DUMFRIESSHIRE , a border
See also:county of Scotland, bounded S. by the Solway Firth, S.E. by
See also:Cumberland, E. by Roxburgh-
See also:shire, N. by the shires of
See also:Peebles and
See also:Selkirk, and W. by
See also:Ayrshire and Kirkcudbrightshire . Its
See also:area is 686,3oz acres or 1072 sq. m . The
See also:measures 21 M . The county slopes very gradually from the mountainous districts in the
See also:north down to the
See also:sea, lofty hills alternating in parts with stretches of tableland or
See also:rich fertile holms . At various points within a few
See also:miles of the Solway are tracts of
See also:land, like Craigs Moss, Lochar Moss and Longbridge
See also:Moor in the west, and Nutberry Moss in the east, all once under
See also:water, but now largely reclaimed . The
See also:principal mountains occur near the
See also:northern boundaries, the highest being
See also:White Coomb (2695 ft.),
See also:Hart Fell (2651),
See also:Saddle Yoke (2412), Swatte Fell (2389), Lowther Hills (2377), Queensberry (2285), which gives his secondary title to the duke of
See also:Buccleuch and the title of
See also:marquess to a branch of the
See also:house of
See also:Douglas, and
See also:Pen (2269) . The three longest
See also:rivers are the Nith, the
See also:Annan and the Esk, the basins of which
See also:form the
See also:great dales by which the county is cleft from north to south—Nithsdale, Annandale and Eskdale . From the point where it enters Dumfriesshire, 16 m. from its source near
See also:Hill in Ayrshire, the course of the Nith is mainly south-easterly till it enters the Solway, a few miles below Dumfries . Its
See also:total length is 65 m., and its chief affluents are, on the right, the Kello, Euchan, Scar, Cluden and Cargen, and, on the
See also:left, the Crawick, Carron and Campie . The Annan rises near the Devil's
See also:Beef Tub, a remarkable chasm in the far north, and after flowing about 40 m., mainly in a southerly course, it enters the Solway at Barnkirk headland . It receives, on the right, the Kinnel (reinforced by the Ae), and, on the left, the Moffat, the Dryfe and the Milk . From the confluence of the White Esk (rising near Ettrick Pen) and the Black Esk (rising near Jock's
See also:Shoulder, 1754 ft.) the Esk flows in a gradually south-easterly direction till it crosses the Border, whence it sweeps to the S.W. through the extreme north-western territory of Cumberland and falls into the Solway .
Of its total course of 42 m., 12 belong to the White Esk, 20 are of the Esk proper on Scottish
See also:soil and to are of the stream in its
See also:English course . On the right the Wauchope is the chief affluent, and on the left it receives the Megget, Ewes, Tarras and Line—the last being an English tributary . Other rivers are the Lochar (18 m.), the Kirtle (17) and the
See also:Sark (12), all flowing into the Solway . For one mile of its course the Esk, and for 7 M. of its course the Sark, form the boundaries between Dumfriesshire and Cumberland . Loch
See also:Skene in the north (1750 ft. above the sea), the
See also:group of lochs around Lochmaben, and Loch Urr in the west, only
See also:part of which belongs to Dumfriesshire, are the principal lakes . There are few glens so named in the shire, but the passes of Dalveen, Enterkin and Menock, leading up from Nithsdale to the Lowther and other hills, yield to few glens in Scotland in the
See also:wild grandeur of their scenery . For part of the way Enterkin Pass runsbetween mountains rising sheer from the
See also:burn to a height of nearly 2000 ft . Loch Skene finds an outlet in Tail Burn, the water of which at a
See also:short distance from the lake leaps from a height of zoo ft. in a
See also:waterfall, known as the
See also:Mare's Tail . A much smaller but picturesque fall of the same name, also known as Crichope Linn, occurs on the Crichope near Thornhill .
See also:waters are found at Moffat, Hartfell
See also:Spa, some three miles farther north, Closeburn and Brow on the Solway . Geology.—The greater portion of the county of Dumfries belongs to the
See also:Silurian tableland of the south of Scotland which contains representatives of all the divisions of that
See also:system from the Arenig to the Ludlow rocks . By far the largest area is occupied by strata of Tarannon and
See also:Llandovery age which cover a
See also:belt of
See also:country from 20 to 25 M. across from Drumlanrig
See also:Castle in the north to Torthorwald in the south .
