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Originally appearing in Volume V24, Page 30 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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EAST ST Louts, a city of St Clair county, Illinois, U.S.A., on the E. bank of the Mississippi, lies opposite St Louis, Missouri. Pop. (188o), 9185; (1890), 15,169; (1900), 29,655, of whom 3920 were foreign born (mostly German and Irish); (1910 census) 58,547. It is one of the great railway centres of the country. Into it enter from the east sixteen lines of railway, which cross to St Louis by the celebrated steel arch bridge and by the Merchants' Bridge. It is also served by three inter-urban electric railways. The site of East St Louis is in the " American Bottom," little above the high-water mark of the river. This " bottom " stretches a long distance up and down the river, with a breadth of to or 12 m. It is intersected by manysloughs and crescent-shaped lakes which indicate former courses of the river. The manufacturing interests of East St Louis are important, among the manufactories being packing establishments, iron and steel works, rolling-mills and foundries, flour-mills, glass works, paint works and wheel works. By far the most important industry is slaughtering and meat packing: both in 1900 and in 1905 East St Louis ranked sixth among the cities of the United States in this industry; its product in 1900 was valued at $27,676,818 (out of a total for all industries of $32,460,957), and in 1905 the product of the slaughtering and meat-packing establishments in and near the limits of East St Louis was valued at $39,972,245, in the same year the total for all industries within the corporate limits being only $37,586,198. The city has a large horse and mule market. East St Louis was laid out about 1818, incorporated as a town in 1859, and chartered as a city in 1865. Consult the Encyclopaedia of the History of St Louis (4 vols., St Louis, 1899); J. T. Scharf, History of St Louis City and County including Biographical Sketches (2 vols., Philadelphia, 1883); E. H. Shepherd, Early History of St Louis and Missouri . . . 1763-1843 (St Louis, 1870) ; F. Billon, Annals of St Louis . . . 1804 to 1821 (2 vols., St Louis, 1886-1888) ; G. Anderson, Story of a Border City during the Civil War (Boston, 19o8); The Annual Statement of the Trade and Commerce of St Louis . . . reported to the Merchants' Exchange, by its secretary. ST LOUIS, the capital of the French colony of Senegal, West Africa, with a population (1904) of 24,070, or including the suburbs, 28,469. St Louis, known to the natives as N'dar, is 163 m. by rail N.N.E. of Dakar and is situated on,an island I I a m. above the mouth of the Senegal river, near the right bank, there separated from the sea by a narrow strip of sand called the Langue de Barbaric. This strip of sand is occupied by the villages of N'dar Toute and Guet N'dar. Three bridges connect the town with the villages; and the Pont Faidherbe, 2132 ft. long, affords communication with Bouetville, a suburb on the left bank, and the terminus of the railway to Dakar. The houses of the European quarter have for the most part flat roofs, balconies and terraces. Besides the governor's residence the most prominent buildings are the cathedral, the great mosque, the court-house, the barracks and military offices, and the docks. The round beehive huts of Guet N'dar are mainly inhabited by native fishermen. N'dar Toute consists of villas with gardens, and is a summer watering-place. There is a pleasant public garden, and N'dar Toute is approached by a magnificent alley of palm-trees. The low-lying position of St Louis and the extreme heat render it unhealthy, whilst the sandy nature of the soil causes intense inconvenience. The mouth of the Senegal being obstructed by a shifting bar of sand, the steamships of the great European lines do not come up to St Louis; passengers embark and land at Dakar, on the eastern side of Cape Verde. Ships for St Louis have often to wait outside or inside the bar for days or weeks, and partial unloading is frequently necessary. From July to the end of September—that is during flood-time—the water over the bar is, however, deep enough to enable vessels to reach St Louis without difficulty. St Louis is believed to have been the site of a European settlement since the 15th century, but the present town was founded in 1626 by Dieppe merchants known as the Compagnie normande. It is the oldest colonial establishment in Africa belonging to France (see SENEGAL). Its modern development dates from 1854. The town, however, did not receive municipal government till 1872. All citizens, irrespective