French chemist and physicist, was
See also:born at
See also:Rouen on the 12th (or 13th) of
See also:February 1785 . He began as a
See also:doctor in one of the poorest districts of
See also:Paris, but soon abandoned
See also:medicine for scientific
See also:research . After acting as assistant to Berthollet, he became successively
See also:professor of chemistry at the
See also:faculty of sciences and the normal and veterinary
See also:schools at Alfort, and then (182o) professor of physics at the lcole Polytechnique, of which he was appointed director in 1830 . He died in Paris on the 18th (or 19th) of
See also:July 1838 . His earliest
See also:work was chemical in character . In 1811 he discovered chloride of nitrogen; during his experiments serious explosions occurred twice, and he lost one
See also:eye, besides sustaining severe injuries to his
See also:hand . He also investigated the
See also:oxygen compounds of phosphorus and nitrogen, and was • The names of the musical
See also:instruments in those verses of the
See also:Book of Daniel have formed the basis of a controversy as to the authenticity of the book . 2 Histoire de la musique (Paris, 1869), vol. ii. p . 131 . 3
See also:Music of the most
See also:Ancient Nations (
See also:London, 1864), pp . 42-3 . ' Hommaire de
See also:Hell, Voyage en Perse, p. lxii .
5 L'Harmonie universelle (Paris, 1636), livre iii. p . 174 . 3 Syntagma musicum (
See also:Wolfenbuttel, 1618), pl . 18 (3) . 7 Pl . 36 (1) . 3 Henn
See also:Job .
See also:Joachim Quantzens Lebenslauf von ihm selbst entworfen," in Fr . W . Marpurg's Histor. kritische Beytrage, Bd . L p . 207 (1754—1755)• e Elementa musica,
See also:xxvi .
one of the first to hold thehydrogen theory of acids . In 1815, in conjunction with Alexis Therese
See also:Petit (1791-1820), the professor of physics at the Ecole Polytechnique, he made careful comparisons between the mercury and the air thermometer . The first published research (1816) dealt with the dilatation of solids, liquids and gases and with the exact measurement of temperature, and it was followed by another in 1818 on the measurement of temperature and the communication of
See also:heat, which was crowned by the French Academy . In a third, " On some important points in the theory of heat " (1819), they stated that the specific heats of thirteen solid elements which they had investigated were nearly proportional to their atomic weights—a fact otherwise expressed in the "
See also:law of
See also:Dulong and Petit " that the atoms of
See also:simple substances have equal capacities for heat . Subsequent papers by Dulong were concerned with " New determinations of the proportions of
See also:water and the
See also:density of certain elastic fluids " (1820, with
See also:Berzelius); the
See also:property possessed by certain metals of facilitating the combination of gases (1823 with
See also:Thenard); the refracting
See also:powers of gases (1826); and the specific heats of gases (1829) . In 1830 he published a research, undertaken with Arago for the academy of sciences, on the elastic force of steam at high temperatures . For the purposes of this determination he set up a continuous
See also:column of mercury, constructed with 13 sections of
See also:tube each 2 metres long and 5 mm. in diameter, in the tower of the old
See also:church of St Genevieve in the
See also:Henri IV . The apparatus was first used to investigate the variation in the
See also:volume of air with pressure, and the conclusion was that up to twenty-seven atmospheres, the highest pressure attained in the experiments, Boyle's law holds
See also:good . In regard to steam, the old tower was so shaky that it was considered unwise to
See also:risk the effects of an
See also:explosion, and therefore the mercury column was removed bodily to a
See also:court in the
See also:observatory . The
See also:original intention was to push the experiments to a pressure
See also:equivalent to
See also:thirty atmospheres, but owing to the signs of failure exhibited by the
See also:boiler the limit actually reached was twenty-four atmospheres, at which pressure the thermometers indicated a temperature of about 224°C . In his last paper, published posthumously in 1838, Dulong gave an account of experiments made to deter-mine the heat disengaged in the combination of various simple and compound bodies, together with a description of the calorimeter he employed .
DULSE (Ir. and Gael. duileasg)
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