Consisting of massive grits, sometimes conglomeratic, greywackes, flags and shales, these beds are repeated by innumerable folds frequently inverted, striking N.E. and S.W. and usually dipping towards the N.W . In the midst of this belt there are lenticular bands of older strata of Arenig, Llandeilo, Caradoc and Llandovery age composed of fine sediments such as cherts, black and grey shales, white
See also:clays and flags, which come to the
See also:surface along anticlinal folds and yield abundant
See also:graptolites characteristic of these divisions . These black shale bands are typically
See also:developed in Moffatdale; indeed the three typical, sections chosen by
See also:Lapworth to illustrate his three great groups —(1) the Glenkill shales (Upper Llandeilo), (2) the Hartfell shales (Caradoc),(3) Birkhill shales (
See also:Lower Llandovery)—occur respectively in the Glenkill Burn north of Kirkmichael, on Hartfell and in Dobbs Linn near St Mary's Loch in the
See also:basin of the
See also:river Annan . In the extreme N.W. of the county between Drumlanrig Castle and Dalveen Pass in the S. and the Spango and Kello Waters on the N., there is a broad development of Arenig, Llandeilo and Caradoc strata, represented by Radiolarian cherts, black shales, grits, conglomerates, greywackes and shales which rise from underneath the central Tarannon belt and are repeated by innumerable folds . In the cores of the
See also:arches of Arenig cherts there are
See also:diabase lavas, tuffs and agglomerates which are typically represented on
See also:Bail Hill E. of Kirkconnel . Along the
See also:southern margin of the Tarannon belt, the
See also:Wenlock and Ludlow rocks follow in normal
See also:order, the boundary between the two being defined by a line extending from the
See also:head of the Ewes Water in Eskdale, S.W. by
See also:Lockerbie to Mouswald . These consist of greywackes, flags and shales with bands of dark graptolite shales, the finer sediments being often well cleaved . They are like-wise repeated by inverted folds, the axial planes being usually inclined to the S.E . The Silurian tableland in the N.W. of the county is pierced by intrusive igneous rocks in the form of dikes and bosses, which are regarded as of Lower Old Red
See also:Sandstone age . Of these, the granite mass of Spango Water, N.E. of Kirkconnel, is an excellent example . Along the N.W. margin of the county, on the N. side of the
See also:fault bounding the Silurian tableland, the Lower Old Red Sandstone occurs, where it consists of sandstones and conglomerates associated with contemporaneous volcanic rocks . The Upper Old Red Sandstone forms a narrow
See also:strip on the south side of the Silurian tableland, resting unconformably on the Silurian rocks and passing upwards into the Carboniferous formation .
It stretches from the county boundary E. of the Ewes Water, S.W. by
See also:Langholm to Birrenswark . Along this line these Upper Red sandstones and shales are overlaid by a thin zone of volcanic rocks which point to contemporaneous volcanic
See also:action in this region at the beginning of the Carboniferous
See also:period . Some of the vents from which these igneous materials may have been discharged are found along the
See also:watershed between
See also:Liddesdale and
See also:Teviotdale in
See also:Roxburghshire . The strata of Carboniferous age are found in three areas: (I) between
See also:Sanquhar and Kirkconnel, (2) at Closeburn near Thornhill, (3) in the
See also:district between Liddesdale and Ruthwell . In the first two instances (Sanquhar and Thornhill) the Carboniferous sediments lie in hollows worn out of the old Silurian tableland . In the Sanquhar basin the strata belong to the
See also:Coal Measures, and include several Valuable coal-seams which are probably the southern prolongations of the members of this division in Ayrshire . At the S.E. limit of the Sanquhar Coalfield there are patches of the Carboniferous
See also:Limestone series, but towards the N. these are overlapped by the Coal Measures which thus
See also:rest directly on the Silurian plat-form . At Closeburn and Barjarg there are beds of marine limestone, associated with sandstones and shales which probably represent marine bands in the Carboniferous Limestone series . The most important development of Carboniferous strata occurs between Liddesdale and Ruthwell . In the valleys of the Liddel and the Esk the following zones are represented, which are given in ascending order: (I) The Whita Sandstone, (2) the Cementstone group, (3) the Fell Sandstones, (4) the Glencartholm volcanic group, (5) Marine limestone group with Coal-seams, (6) Millstone Grit, (7) Rowanburn coal group, (8) Byreburn coal group, (9) Red Sandstones of Canonbie yielding
See also:plants characteristic of the Upper Coal Measures . The coal-seams of the Rowanburn
See also:field have been chiefly wrought, and in view of their exhaustion bores have been sunk to prove the coals e beneath the red sandstone of upper Carboniferous age . From a palaeontological point of view the Glencartholm volcanic zone is of
See also:interest, as the calcareous shale associated with the tuffs has yielded a large number of new
See also:species of fishes, decapod crustaceans, phyllopods and scorpions .
