DWARF (A.S. dweorg, D. dwerg, Icel. dvergr) , the
See also:term generally used to describe an extraordinarily under-sized individual of a
See also:race of normal stature (for dwarf-races see
See also:PYGMY.) In Scandinavian
See also:mythology the word connoted smallness and deformity, and was used of the elfins and goblins who were supposed to live on the mountains or in the bowels of the
See also:earth, and to be
See also:kings of metals and mines . The later use of the word certainly does not imply deformity, for many of the dwarfs of
See also:history have been singularly graceful and well formed . Dwarfishness is, however, often accompanied by disproportion of the limbs . From the earliest historic times dwarfs attracted
See also:attention, and there was much competition on the
See also:part of kings and the wealthy to obtain the little folk as attendants . It is certain that members of the tiny
See also:Akka race of
See also:Equatorial Africa figured at the courts of the Pharaohs of the early dynasties and were much valued .
See also:Philetas of Cos, poet and grammarian (circa 330 B.C.), tutor of
See also:Ptolemy Philadelphus, was alleged to be so tiny that he had to
See also:wear leaden shoes lest he should be blown away . The Romans practised artificial dwarfing, and the Latin nanus or pumilo were terms alternatively used to describe the natural and unnatural dwarf . Julia, the niece of
See also:Augustus, had a dwarf named Coropas 2 ft . 4 in. high, and a freed-maid
See also:Andromeda who measured the same . Various recipes for dwarfing
See also:children have been from
See also:time to time in vogue . The most effective, according to
See also:report, was to anoint the backbone with the grease of moles, bats and dormice . The stunting of the growth of
See also:stable-boys who aspire to
See also:jockey's honours is in no sense true dwarfing .
In later days there have been many dwarf-favourites at
See also:European courts .
See also:British tradition has its earliest dwarf mentioned in the old ballad which begins " In Arthur's
See also:court Tom Thumb did live "; and on this evidence the prototype of the
See also:modern Tom Thumb is alleged to have lived at the court of
See also:King Edgar . Of authentic
See also:English dwarfs the first appears to be
See also:Jarvis (2 ft. high), who was page to
See also:Queen Mary I . Her
See also:Edward VI. had his dwarf Xit . But the first English dwarf of whom there is anything like an authentic history is Jeffery Hudson (1619-1682) . He was the son of a
See also:butcher at
See also:Oakham, Rutlandshire, who kept and baited bulls for
See also:Villiers, first duke of
See also:Buckingham . Neither of Jeffery's parents was under-sized, yet at nine years he measured scarcely 18 in., though he was gracefully proportioned . At a
See also:dinner given by the duke to
See also:Charles I. and his queen he was brought in to table in a
See also:pie out of which he stepped, and was at once adopted by Henrietta Maria . The little
See also:fellow followed the fortunes of the court in the
See also:Civil War, and is said to have been a captain of
See also:horse, earning the
See also:nickname of " strenuous Jeffery " for his activity . He fought two duels—one with a
See also:cock, a
See also:battle recorded by Davenant, and a second with Mr Crofts, who came to the
See also:meeting with a squirt, but who in the more serious encounter which ensued was shot dead by little Hudson, who fired from horseback, the
See also:saddle putting him on a level with his antagonist . Twice was Jeffery made prisoner—once by the Dunkirkers as he was returning from France, whither he had been on homely business for the queen; the second time was when he fell into the hands of
See also:Turkish pirates . His sufferings during this latter captivity made him, he declared, grow, and in his thirtieth
See also:year, having been of the same height since he was nine, he steadily increased until he was 3 ft .
9 in . At the Restoration he returned toEngland, where he lived on a pension granted him by the duke of Buckingham . He was later accused of participation in the Popish Plot," and was imprisoned in the
See also:House . He was released and shortly after died in the sixty-third year of his age . Contemporary with Hudson were the two other dwarfs of Henrietta Maria,
See also:Gibson and his wife Anne . They were married by the queen's wish; and the two together measured only 2 in. over 7 ft . They had nine children, five of whom, who lived, were of ordinary stature . Edmund Waller celebrated the nuptials,
See also:Evelyn designated the
See also:husband as the " compendium of a man," and
See also:Lely painted them
See also:hand in hand . Gibson was
See also:miniature painter to Charles I., and
See also:master to the daughters of
See also:James II., Queens Mary and Anne, when they were children . This
See also:Cumberland pygmy, who began his career as a page, first in a " gentle," next in the royal
See also:family, died in 169o, in his seventy-fifth year, and is buried in St Paul's, Covent
See also:Garden . The last court dwarf in England was Coppernin, a lively little
See also:imp in the service of the princess (
See also:Augusta) of
See also:Wales, the
See also:mother of George III . The last dwarf retainer in a gentle-man's family was the one kept by Mr
See also:Beckford, the author of Vathek and builder of Fonthill .
