See also:term applied to all theories which attempt to explain facts by reference to two coexistent principles . The term plays an important
See also:part in metaphysical, ethical and theological
See also:speculation . In
See also:Metaphysics.—Metaphysical dualism postulates the eternal coexistence of mind and
See also:matter, as opposed to
See also:monism both idealistic and materialistic . Two forms of this dualism are held . On the one
See also:hand it is said that mind and matter are absolutely heterogeneous, and, therefore, that any causal relation between them is ex hypothesi impossible . On the other hand is a hypothetical dualism, according to which it is held that mind cannot
See also:bridge over the chasm so far as to know matter in itself, though it is compelled by its own
See also:laws of cause and effect to postulate matter as the origin, if not the
See also:motive cause, of its sensations . It follows that, for the thinking mind, matter is a necessary hypothesis . Hence the theory is a kind of monism, inasmuch as it confessedly does not assert the existence of matter save as an intellectual postulate for the thinking mind . Matter, in other words, must be assumed to exist, though mind cannot know it in itself . From this question there emerges a second and more difficult problem . Consciousness, it is held, is of two
See also:main kinds, sensation and reason . Sensation alone is insufficient to explain all our intellectual phenomena; all sensation is momentary and individual (cf .
EMPIRICISM) . How then are we to account for memory and the principles of
See also:necessity, similarity, universality ? It is argued that there must be in the mind an enduring,
See also:faculty whereby we retain, compare and
See also:group the presentations of sense . This faculty is a priori, transcendental, and entirely
See also:separate from all the data of experience and sense perception . Here then we have a dualism within experience . The mind is not to be regarded as a sensitized film which automatically records the impressions of the senses . It contains within itself this modifying critical faculty which reacts upon and arranges the sense-given presentations . In Ethics and
See also:Theology.—In the domain of morals; dualism postulates the separate existence of
See also:Good and Evil, as principles of existence . In theology the appearance of dualism is sporadic and has not the fundamental, determining importance which it has in metaphysics . It is a result rather than a starting-point . The old Zoroastrianism, and those Christian sects (e.g .
See also:Manichaeism) which were influenced by it, postulate two contending deities Ormuzd and
See also:Ahriman (Good and Evil), which war against one another in influencing the conduct of men .
See also:Christianity, the existence of Satan as an evil influence, antagonistic to
See also:God, involves a kind of dualism . But generally speaking this dualism is permissive, inasmuch as it is always held that God will
See also:triumph over Satan in His own
See also:time . So in Zoroastrianism the dualism is not ultimate, for Ahriman and Ormuzd are represented as the twin sons of Zervana Akarana, i.e. limitless time, wherein both will be finally absorbed . The postulate of an Evil Being arises from the difficulty, at all times acutely
See also:felt by a certain type of mind, of reconciling the existence of evil with the divine attributes of perfect goodness, full knowledge and infinite power .
See also:Mill (
See also:Essay on Religion) preferred to disbelieve in the omnipotence of God rather than forgo the belief in His goodness . It follows from such a view that Satan is not the creation of God, but rather a power coeval in origin, over whose activity God has no absolute
See also:control . In Theology.—Dualism is also used in a
See also:special theological sense to describe a
See also:doctrine of the Nestorian
See also:heresy . According to this doctrine the
See also:personality of Christ is twofold; the divine
See also:Logos dwells as a distinct personality in the man Jesus Christ, the union of the two natures being analogous to the relation between the believer and the indwelling
See also:Holy Spirit .
See also:History of the Doctrine.—The earliest
See also:European thinkers (see IONIAN SCHOOL OF PHILOSOPHY) endeavoured to reduce all the facts of the universe to a single material origin, such as
See also:Water, Air . It is only gradually that there appears any recognition of a spiritual principle exercising a modifying or causal influence over inert matter . Anaxagoras was the first to postulate the existence of Reason (vows) as the source of
See also:change and progress . Yet even he did not conceive this Reason as incorporeal; it was in reality only the most highly rarefied
See also:form of matter in existence .
See also:Plato for the first time we find a truly dualistic conception of the universe . Asserting that Ideas alone really exist, he yet found it necessary to postulate a second principle of not-being, the groundwork of sensuous existence and of imperfection and evil . Herein he identified metaphysics and ethics, combining the good with the truly existent and evil with the non-existent . Aristotle rebels against this conception and substitutes the idea of rpUirri 6X and development . Nevertheless he does not
See also:escape from the dualism of Form and Matter, vour and Ott) . The scholastic philosophers naturally held dualistic views resulting from their extreme devotion to formalism . This
See also:blind dualism found its natural consequence in the revolt of the
See also:Renaissance thinkers,
See also:Bruno and
See also:Paracelsus, who asserted the unity of mind and matter in all existence and were the precursors of the more intelligent monism of Leibnitz and the scientific metaphysics of his successors . The
See also:birth of
See also:physical science on the other hand in the investigations of
See also:Bacon and
See also:Descartes obscured the metaphysical issue by the predominance of the
See also:mechanical principles of natural philosophy . They attempted to explain DU
See also:BARRY the fundamental problems of existence by the unaided evidence of the new natural science . Thus Descartes maintained the absolute dualism of the res cogitans and the res extensa .
See also:Spinoza realized the flaw in the division and preferred to postulate behind mind and matter a single substance (unica substantia) while Leibnitz explained the universe as a harmony of spiritual or semispiritual principles .
See also:Kant practically abandons the problem .
He never really establishes a relation between pure reason and things-in-themselves (Dinge an sick), but rather seeks
See also:refuge in a dualism within consciousness, the transcendental and the empirical . Since Kant there are, therefore, two streams of dualism, dealing, one with the
See also:radical problem of the relation between mind and matter, the other with the relation between the pure rational and the empirical elements within consciousness . To the first problem there is one obvious and conclusive answer, namely that matter in itself is inherently unthinkable and comes within the vision of the mind only as an intellectual presentation . It follows that philosophy is in a sense both dualist and monist; it is a cosmic dualism inasmuch as it admits the possible existence of matter as a hypothesis, though it denies the possibility of any true knowledge of it, and is hence in regard of the only possible knowledge an idealistic monism . It is a self-destructive dualism, a confessedly one-sided monism, agnostic as to the fundamental problem . To the second problem there are two main answers, that of Associationism which denies to the mind any a priori existence and asserts that sensation is the only source of know-ledge, and that which admits the existence of both transcendental and empirical knowledge .
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