of colour, can vote. From 1895 to 1903 St Louis was not only the capital of Senegal, but the residence of the governor-general of French West Africa. In November of the last-named year the governor-general removed to Dakar, Small forts defend St Louis from the land side—the surrounding country, the Cayor, being inhabited by a warlike race, which previously to the building (1882–1885) of the St Louis-Dakar railway was a continual source of trouble. The town carries on a very active trade with all the countries watered by the Senegal and the middle Niger. St Louis is connected with Brest by a direct cable, and with Cadiz via the Canary Islands. ST LUCIA, the largest of the British Windward Islands, West Indies, in 14° N., 61° W., 24 M. S. of Martinique and 21 M. N.E. of St Vincent. Its area is 233 sq. m., length 42 m., maximum breadth 12 .m., and its coast-line is 15o M. long. It is considered one of the loveliest of all the West Indian islands. It is a mass of mountains, rising sheer from the water, their summits bathed in perpetual mist. Impenetrable forests alternate with fertile plains, and deep ravines and frowning precipices with beautiful bays and coves. Everywhere there is luxuriant vegetation. Les Pitons (2720 and 268o ft.) are the chief natural feature—two immense pyramids of rock rising abruptly from the sea, their slopes, inclined at an angle of 6o°, being clad on three sides with densest verdure. No connexion has been traced between them and the mountain system of the island. In the S.W. also is the volcano of Soufriere (about 4000 ft.), whose crater is 3 acres in size and covered with sulphur and cinders. The climate is humid, the rain-fall varying from 70 to 120 in. per annum, with an average temperature of 80° F. The soil is deep and rich; the main products are sugar, cocoa, logwood, coffee, nutmegs, mace, kola-nuts and vanilla, all of which are exported. Tobacco also is grown, but not for export. The urine or central factory system is established, there being four government sugar-mills. Snakes, formerly prevalent, have been almost exterminated by the introduction of the mongoose. Only about a third of the island is cultivated, the rest being crown land under virgin forest, abounding in timber suitable for the finest cabinet work. The main import trade up to 1904 was from Great Britain; since then, owing to the increased coal imports from the United States, the imports are chiefly from other countries. The majority of the exports go to the United States and to Canada. In the ten years 1898–1907 the imports averaged £322,000 a year; the exports £195,000 a year. Bunker coal forms a large item both in imports and exports. Coal, sugar, cocoa and logwood form the chief exports. Education is denominational, assisted by government grants. The large majority of the schools are under the control of the Roman Catholics, to whom all the government primary schools were handed over in 1898. There is a government agricultural school. St Lucia is controlled by an administrator (responsible to the governor of the Windward Islands), assisted by an executive council. The legislature consists of the administrator and a council of nominated members. Revenue and expenditure in the period 1901-1907 balanced at about foo,000 a year. The law of the island preserves, in a modified form, the laws of the French monarchy. Castries, the capital, on the N.W. coast, has a magnificent land-locked harbour. There is a concrete wharf 65o ft. long with a depth alongside of 27 ft., and a wharf of wood 552 ft. in length. It is the principal coaling station of the British fleet in the West Indies, was strongly fortified, and has been the military headquarters. (The troops were removed and the military works stopped in 1905.) It is a port of registry, and the facilities it offers as a port of call are widely recognized, the tonnage of ships cleared and entered rising from 1,555,000 in 1898 to 2,627,000 in 1907. Pop. (1901) 7910. Soufriere, in the south, the only other town of any importance, had a population of 2394. The Canbs have disappeared from the island, and the bulk of the inhabitants are negroes. Their language is a French patois, but English is gradually replacing it. There is a small colony of East Indian coolies, and the white inhabitants are mostly creoles of French descent. The total population of the island (1901) is 49,833. History.