The Triassic rocks rest unconformably on all older formations within the county . In the
See also:tract along the Solway Firth they repose on the folded and eroded edges of the Carboniferous strata, and when traced westwards to the Dumfries basin they rest directly on the Silurian platform . They occur in five areas, (r) between Annan and the mouth of the Esk, (2) the Dumfries basin, (3) the Thornhill basin, (4) at Lochmaben and Corn-cockle Moor, (5) at Moffat . The strata consist of breccias, false-bedded sandstones and marls, the sandstones being extensively quarried for
See also:building purposes . In the sandstones of Corncockle Moor reptilian footprints have been obtained . In the Thornhill basin there is a thin zone of volcanic rocks at the
See also:base of this series which are evidently on-the
See also:horizon of the lavas beneath the Mauch-line sandstones in Ayrshire . In the Sanquhar basin there are small outliers of lavas probably of this age and several vents filled with agglomerate from which these igneous materials in the Thornhill basin may have been derived . There are several striking examples of
See also:basalt dikes of
See also:Tertiary age, one having been traced from the Lead Hills south-east by Moffat, across Eskdalemuir to the English border .
See also:Climate and
See also:Industries.—The climate is mild, with a mean yearly temperature of 48° F . (
See also:January, 38.5°;
See also:July, 59.5°), and the
See also:annual rainfall is 53 ins . Towards the
See also:middle of the 18th century farmers began to raise stock for the south, and a
See also:hundred years later 20,000 head of heavy
See also:cattle were sent annually to the English markets . The Galloways, which were the breed in vogue at first, have been to a large extent replaced by shorthorns and Ayrshire
See also:dairy cattle .
See also:Sheep breeding, of later origin, has attained to remarkable dimensions, the walks in the higher hilly country being given over to Cheviots, and the richer pasture of the low-lying farms being reserved for
See also:lambs, a
See also:cross of Cheviots and Leicesters or other long-woolled rams .
See also:Pig-feeding, once important, has declined before the imports of
See also:bacon from
See also:foreign countries .
See also:Horse-breeding is pursued on a considerable scale .
See also:Grain crops, of which oats are the principal, show a downward tendency . Arable farms range from
See also:loo acres to 300 acres, and pastoral from 300 to 3000 acres . In general the manufactures are only of
See also:local importance and mostly confined to Dumfries and a few of the larger towns . Langholm is famous for its tweeds; breweries and distilleries are found at Annan, Sanquhar and elsewhere; some
See also:shipping is carried on at Annan and Dumfries; and the salmon
See also:fisheries of the Nith and Annan and the Solway Firth are of value . Communications.—The
See also:Glasgow & South-Western railway from Glasgow to Carlisle runs through Nithsdale, practically following the course of the river, and lower Annandale to the Border . The Caledonian railway runs through Annandale, throwing off at Beattock a small branch to Moffat, at Lockerbie a cross-country line to Dumfries, and at Kirtlebridge a line that ultimately crosses the Solway to Bowness . From Dumfries westwards there is communication with Castle Douglas,
See also:Stranraer and Portpatrick . The North
See also:British railway sends a short line to Langholm from Riddings Junction in Cumberland, giving
See also:access to Carlisle and, by the Waverley route, to
See also:Edinburgh . There is also
See also:coach service between various points, as from Dumfries to New Abbey and
See also:Dalbeattie, and from Langholm to Eskdalemuir .
