See also:nitroglycerin (q.v.) which are almost exclusively used for
See also:blasting purposes . The first
See also:practical application of nitroglycerin in this way was made by A .
See also:Nobel in 1863 . He soaked
See also:gunpowder with the liquid and fired the
See also:gun-powder by an ordinary fuse . Later he found that nitroglycerin could be detonated by the
See also:explosion of several materials such as fulminate of mercury, the use of which as a detonator he patented in 1867 . In 1866-1867 he experimented with
See also:charcoal and other substances, and found the infusorial
See also:earth known as kieselguhr, which consists mainly of
See also:silica (nearly 95%), eminently adapted to the purpose, as it was inert, non-combustible, and after a little
See also:heating and preparation very porous, retaining a large amount of nitroglycerin as
See also:water is held in a sponge, without very serious exudation on
See also:standing . This kieselguhr
See also:dynamite is generally made by incorporating three parts of nitroglycerin with one
See also:part of the dry earth, the
See also:paste being then formed into cylindrical cartridges . This
See also:work is done by
See also:hand . Generally a small percentage of the kieselguhr is repiaced by a mixture containing sodium and ammonium
See also:talc and ochre . This product is known as dynamite No . 1 . Disabilities attaching to kieselguhr dynamite are that when placed in water the nitroglycerin is liable to be exuded or displaced, also that, like nitroglycerin itself, it freezes fairly easily and thawing the frozen cartridges is a dangerous operation .
Other substances, e.g.
See also:alba (magnesium carbonate), alumina,
See also:sugar, charcoal, some powdered salts and mixtures of sawdust and salts, have been shown to be absorbents more or less adapted to the purpose of making a dynamite . Charcoal from
See also:cork is said to absorb about 90% of its
See also:weight of nitroglycerin . With the idea of obtaining greater safety, mixtures have been made of nitroglycerin with
See also:wood fibre, charcoal and metallic nitrates._ Lithofracteur, for instance, consists of 5o% nitroglycerin and a mixture of prepared sawdust, kieselguhr and barium nitrate . Carbonite contains 25 % of nitroglycerin, the
See also:remainder being a mixture of wood-
See also:meal and
See also:alkali nitrates, with about 1% of
See also:sulphur . Dualin,
See also:atlas dynamite and potentite are other modifications . A convenient
See also:form in, which nitroglycerin can be made up for blasting purposes, especially in wet ground, is the gelatinous material obtained by the
See also:action of nitroglycerin, either alone or with the help of solvents, on low-grade or soluble gun-cottons . It is known as blasting
See also:gelatin, and was first made by Nobel by incorporating 6 or 7% of low nitrated
See also:cellulose (collodion
See also:cotton or soluble gun-cotton) with slightly warmed nitroglycerin . The result is a transparent plastic material, of specific gravity 1.5 to 1.6, which may be kept under water for a long
See also:time without appreciable
See also:change . It is less sensitive to detonation than ordinary dynamite, and although its explosion is slightly slower it is more powerful than dynamite and much
See also:superior to the liquid nitroglycerin . Blasting gelatin also freezes and is sensitive to percussion in this state . Camphor and other sub-stances have been added to blasting gelatin to render it more solid and less sensitive . Some modifications of blasting gelatin, e.g. gelignite, contain wood-meal and such
See also:oxygen-containing salts as potassium nitrate .
Experience has conclusively shown that dynamites are more satisfactory, quicker, and more intense in action than liquid nitroglycerin . To prevent nitroglycerin and some of the forms of dynamite from freezing it has been proposed to add to them small quantities of either monochlor-dinitroglycerin or of a nitrated poly-
See also:glycerin . The former is obtained by first acting upon glycerin with hydrogen chloride to produce u-chlorhydrin or chlor-propylene glycol, C3H;02C1, which is then nitrated as in the case of glycerin . The latter is obtained by heating glycerin for six or seven
See also:hours to about 300° C., whereby water is split off in such manner that a diglycerin C,H11O5, for the most part, results . This on nitration in the usual manner gives a product C5HioN4013, which burns and explodes in a similar manner to ordinary nitroglycerin, but is less sensitive and does not so easily freeze . The mono- and di-nitrates of glycerin have also been proposed as additions to ordinary nitroglycerin (q.v.) for the same purpose . (W . R . E .
DYNAMICS (from Gr. bbvayts, strength)
DYNAMO (a shortened form of " dynamo-electric machi...
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