—St Lucia is supposed to have been discovered by Columbus in 1502, and to have been named by the Spaniards after the saint on whose day it was discovered. It was inhabited by Caribs, who killed the majority of the first white people (Englishmen) who attempted to settle on the island (16o5). For two centuries St Lucia was claimed both by France and by England. In 1627 the famous Carlisle grant included St Lucia among British possessions, while in 1635 the. king of France granted it to two of his subjects. In 1638 some 130 English from St Kitts formed a settlement, but in 1641 were killed or driven away by the Caribs. The French in 1650 sent settlers from Martinique who concluded a treaty of peace with the Caribs in 166o. Thomas Warner, natural son of the governor of St Kitts, attacked and overpowered the French settlers in 1663, but the peace of Breda (1667) restored it to France and it became nominally a dependency of Martinique. The British still claimed the island as a dependency of Barbadoes, and in 1722 George I. made a grant of it to the duke of Montague. The year following French troops from Martinique compelled the British settlers to evacuate the island. In 1748 both France and Great Britain recognized the island as " neutral." In 1762 its inhabitants surrendered to Admiral Rodney and General Monckton. By the treaty of Paris (1763), however, the British acknowledged the claims of France, and steps were taken to develop the resources of the island. French planters came from St Vincent and Grenada,cotton and sugar plantations were formed, and in 1772 the island was said to have a population of 15,000, largely slaves. In 1778 it was captured by the British; itsharbours were a rendezvous for the British squadrons and Gros Ilet Bay was Rodney's starting-point before his victory over the Comte de Grasse (April 1782). The peace of Versailles (1783) restored St Lucia to France, but in 1794 it was surrendered to Admiral Jervis (Lord St Vincent). Victor Hugues, a partisan of Robespierre, aided by insurgent slaves, made a strenuous resistance and recovered the island in June 1795. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Sir John Moore, at the head of 12,000 troops, were sent in 1796 to reduce the island, but it was not until 1797 that the. revolutionists laid down their arms. By the treaty of Amiens St Lucia was anew declared French. Bonaparte intended to make it the capital of the Antilles, but it once more capitulated to the British (June 1803) and was finally ceded to Great Britain in 1814. In 1834, when the slaves were emancipated, there were in St Lucia over 13,000 negro slaves, 2600 free men of colour and 2300 whites. The development of the island—half ruined by the revolutionary war—has been retarded by epidemics of cholera and smallpox, by the decline of the sugar-cane industry and other causes, such as the low level of education. The depression in the sugar trade led to the adoption of cocoa cultivation. Efforts were also made to plant settlers on the crown lands—with a fair amount of success. The colony success-fully surmounted the financial stringency caused by the withdrawal of the imperial troops in 1905. Pigeon Island, formerly an important military port, lies off the N.W. end of St Lucia, by Gros Ilet Bay. See Sir C. P. Lucas, Historical Geography in the British Colonies, vol. ii., " The West Indies " (2nd ed. revised by C. Atchley, Oxford, 1905), and the works there cited; also the annual reports on St Lucia Issued by the Colonial Office. ST MACAIRE, a town of south-western France, in the department of Gironde, on the Garonne, 29 M. S.E. of Bordeaux by rail. Pop. (1906), 2085. St Macaire is important for its medieval remains, which include a triple line of ramparts with old gate-ways. There are also several houses of the 13th and 14th centuries. The imposing church of St Sauveur (11th to 15th centuries) has a doorway with beautiful 13th-century carving and interesting mural paintings. St Macaire (anc. Ligena) owes its name to the saint whose relics were preserved in the monastery of which the church of St Sauveur is the principal remnant. ST MAIXENT, a town of western France, in the department of Deux-Sevres, on the Sevre Niortaise, 15 M. N.E. of Niort by rail. Pop. (1906), 4102. The town has a fine abbey church built from the 12th to the 15th century, but in great part destroyed by the Protestants in the 16th century and rebuilt from 167o to 1682 in the flamboyant Gothic style. The chief parts anterior to this date are the nave, which is Romanesque, and a lofty 15th-century tower over the west front. The crypt contains the tomb of Saint Maxentius, second abbot of the monastery, which was founded about 46o. The town has a communal college, a chamber of arts and manufactures, and an infantry school for non-commissioned officers preparing for the rank of sub-lieutenant. It was the birthplace of Colonel Denfert-Rochereau, defender of Belfort in 1870-1871, and has' a statue to him. The