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EAU DE COLOGNE (Ger. Kolnisches Wasse...

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Originally appearing in Volume V08, Page 840 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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EAU DE COLOGNE (Ger. Kolnisches Wasser, "Cologne water "), a perfume, so named from the city of Cologne, where its manufacture was first established by a.n Italian, Johann (or Giovanni) Maria Farina (1685-1766), who settled at Cologne in 1709. The perfume gained a high reputation by 1766, and Farina associated himself with his nephew, to whose grandson the secret was ultimately imparted; the original perfume is still manufactured by members of this family under the name of the founder. The manufacture is, however, carried on at Cologne, and also in Italy, by other firms bearing the name Farina, and the scent has become part of the regular output of perfumers. The discovery has also been ascribed to a Paul de Feminis, who is supposed to have brought his recipe from Milan to Cologne, of which he became a citizen in 169o, and sold the perfume under the name Eau admirable, leaving the secret at his death to his nephew Johann Maria Farina. Certain of the Farinas claim to use his process. It was originally prepared by making an alcoholic infusion of certain flowers, pot-herbs, drugs and spices, distilling and then adding definite quantities of several vegetable essences. The purity and thorough blending of the ingredients are of the greatest importance. The original perfume is simulated and even excelled by artificial preparations. The oils of lemon, bergamot and orange are employed, together with the oils of neroli and rosemary in the better class. The common practice consists in dissolving the oils, in certain definite proportions based on experience, in pure alcohol and distilling, the distillate being diluted by rose-water. EAUX-BONNES, a watering-place of south-western France, in the department of Basses-Pyrenees, 31 M. S.E. of the small town of Laruns, the latter being 24 M. S. of Pau by rail. Pop. (1906) 61o. Eaux-Bonnes is situated at a height of 2460 ft. at the entrance of a fine gorge, overlooking the confluence of two torrents, the Valentin and the Sourde. The village is well known for its sulphurous and saline mineral waters (first mentioned in the middle of the 14th century), which are beneficial in affections of the throat and lungs. They vary between 5o° and 9o° F. in temperature, and are used for drinking and bathing. There are two thermal establishments, a casino and fine promenades. The watering-place of LES EAUX-CHAUDES is 5 M. by road south-west of Eaux-Bonnes, in a wild gorge on the Gave d'Ossau. The springs are sulphurous, varying in temperature from 52° to 97° F., and are used in cases of rheumatism, certain maladies of women, &c. The thermal establishment is a handsome marble building. There is fine mountain scenery in the neighbourhood of both places, the Pic de Ger near Eaux-Bonnes, commanding an extensive view. The valley of Ossau, one of the most beautiful in the Pyrenees, before the Revolution formed a community which, though dependent on Warn, had its own legal organization, manners and costumes, the last of which are still to be seen on holidays.
End of Article: EAU DE COLOGNE (Ger. Kolnisches Wasser, "Cologne water ")
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