He was rather too big to be flung from one
See also:guest to another, as used to be the
See also:custom at dinners in earlier days when a dwarf was a "
See also:necessity " for every
See also:noble family . Of European court dwarfs the most famous were those of
See also:Philip IV. of Spain, the hunchbacks whose features have been immortalized by Velazquez . Stanislas, king of Poland, owned
See also:Ferry (Bebe), who measured 2 ft . 9 in . He was one of three dwarf children of
See also:peasant parents in the Vosges . He died in his 23rd year (1764) . But Bebe was not so remarkable as Richebourg, who died in
See also:Paris in 1858, at the age of 9o . He was only 23 in. high . He began
See also:life as a servant in the
See also:Orleans family . In later years he was their pensioner . He is said to have been put to
See also:strange use in the Revolution—passing in and out of Paris as an
See also:infant in a
See also:nurse's arms, but with despatches, dangerous to carry, in the little man's baby-wrappings ! Of dwarfs exhibited in England, the most celebrated was the
See also:pole, Borulwaski (1739- 1R3;). six he measured 17 in., andhe finally in his thirtieth year reached 39 in .
He had a
See also:sister shorter than himself by the
See also:head and shoulders . Borulwaski was a handsome man, a wit, and something of a
See also:scholar . He travelled over all
See also:Europe; and he—born in the reign of George II.—died in his well-earned retirement near Durham, in the reign of
See also:Victoria . Borulwaski lies buried at Durham by the side of the Falstaffian
See also:Stephen Kemble . The companionship reminds one of that of the dwarf
See also:skeleton of Jonathan
See also:Wild by the side of that of the Irish
See also:Giant, at the Royal
See also:College of Surgeons,
See also:London . In the year in which Borulwaski died, Charles Stratton, better known as " General Tom Thumb," was
See also:born . When twenty-five he was 31 in. high . In 1844 he appeared in England, where he had an extraordinary success . One result of his
See also:season at the
See also:Hall, London, was to kill
See also:Haydon the painter . The latter presented his
See also:work " The Banishment of
See also:Aristides " for
See also:exhibition in the same
See also:building . The public rushed to see the dwarf . He took £600 the first week, while Haydon's master-piece drew but £7, 13s .
The result was that the artist committedsuicide in despair . After extensive travel in both hemispheres, Stratton again visited England in 1857, but the dwarf man, despite many
See also:personal and intellectual qualities, was less attractive than the dwarf boy . In the year 1863 the " General " married the very minute
See also:lady, Lavinia
See also:Warren (born in 1842) . He died on the 15th of
See also:July 1883 . Other modern dwarfs include Signor Hervio Nano, who played at the Olympic Theatre, London, in 1843; three Highlanders named MacKinlay, children of a Scots shepherd, the shortest of whom was 45 in.; a Spaniard, Don Francisco
See also:Hidalgo (29 in.); a Dutchman,
See also:Jan Hannema (28 in.); and Mary Jane Youngman (
See also:Australia), who at fifteen was 35 in. high . She was called the " dwarf-giantess " because she was 3 ft . 6 in.
See also:round the shoulders, 4 ft . 3 in. round the
See also:waist, and 2 ft. round the
See also:leg . Much
See also:interest was aroused by the so-called Aztec dwarfs who were exhibited in London in 1853 . In 1867 the pair were married, the ceremony being publicly performed, and the
See also:bride's robes are said to have cost no less than £2000 . The
See also:wedding-breakfast was held at Willis's Rooms . From time to time other dwarfs have been exhibited, among whom the most remarkable has been Che-mah, a
See also:Chinese, 42 years old and 25 in. high, who appeared in London in 1880 .
GeorgeProut (1774-1851), who was less than 3 ft. high, was a well-known character in London in the early Victorian
See also:period, as a messenger at the Houses of Parliament . See E . J .
See also:Wood, Giants and Dwarfs (186o) .
DWARAKA, DWARKA, or JIGAT
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