industries include dyeing and the manufacture of hosiery, mustard and plaster. The prosperity of the town was at its height after the promulgation of the edict of Nantes, when it numbered 12,000 inhabitants. ST MALO, a seaport of western France, capital of an arrondissement in the department of Ylle-et-Vilaine, 51 m.N.N.W. of Rennes by rail. Pop. (1906) town, 8727; commune, 10,647. St Malo is situated on the English Channel on the right bank of the estuary of the Rance at its mouth. It is a garrison town surrounded by ramparts which include portions dating from the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries, but as a whole were rebuilt at the end of the 17th century according to Vauban's plans, and restored in the 19th century. The most important of the gates are that of St Vincent and the Grande Porte, defended by two massive 15th-century towers: The granite island on which St Malo stands communicates with the mainland on the north-east by a causeway known as the " Sillon " (furrow), 65o ft. long, and at one time only 46 ft. broad, though now three times that breadth. In the sea round about lie other granite rocks, which have been turned to account in the defences of the coast; on the islet of the Grand Bey is the tomb (1848) of Francois Auguste, vicomte de Chateaubriand, a native of the town. The rocks and beach are continually changing their appearance, owing to the violence of the tides; spring-tides sometimes rise 50 ft. above low-water level, and the sea sometimes washes over the ramparts. The harbour of St Malo lies south of the town in the creek separating it from the neighbouring town of St Servan. Including the contiguous and connected basins belonging more especially to St Servan, it comprises an outer basin, a tidal harbour, two wet-docks and an inner reservoir, affording a total length of quayage of over 2 M. The wet-docks have a minimum depth of 13 to 15 ft. on sill, but the tidal harbour is dry at low water. The vessels entered at St Malo-St Servan in 1906 numbered 1004 of 279,217 tons; cleared 1023 of 298,720 tons. The great bulk of trade is with England, the exports comprising large quantities of fruit, dairy-produce, early potatoes and other vegetables and slate. The chief imports are coal and timber. The London and South-Western railway maintains a regular service of steamers between Southampton and St Malo. The port carries on shipbuilding and equips a fleet for the Newfoundland cod-fisheries. The industries also include iron-and copper-founding and the manufacture of portable forges and other iron goods, cement, rope and artificial manures. The town is the seat of a sub-prefect and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce. Communication between the quays of St Malo and St Servan is maintained by a travelling bridge. St Malo is largely frequented for sea-bathing, but not so much as Dinard, on the opposite side of the Rance. The town presents a tortuous maze of narrow streets and small squares lined with high and sometimes quaint buildings (e.g. the 16th-century house in which Rene Duguay-Trouin was born). Above all rises the stone spire (1859) of the cathedral, a building begun in the 12th century but added to and rebuilt at several subsequent periods. The castle (15th cent.), which defends the town towards the " Sillon," is flanked with four towers, one of which, the great keep, is an older and loftier structure, breached in 1378 by the duke of Lancaster. St Malo has statues to Chateaubriand, Duguay-Trouin and the privateer Robert Surcouf (1773-1827), natives of the town. The museum contains remains of the ship " La Petite Hermine," in which Jacques Cartier sailed to the St Lawrence (q.v.), and a natural history collection. In the 6th century the island on which St Malo stands was the retreat of Abbot Aaron, who gave asylum in his monastery to Malo (Maclovius or Malovius), a Cambrian priest, who came hither to escape the episcopal dignity, but afterwards became bishop of Aleth (now St Servan); the see was transferred to St Malo only in the 12th century. Henceforth the bishops of St Malo claimed the temporal sovereignty over the town, a claim which was resolutely disputed by the dukes of Brittany. The policy of the citizens themselves, who thus gained substantial powers of self-government, was directed by consistent hostility to England and consequently to the dukes. They took the side of Bishop Josselin de Rohan and his successor in their quarrel with dukes John IV. and John V., and it was not till 1424 that John V., by the agency of Charles VI. of France and with the sanction of the pope, finally established his authority over the town. In 1488 St Malo unsuccessfully