See also:prince of
See also:Wales, known as " THE BLACK PRINCE " (1330-1376), the eldest son of Edward III. and Philippa of Hainaut, was
See also:born at
See also:Woodstock on the 15th of
See also:June 1330 . Contemporaries called him Edward of Woodstock, and his surname of the Black Prince cannot be traced back earlier than the 16th century . It is supposed to have been derived from his wearing black
See also:armour . In 1333 he was made
See also:earl of Chester, and in 1337 duke of
See also:Cornwall, being the first duke ever created in England . Nominal
See also:warden of England during his
See also:father's absences abroad in 1338 and 1342, he was created prince of Wales in 1343, and in 1345 he first accompanied his father on a
See also:foreign expedition . His real career begins, however, with Edward III.'s Norman
See also:campaign of 1346 . On landing at La Hogue he was knighted by his father, and took a prominent
See also:part in the whole of the campaign . He commanded the right wing of the
See also:English forces at
See also:Crecy, and, though hard pressed for a
See also:time by the French, took his full
See also:share in gaining the victory . Next
See also:year he was at the
See also:siege of
See also:Calais, and returned to England in
See also:October 1347 with his father . He was one of the
See also:original knights of the Garter, and participated in his father's chivalrous adventures at Calais in 1349 and in the
See also:battle off Winchelsea in 1350 . In
See also:September 1355 he was sent to
See also:Gascony at the
See also:head of an English army, having been appointed his father's
See also:lieutenant there in
See also:July . He was warmly welcomed by the Gascons, and at once led a foray through
See also:Armagnac and
See also:Languedoc .
See also:November he had got as far as
See also:Narbonne, whence he returned to
See also:Bordeaux, where he kept his
See also:court . In
See also:August 1356 he started from
See also:Bergerac on another marauding expedition, this time in a northerly direction . He penetrated as far as the
See also:Loire, but was there compelled to retire before the
See also:superior forces of
See also:John of France . On the 19th of September the two armies met in the battle of
See also:Poitiers, fought about 6 m. south-east of the city . It was the hardest-fought and most important battle of the
See also:Hundred Years' War, and Edward's victory was due both to the excellence of his
See also:tactical disposition of his forces and to the superior fighting capacity of his army . The flank
See also:march of the Captal de Buch, which decided the
See also:fate of the
See also:day, was of Edward's own devising, and the captivity of King John attested the completeness of his
See also:triumph . He treated his prisoner with almost ostentatious magnanimity, and took him to Bordeaux, whence they sailed to England in May 1357 . On the 24th of that
See also:month he led his prisoner in triumph through the streets of
See also:London . In 1359 he took part in his father's invasion of
See also:northern France, and had a large share in the negotiations at Bretigny and Calais . In October 1361 Edward married his
See also:Joan, countess of Kent (1328-1385), the daughter and heiress of Edmund of Woodstock, earl of Kent, the younger son of Edward I. by his second wife
See also:Margaret of France . The
See also:lady, who enjoyed a
See also:great reputation for beauty, was in her
See also:thirty-third year, and the widow of
See also:Thomas Roland, by whom she had had three
See also:children .
See also:Froissart says that the
See also:marriage was a love match, and that the king had no knowledge of it .
However, Edward III. approved of his son's choice, and in July 1362 handed over to him all his dominions in
See also:southern France, with the title of prince of
See also:Aquitaine . In
See also:February 1363 Edward and Joan took
See also:ship for Gascony, which became his ordinary place of residence for the next eight years . He maintained a brilliant court at Bordeaux and Angouleme, and did his best to win the support of the Gascons . He was not, however, successful in winning over the greater nobles, who, with John, count of Armagnac, at their head, were dissatisfied with the separation from France, and looked with suspicion upon Edward's attempts to reform the administration as being likely to result in the curtailment of their feudal rights . Edward was better able to conciliate the towns, whose franchises he favoured and whose
See also:trade he fostered, hoping that they would prove a counterpoise to the aristocracy . He kept the chief posts of the administration mainly in English hands, and never really identified himself with the
See also:life and traditions ofhis principality . He succeeded in clearing Aquitaine of the
See also:free companies, and kept
See also:good peace for nearly six years . In 1367 Z'eter the Cruel, the deposed king of
See also:Castile, visited Edward at Bordeaux, and persuaded him to restore him to his
See also:throne by force . In February 1367 Edward led an army into Spain over the pass of
See also:Roncesvalles . After a difficult and dangerous march Edward reached the
See also:Ebro, and on the 3rd of
See also:April defeated Bertrand du Guesclin at Najera, the last of his great victories . He then proceeded to
See also:Burgos, and restored
See also:Peter to the throne of Castile . He remained in Castile for four months, living principally at
See also:Valladolid .
His army wasted away during the hot
See also:Spanish summer, and Edward himself contracted the beginnings of a mortal disease . In August 1367 Edward led the remnant of his troops back through the pass of Roncesvalles, and returned to Bordeaux early in September . He had exhausted all his resources on the Spanish expedition, and was forced to seek from the estates of Aquitaine extraordinary
See also:sources of supply . A
See also:hearth tax for five years was willingly granted to him, and generally paid . The greater barons, however, found in this
See also:impost a pretext for revolt . The count of Armagnac, who had already made a secret understanding with
See also:Charles V., appealed against the hearth tax to the
See also:parlement of .
See also:Paris . Cited before this
See also:body in
See also:January 1369, Edward declared that he would answer at Paris with sixty thousand men behind him . War broke out again, and Edward III. resumed the title of king of France . Thereupon Charles V. declared that all the English possessions in France were forfeited, and before the end of 1369 all Aquitaine was in full revolt . With weak
See also:health and impaired resources, the Black Prince showed little activity in dealing with his insurgent subjects, or in warding off French invasion . Though too
See also:ill to ride on horseback, he insisted upon commanding his troops, and on the 19th of September 1370 won his last barren success, by capturing the revolted city of
See also:Limoges and putting the population to the sword .
Early in 1371 he returned to England, leaving the impossible task of holding Gascony to his
See also:brother John of Gaunt . In August 1372 he joined his father in an abortive expedition to France, but contrary winds prevented their landing, and he now abandoned military life for good . In October he resigned his principality on the ground that he could not afford to retain any longer so expensive a
See also:charge . His health now rapidly declined, but he still followed politics with
See also:interest, and did what he could to support the constitutional opposition of the great ecclesiastics to the administration of John of Gaunt and the
See also:anti-clerical courtiers . His last public
See also:act was to inspire the attack on
See also:Lancaster's influence made by the Good Parliament in the
See also:spring of 1376 . The famous parliament was still in session when he died at
See also:Westminster on the 8th of July . He was buried in the east end of Canterbury
See also:cathedral on the 29th of September, where his magnificent
See also:tomb, erected in accordance with the instructions in his will, may still be seen . By Joan, " the
See also:fair maid of Kent," who died on the 7th of August 1385, the Black Prince
See also:left an only son, afterwards King
See also:Richard II . For authorities see EDWARD III . To these may be added W .
See also:Hunt's article in the
See also:Diet . Nat .
Biog.; A .
See also:Collins's Life of Edward, Prince of Wales (174o) ; G . P . R .
See also:James's Life of Edward the Black Prince (1839) ; J . Moisant's Le Prince Noir en Aquitaine (1894) ; and R . P . Dunn-
See also:Pattison's The Black Prince (1910) . (T . F .
EDWARD BICKERSTETH (1814—1892)
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