An English lady, who has been much among them, states that the Druse women of the Hauran never unveiled before her . The men wear a
See also:tarbush with white
See also:roll, a black under-robe with white
See also:girdle, a
See also:short loose jacket, and when necessary an
See also:aba or parti-coloured cloak over all .
They go habitually armed with
See also:scimitar and half-
See also:axe, besides
See also:gun or
See also:rifle . Polygamy is forbidden .
See also:Marriage retains certain traces of the original system of capture; but Druse women enjoy much
See also:consideration, and are comparatively well educated, dignified and free in their bearing in spite of their close veiling . As has been stated above, they join the men in religious functions .
See also:Divorce is easy and can be initiated by the woman; but re-marriage of the pair can only be effected by the good offices of a
See also:proxy (as in Moslem
See also:societies, after a third divorce) .
See also:Burial takes place in family mausoleums, walled up after each interment; but Akils are buried in their own houses . The body is laid on its side, with its face to the south (Mecca) .
See also:Education is widely spread, and there is a considerable religious literature, much of which is known in
See also:Europe . A copy of the Book of the Testimonies to the Mysteries of the Unity, consisting of seventy
See also:treatises in four
See also:folio volumes, was found in the
See also:house of the chief Akil at Bakhlin; and presented in 1700 to
See also:Louis XIV. by Nusralla ibn Gilda, a Syrian
See also:doctor . Other
See also:manuscripts are to be found at Rome in the Vatican, at
See also:Oxford in the Bodleian, at Vienna, at
See also:Leiden, at
See also:Upsala and at
See also:Munich; and Dr J . L .
See also:Porter got possession of seven standard
See also:works of Druse theology while at Damascus .
The Munich collection was presented to the
See also:king of
See also:Bavaria by
See also:Clot Bey, the chief physician in the Egyptian army during its occupation of Syria; and for a number of the other manuscripts we are indebted to the elder Niebuhr . A history of the Druse nation by the amir Haidar Shehab is quoted by Urquhart .
DRUSIUS (or VAN DEN DRIESCHE), JOHANNES (1550-1616)...
Don't know how old this article is but spent time with the Druz people on Mt Carmel in Israel last year. The men still wear the traditional dress of white shirts, a beany-type hat that looks like the Tella-Tubbies and baggy caliph-type pants. I saw & met very few women who were veil, usually the really older women still covered their faces occasionally. What I really found interesting is their belief that their "Messiah" would come through a man so the men wear a diaper-like thing over their baggy pants incase one of should have the messiah. The religion seems to be more women run while the men are the workers. They are a very friendly, peaceful people and their food is marvelous.
I was reading an article in Pravda, which stated that the Druzes were the gaurds of the grave of Abel (son of Adam & Eve). I'd like to know if this is true and would like more info. on this. Thank you so much.
dear sir hope you well ... the druse or druze both are correct yes it is true guars the grave of ABEL and we till do so in his shrine in syria .. more information about that you more than welcome your article is good and give alot of information about us howover i can tell as a drusi (single from druse )you get 10% uncorrect information might be misunderstanding for druse secert or for other reson you had a good effort and appreciated work. houssam (1 god for every one) glasgow sotland
I KNEW MUCH ABOUT DRUZ NOW . FRANKLY SAYING THAT THERE ARE MANY MISCONCEPTIONS AMONG GENERAL PEOPLE ABOUT DRUZ , HOWEVER I GOT A VERY CLEAR PICTURE ABOUT THEM .THEY ARE BRAVE ,HONEST AND KIND HEARTED BUT BRAVE PEOPLE ON THE EARTH.I HEV COLLEAGUE WITH DRUZ FATHS BUT DESPITE MY QURIES , SHE NEVER DISCLOSED HER RICH PAST.ONE OF THE MISCONCEPTION IS THAT DRUZ DO START WORSHIP WHEN THEY REACH TO THE AGE OF 40? AND THEY KEEP A WOMAN NAKED IN FRONT OF MALES WHILE PRACTICING WORSHIP ?///IS IS TRUE? KINDLY REPLY ME SOON SO THAT I CAN SAY TRUTH TO THE PEOPLE IN MY COMUNITY. THANK U V MUCH ....NICE PEOPLE
its funny that you say how good we are..yet conclude with such a big insult for any faith or women..to the above lover of druze...its funny what 3000 years of brain wash doeas to people..as for the aricle good one atleast you mentioned the greatest and purist warrior shibli al arrian..SHIBLI THE AARIAN ,THE FRIST LAST AND ONLY TRUE WARRIOR (of modern history--for we had so many,,since the beginnig of times).. the true druze..al mouwahedoun..not like most of so called fake imposter,DRUZE, mentioned in this well informed article..LONG LIVE THE SPIRIT IF SULEIMAN THE PERSIAN,AND SHIBLI AL ARRIAN...BIJAN ARYAS..BEIRUT LEBANON...
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