resisted the French troops on behalf of the duke. During the troubles of the League the citizens hoped to establish a republican government, and on the rlth of March 1590 they exterminated the royal garrison and imprisoned their bishop and the canons.' But four years later they surrendered to Henry IV. of France. During the following century the maritime power of St Malo attained some importance. In November 1693 and July 1695 the English vainly bombarded it. The people of St Malo had in the course of a single war captured upwards of 1500 vessels (several of them laden with gold and other treasure) and burned a considerable number more. Enriched by these successes and by the wealth they drew from the New World, the shipowners of the town not only supplied the king with the means necessary for the famous Rio de Janeiro expedition conducted by Duguay-Trouin in1711, but also lent him large sums for carrying on the war of the Spanish Succession. In June 1758 the English sent a third expedition against St Malo under the command of Charles Spencer, third duke of Marlborough, and inflicted great loss on the royal shipping in the harbour of St Servan. But another expedition undertaken in the following September received a complete check. In 1778 and during the wars of the Empire the St Malo privateers resumed their activity. In 1789 St Servan was separated from St Malo and in r80i St Malo lost its bishopric. During the Reign of Terror the town was the scene of sanguinary executions. See M. J. Poulain, Histoire de Saint-Malo ... d'apres les documents inedits (2nd ed., Lille, 1887). SAINT-MARC GIRARDIN (18o1-1873), French politician and man of letters, whose real name was MARC GIRARDIN, was born in Paris on the 22nd of February 18or. After a brilliant university career in Paris he began in 1828 to contribute to the Journal des Debats, on the staff of which he remained for nearly half a century. At the accession of Louis Philippe he was appointed professor of history at the Sorbonne and master of requests in the Conseil d'Etat. ' Soon afterwards he exchanged his chair of history for one of poetry, continuing to contribute political articles to the Debals, and sitting as deputy in the chamber from 1835 to 1848. He was charged in 1833 with a mission to study German methods of education, and issued a report advocating the necessity of newer methods and of technical instruction. In 1844 he was elected a member of the Academy. During the revolution of February 1848 Girardin was for a moment a minister, but after the establishment of the republic he was not re-elected deputy. After the war of 1870-71 he was returned to the Bordeaux assembly by his old department—the Haute Vienne. His Orleanist tendencies and his objections to the republic were strong, and though he at first supported Thiers, he afterwards became a leader of the opposition to the president. He died, however, on the 1st of April 1873 at Morsang-sur-Seine, before Thiers was actually driven from power. His chief work is his Cours de litterature dramatique (1843-1863), a series of lectures better described by its second title De l'usage des passions clans le drame. The author examines the passions, discussing the mode in which they are treated in ancient and modern drama, poetry and romance. The book is really a defence of the ancients against the moderns, and Girardin did not take into account the fact that only the best of ancient literature has come down to us. Against the Romanticists he waged untiring war. Among his other works may be noticed Essais de litterature (2 vols. 1844), made up chiefly of contributions to the Debats; his Notices sur l'Allemagne (1834), and many volumes of collected Souvenirs, Reflexions, &c., on foreign countries and passing events. His latest works of literary importance were La Fontaine et les Fabulistes (1867) and an Etude sur J.-J. Rousseau (187o) which had appeared in the Revue des deux mondes. See Ch. Labitte, " Saint-Marc Girardin," in the Revue des deux mondes (Feb. 1845) ; Tamisier, Saint-Marc Girardin; etude litteraire (1876); Hatzfield and Meunier, Les Critiques litteratues du XIX° siecle (1894) SAINT-MARTIN, LOUIS CLAUDE DE (1743-1803), French philosopher, known as " le philosophe inconnu," the name under which his works were published, was born at Amboise of a poor but noble family, on the 18th of January 1743. By his father's desire he tried first law and then the army as a profession. While in garrison at Bordeaux he came under the influence of Martinez de Pasquales, usually called a Portuguese Jew (although later research has made it probable that he was a Spanish Catholic), who taught a species of mysticism drawn from