See also:Government.—The population in 1891 was 74,245, and in 1901, 72,371, when there were 176 persons who spoke Gaelic, and English . The chief towns are Annan (pop. in 1901, 4309), Dumfries (14,444), Langholm (3142), Lockerbie (2358) and Moffat (2153) . The county returns one member to parliament . Dumfries, the county
See also:town, Annan, Lochmaben and Sanquhar are royal burghs; Dumfries forms a sheriffdom with the shires of Kirkcudbright and
See also:Wigtown, and there is a
See also:sheriff-substitute at Dumfries, who sits also at Annan, Langholm and Lockerbie . The shire is under school-
See also:board jurisdiction, and some of the public
See also:earn grants for higher
See also:education . The county council and most of the
See also:councils give the bulk of the "
See also:residue "
See also:grant to the county
See also:committee on secondary education, which is thus enabled,besides assisting building schemes, to subsidize high schools, to provide bursaries and apparatus, and to carry on science and technical classes, embracing
See also:agriculture, dairying (at
See also:Kilmarnock Dairy school) and
See also:practical chemistry . There are
See also:academies at Dumfries, Annan, Moffat and other centres .
See also:History.—The British tribe which inhabited this part of Scotland was called by the Romans Selgovae . They have left many signs of their presence, such as hill forts in the north,
See also:stone circles (as in Dunscore and Eskdalemuir), camps (Dryfesdale), tumuli and cairns (Closeburn), and sculptured stones (Dornock) . The country around Moffat especially is rich in remains . At
See also:Holywood, near Dumfries, there stand the relic of the
See also:grove of sacred oaks from which the place derived its name, and a stone circle known locally as the Twelve Apostles . In the
See also:church of Ruthwell (pron .
Rivvel : the "
See also:rood, or cross, well ") is preserved an
See also:ancient cross which tells in Runic characters the
See also:story of the Crucifixion . There are traces of the
See also:Roman roads which ran by Dalveen Pass into Clydesdale and up the Annan to
See also:Tweeddale, and at Birrens is one of the best-preserved examples of a Roman
See also:camp . Roman altars, urns and coins are found in many places . Upon the withdrawal of the Romans, the Selgovae were conquered by Scots from
See also:Ireland, who, however, fused with the natives . The Saxon
See also:conquest of Dumfriesshire does not seem to have been thorough, the
See also:people of Nithsdale and elsewhere maintaining their
See also:Celtic institutions up to the
See also:time of
See also:David I . As a Border county Dumfriesshire was the scene of stirring deeds at various epochs, especially in the days of Robert
See also:Bruce .
See also:Edward I. besieged Carlaverock Castle, and the factions of Bruce (who was
See also:lord of Annandale),
See also:Comyn and John Baliol were at
See also:feud . The Border clans, as haughty and hot-headed as the Gaels farther north, were always at strife . There is record of a bloody fight in Dryfesdale in 1593, when the Johnstones slew 700 Maxwells, and, overtaking the fugitives at Lockerbie, there massacred most of the remnant . These factions embroiled the dalesmen until the 18th century . The
See also:highlands of the shire afforded retreat to the persecuted
See also:Covenanters, who, at Sanquhar, published in 168o their declaration against the
See also:king, anticipating the principles of the " glorious Revolution " by several years .
See also:Charles Edward's ambition left the shire comparatively untouched, for the Jacobite sentiment made little
See also:appeal to the people .
Dumfriesshire is inseparably connected with the name of RobertBurns, who farmed at Ellisland on the Nith for three years, and spent the last five years of his
See also:life at Dumfries .
See also:Thomas Carlyle was
See also:born at Ecclefechan, in a house still
See also:standing, and was buried beside his parents in the kirkyard of the old
See also:Secession church (now the
See also:Free) . His
See also:farm of Craigenputtock was left to Edinburgh University in order to found the John Welsh bursaries in
See also:classics and
See also:mathematics . See W . M'Dowall, History of the Burgh of Dumfries (Edinburgh, r887) ;
See also:Herbert Maxwell, Dumfries and Galloway (Edinburgh and
See also:London, 1897) ; J .
See also:Macdonald and J .
See also:Barbour, Birrens and its Antiquities (Dumfries, 1897) ; Sir
See also:Fraser, The
See also:Book of Carlaverock (Edinburgh, 1873) ; The Douglas Book (Edinburgh, 1885) ; The Annandale Book (Edinburgh, 1894) ; G .
See also:Neilson, Annandale under the Bruces (Annan, 1887) ; C . T . Ramage, Drumlanrig Castle and the Douglases (Dumfries, 1876) .
DUMFRIES (Gaelic, " the fort in the copse ")
JOHANNES DUMICHEN (1833-1894)
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