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EAST

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Originally appearing in Volume V23, Page 382 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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EAST PIC INOPJETTIES. MEAN LOW TIDE. I o \ ~'~sb - ' Tore o 2 M(LE5. The shoaling, however, in the jetty channel necessitated its reduction in width by mattresses and spurs from moo ft. to 600 ft., and also dredging to maintain the stipulated central depth of 30 ft., and 26 ft. depth for a width of 200 ft., out to deep water; whilst the outer channel was deflected to the east and narrowed by the alluvium carried. westwards by the littoral current and also deposited in front of the jetty outlet. Accordingly, dredging has been increasingly needed to straighten the channel outside and maintain its depth and width; and since the United States engineers took in hand its maintenance iii 1901, the available depth of the outlet channel has been increased from 26 ft. up to 28 ft. by extensive suction dredging. In order to provide for the increasing requirements of sea-going vessels, the dredging of a channel 35 ft. deep and moo ft. wide, cut from the large south-west pass outlet to deep water in the gulf, was begun at the end of 1903; and jetties of fascine mattresses weighted with stone and concrete blocks have been carried out about 4 and 3 m. respectively from the shore on each side of the outlet for maintaining the dredged channel 3 (fig. 15). These works differ FIepee. o. 1 1 1 Iaooe.F.T. 1 I 1 I t from the prior improvement of the south pass in the adoption mainly of suction dredging for the formation of the channel in place of scour alone, so that it will be unnecessary to restrict the width of the jetty channel to secure the desired depth; whilst as the discharge through the south-west pass is rather more than three times the discharge through the south pass, and the bar is double the distance seawards of the outlet, the slightly converging jetties, in continuation of the south-west pass, are placed about 3400 ft. apart at their outer ends, and have been given about twice the length of the south pass jetties. As soon as the dredging of the channel has been completed (which depends on the appropriations granted by Congress) the south pass will be abandoned, and the south-west pass will form the navigable approach. Dredging will be required for preserving the depth of the outlet of the south-west pass; and when the large volume of sand and other alluvium discharged by the pass accumulates in front sufficiently to begin forming a bar farther out, an extension of the jetties will be necessary to maintain the elongated channel free from drift, and extend the scour, especially in flood-time. Improvement of Tidal Rivers for Navigation. Whereas the size of tideless rivers depends wholly on their fresh-water discharge, the condition of tidal rivers is due to the configuration of their outlet, the rise of tide at their mouth, the distance the tide can penetrate inland, and the space available for its reception. Accordingly, tidal rivers sometimes, even when possessing a comparatively small fresh-water discharge, develop under favourable conditions into Iarge rivers in their lower tidal portion, having a much better natural navigable channel at high tide than the largest deltaic rivers, as shown by a comparison of the Thames, the Humber and the Elbe with the Danube, the Nile and the Mississippi. Tidal water is, indeed, unlimited in volume; but, unlike the drainage waters which must be discharged into the sea, it only flows up rivers where there is a channel and space available for its 3 Report of the Chief of Engineers for 1906, pp. 382 and 1296 and charts. ' L. F. Vernon-Harcourt, Rivers and Canals, 2nd ed. pp. 187-90, plate 5, figs. 1 and 9. 2 Ibid. plate 5, figs. 2, 3, 4 and to. reception. Consequently, it is possible to exclude the tide by injudicious works, such as the sluices which were erected long ago across the fen rivers to secure the low-lying lands from the inroads of the sea; the tidal influx is also liable to be reduced by accretion in an estuary resulting from training works. The great aim, on the contrary, of all tidal river improvement should be to facilitate to the utmost the flow of the flood-tide up a river, to remove all obstructions from the channel so as to render the scouring efficiency of the flood and ebb tides as great as possible, and by making the tidal flow extend as far up the river as possible to reduce to a minimum the period of slack tide when deposit takes place. Tidal Flow in a River.—The progress of the flood-tide up a river and the corresponding ebb are very clearly shown by a diagram giving a series of simultaneous tidal lines obtained from simultaneous observations of the height of the river Hugli during a high spring-tide in the dry season, taken at intervals at several stations along the river, and exhibiting on a very distorted scale the actual water-level of the river at these periods (fig. 16). The steep form assumed '` P~ vPP PQJ JP P, 4.P~ yJP ,''' J4, a ' P 0'9 UT .F~— `F PJ~ 49 'tJ 4P +a9 FT. -1a 152 MILES 115 75 59 53 35 17 by the foremost part of the flood-tide lines from the entrance to beyond Chinsura, attaining a maximum in the neighbourhood of Konnagar and Chinsura, indicates the existence of a bore, caused by the sand-banks in the channel obstructing the advance of the flood-tide, till it has risen sufficiently in height to rush up the river as a steep, breaking wave, overcoming all obstacles and producing a sudden reversal of the flow and abrupt rise of the water-level, as observed on the Severn, the Seine, the Amazon and other rivers. A bore indicates defects in the tidal condition and the navigable channel, which can only be reduced by lowering the obstructions and by the regulation of the river. No tidal river of even moderate length is ever completely filled by tidal water; for the tide begins to fall at its mouth before the flood-tide has produced high water at the tidal limit, as most clearly shown in the case of a long tidal river by the Hugli tidal diagram. Every improvement of the channel, however, expedites and increases the filling of the river, whilst the volume of water admitted at each tide is further augmented by the additional capacity provided by the greater efflux of the ebb, as indicated by the lowering of the low-water line. Deepening Tidal Rivers by Dredging.—The improvement of tidal rivers mainly by dredging is specially applicable to small rivers which possess a sufficient navigable width, like the Clyde and the Tyne; for such rivers can be considerably deepened by an amount of dredging which would be quite inadequate for producing a similar increase in depth in a large, wide river, with shifting channels. Both the Clyde below Glasgow and the Tyne below Newcastle were originally insignificant rivers, almost dry in places at low water of spring-tides; and the earliest works on both rivers consisted mainly in regulating their flow and increasing their scour by jetties and training works. They have, however, been brought to their present excellent navigable condition almost wholly, since 1840 on the Clyde and 1861 on the Tyne, by continuous systematic dredging, rendered financially practicable by the growing importance of their sea-going traffic. The Clyde has been given a minimum depth of about 22 ft. at low water of spring-tides up to Glasgow, and can admit vessels of 27 to 28 ft. draught. In the Tyne (figs. 17 and 18), it was decided in 1902 to provide a minimum dredging depth in the river channel at low water of 25 ft. from the sea to the docks, of 20 ft. thence to Newcastle and of 18 ft. up to Scotswood, the rise of spring-tides increasing these depths by 15 ft. In 1906 it was determined to make the channel 30 ft. deep at low water of spring-tides from the sea to the docks, and in 1908 to deepen it between the docks and Newcastle swing bridge from 20 to 25 ft., and also between the swing bridge and Derwenthaugh from 18 to 25 ft. The natural scour of these rivers has been so much reduced by such an exceptional enlargement of their channels that a considerable amount of dredging will always be required to preserve the depth attained. Regulation and Dredging of Tidal Rivers.—Considerable improvements in the navigable condition of tidal rivers above their outletor estuary can often be effected by regulation works aided by dredg• ing, which ease sharp bends, straighten their course and render
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