cabbalistic sources, and endeavoured to found thereon a secret cult with magical or theurgical rites. In 1771 Saint-Martin left the army to become a preacher of mysticism. His conversational powers made him welcome in Parisian salons, but his zeal led him to England, where he made the acquaintance of William Law (q.v.), the English mystic, to Italy and to Switzerland, as well as to the chief towns of France. At Strassburg in 1788 he met Charlotte de Boecklin, who initiated him into the writings of Jacob Boehme, and inspired in his breast a semi-romantic attachment. His later years were devoted almost entirely to the composition of his chief works and to the translation of those of Boehme: Although he was not subjected to any persecution in consequence of his opinions, his property was confiscated after the Revolution because of his social position. He was brought up a strict Catholic, and always remained attached to the church, although his first work, Of Errors and Truth, was placed upon the Index. He died at Aunay, near Paris, on the 23rd of October 1803. His chief works are—Lettre a un ami sur la Revolution Frangaise; Eclair sur l'association humaine; De l'esprit des choses; Ministere de l'homme-esprit. Other treatises appeared in his cEuvresposthumes (1807). Saint-Martin regarded the French Revolution as a sermon in action, if not indeed a miniature of the last judgment. His ideal society was " a natural and spiritual theocracy," in which God would raise up men of mark and endowment, who would regard themselves strictly as " divine commissioners " to guide the people. All ecclesiastical organization was to disappear, giving place to a purely spiritual Christianity, based on the assertion of a faculty superior to the reason—moral sense, from which we derive knowledge of God. God exists as an eternal personality, and the creation is an over-flowing of the divine love, which was unable to contain itself. The human soul, the human intellect or spirit, the spirit of the universe, and the elements or matter are the four stages of this divine emanation, man being the immediate reflection of God, and nature in turn a reflection of man. Man, however, has fallen from his high estate, and matter is one of the consequences of his fall. But divine love, united to humanity in Christ, will work the final regeneration. See J. B. Gence, Notice biographique (1824); L. I. Moreau, Le Philosophe inconnu (185o); E. M. Caro, Essai sur la vie et la doctrine de Saint-Martin (1852); Sainte-Beuve, Causeries du lundi, x .190; A. J. Matter, Saint-Martin, le philosophe inconnu (1862) ; A. Franck, La Philosophie mystique en France a la fin du dix-huitieme siecle (1866) ; A. E. Waite, The Life of Louis Claude de Saint-Martin (1901). There are English translations of The Ministry of Man the Spirit (1864) and of Select Correspondence (1863) by E. B. Penny. ST MARTIN, an island in the West Indies, about 5 m. S. of the British island of Anguilla in 18° N. and 63° W. It is 38 sq. in. in area and nearly triangular in form, composed of conical hills, culminating in Paradise Peak (1920 ft.). It is the only island in the Antilles owned by two European powers; 17 sq. in. in the N., belonging to France, form a dependency of Guadeloupe, while the rest of the island, belonging to Holland, is a dependency of Curacao. Sugar, formerly its staple, has been succeeded by salt. The chief town of the French area is Marigot, a free port on the W. coast; of the Dutch, Philipsburg, on the S. St Martin was first occupied by French freebooters in 1638, but ten years later the division between France and Holland was peaceably made. The inhabitants, mostly English-speaking negroes, number about 3000 in the French part, and in the Dutch the population in 1908 was 3817. ST MARY (Santa Maria), an island in the Atlantic Ocean, belonging to Portugal and forming part of the Azores (q.v.). Pop. (1900), 6383; area, 4o sq. m. St Mary is the southernmost and easternmost of the Azores, lying south of the larger island of St Michael's, through the medium of which its trade is con-ducted, as it has no good harbours of its own. It produces wheat in abundance, of which a considerable quantity is exported. Various volcanic rocks are the predominant formations, but beds of limestone also occur, giving rise to numerous stalactite grottoes all over the island. The chief town is Villa do Porto (2506). ST MARYLEBONE (commonly called MARYLEBONE), a north-western metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N. by Hampstead, E. by St Pancras and Holborn, S. by the City of Westminster, and W. by Paddington. Pop. (1901), 133,301. It is mainly a rich residential quarter; the most