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DUMB WAITER

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 662 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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DUMB WAITER  ,' a small oblong or circular table to hold reserve plates, knives and forks, and other necessaries for a

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meal . This piece of furniture originated in England towards the end of the 18th century, and some exceedingly elegant examples were designed by Sheraton and his school . They were usually circular, with three diminishing tiers, sometimes surrounded by a continuous or interrupted pierced gallery in wood or brass . The smaller varieties are now much used in England for the display of small
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silver
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objects in
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drawing-rooms . DUM-DUM, a
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town and cantonment in
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British India at the head of an administrative subdivision in the
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district of the Twenty-four Parganas, in the
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presidency division of Bengal, with a station on the Eastern Bengal railway, 42 m . N.E. of
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Calcutta . It was the headquarters of the Bengal artillery from 1783 to 1853, when they were transferred to
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Meerut as a more central station; and its possession of a cannon foundry and a percussion-cap factory procured for it the name of the
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Woolwich of India . The barracks—still occupied by small detachments—are brick-built and commodious; and among the other buildings are St Stephen's
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Protestant church, a
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Roman Catholic
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chapel, a
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European and native hospital, a large bazaar and an
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English school . The population in 1901 of North Dum-Dum was 9916, and of South Dum-Dum 10,904 . It was at Dum-Dum that the treaty of 1757 was signed by which the
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nawab of Bengal ratified the privileges of the English, allowed Calcutta to be fortified, and bestowed freedom of trade . On the 7th of December 1908 a serious
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explosion occurred by accident at the Dum-Dum
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arsenal, resulting in
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death or serious injury to about 50 native workmen . At the Dum-Dum foundry the hollow-nosed "Dum-Dum " (Mark IV.) bullets were manufactured, the supposed use of which by the British during the
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Boer War caused considerable comment in 1899 .

Their peculiarity consisted in their expanding on ' The

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term " dumb," strictly meaning mute or destitute of speech (see
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DEAF AND DUMB), is applied in this and other analogous cases (e.g. dumb-bell, dumb-barge) as connoting the absence of some normal capacity in the term with which it is associated . impact and thus creating an ugly wound, and they had been adopted in
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Indian frontier fighting owing to the failure of the usual type of bullets to stop the rushes of fanatical tribesmen . They were not, in fact, used during the Boer War . Other and improvised forms of expanding bullet were used in India and the Sudan, the commonest methods of securing expansion being to
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file down the point until the lead core was exposed and to make
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longitudinal slits in the nickel envelope . All these forms of bullet have come to be described colloquially, and even in
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diplomatic correspondence, as " dum-dum bullets," and their alleged use by
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Russian troops in the Russo-
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Japanese War of 1904–1905 formed the subject of a protest on the
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part of the Japanese government . The proposals made at the second Hague
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Conference to forbid the use of these bullets by international agreement were agreed to by all the powers except
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Great Britain and the
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United States . DUMESNIL;
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MARIE FRANgOISE (1713–1803), French actress, whose real name was Marchand, was born in Paris on the 2nd of
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January 1713 . She began her stage career in the provinces, whence she was summoned in 1737 to make her debut at the Comedie Francaise as Clytemnestre in fphigenie en Tauride . She at once came into the front rank, playing Cleopatre, Phedre, Athalie and Hermione with great effect, and when she created
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Merope (1743) Voltaire says that she kept the audience in tears for three successive acts . She retired from the stage in 1776, but lived until the loth of
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February 1803 . Her
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rival, Clairon, having spoken
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ill of her, she authorized the publication of a Memoire de Marie Francoise Dumesnil, en reponse aux memoires d'Hippolyte Clairon (1800) .

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