fashionable part is found in the south, in the vicinity of Cavendish and Portman Squares, but there are numerous fine houses surrounding Regent's Park and in the north-western district of St John's Wood. Oxford Street, with its handsome shops, bounds the borough on the south, crossing Regent Street at Oxford Circus; Edgware Road on the west; Marylebone Road crosses from east to west, and from this Upper Baker Street gives access to Park, Wellington, and Finchley Roads; and Baker Street leads south-ward. Poor and squalid streets are found, in close proximity to the wealthiest localities, between Marylebone Road and St John's Wood Road, and about High Street in the south, the site of the original village. The formation of the Great Central Railway, the Marylebone terminus of which, in Marylebone Road, was opened in 1899, caused an extensive demolition of streets and houses in the west central district. St Marylebonewas in the manor of Tyburn, which takes name from the Tyburn, a stream which flowed south to the Thames through the centre of the present borough. The church was called St Mary at the Bourne. The name Tyburn (q.v.) was notorious chiefly as applied to the gallows which stood near the existing junction of Edgware Road and Oxford Street (Marble Arch). The manor at the Domesday Survey was in the possession of the nunnery at Barking, but the borough includes several estates, such as the manor of Lyllestone in the west, the name of which is preserved in Lisson Grove. From 1738 to 1776 Marylebone Gardens (which had existed under other names from the close of the 17th century) became one of the most favoured evening resorts in London. They extended east of High Street as far as Harley Street, but by 1778 the ground was being built over. Another historic site is Horace Street near Edgware Road, formerly Cato Street, from which the conspiracy which bore that name was directed against the ministry in 1820. The borough includes almost the whole of Regent's Park, with a portion of Primrose Hill north of it. These have altogether an area of 472 acres. The park, originally Marylebone Park, was enclosed by James I., and received its modern name from the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV. It contains the Zoological Gardens, one of the most noteworthy institutions of its kind, attracting numerous visitors to its splendid collections of living animals. Here are also the gardens of the Royal Botanic Society, incorporated in 1839. They are enclosed and beautifully laid out, and contain hot-houses and a museum. Exhibitions are held each year. The Toxophilite Society, founded in 1781, has also occupied grounds here since 1883. The picturesque lake is supplied by the ancient Tyburn. The Regent's Canal skirts the north side of the park. Another famous enclosure is Lord's Cricket Ground, St John's Wood Road. The founder, Thomas Lord (1814), at first established a cricket ground in the present Dorset Square, but it was soon moved here. Lord's, as it is called, is the headquarters of the M.C.C. (Marylebone Cricket Club), the governing body of the game; here are played the home matches of this club and of the Middlesex County Cricket Club, the Oxford and Cambridge, Eton and Harrow, and other well-known fixtures. The Wallace Art Collection, Hertford House, Manchester Square, was bequeathed by Sir Richard Wallace to the nation on the death of his wife in 1897. The waxwork exhibition named after Madame Tussaud, who founded it in Paris in 1780, occupies large buildings in Marylebone Road. The Parkes Museum of the Sanitary Institute is in Margaret Street. The Queen's Hall, Langham Place, is used for concerts, including a notable annual series of orchestral promenade concerts. StMarylebone contains a great number of hospitals, among which are the Middlesex, Mortimer Street; Throat. Hospital and Dental Hospital and School, Great Portland Street; Lying-in and Ophthalmic Hospitals, Marylebone Road; Samaritan Hospital for women, Seymour Street; Consumption Hospital, Margaret Street; and the Home for incurable children, St John's Wood Road. There are also several industrial homes. Harley Street, between Marylebone Road and Cavendish Square, is noted as the residence of medical practitioners. Educational institutions include the Trinity and the Victoria Colleges of Music, in Manchester Square and Berners Street respectively; the Bedford College for women, and the Regent's Park Baptist College. The parliamentary borough of Marylebone has east and west divisions, each returning one member. The borough council consists of a mayor, to aldermen and 6o councillors. Area, 1472.8 acres.
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