EMBROIDERY (M.E. embrouderie, from O. Fr. embroder, Mod. Fr. broder) , the ornamentation of textile fabrics and other materials with
See also:needlework . The beginnings of the
See also:art of embroidery probably date back to a very
See also:primitive stage in the
See also:history of all peoples, since plain stitching must have been one of the earliest attainments of mankind, and from that it is but a
See also:short step to decorative needlework of some kind . The
See also:discovery of needles among the
See also:relics of Swiss lake-dwellings shows that their primitive inhabitants were at least acquainted with the art of stitching . In concerning ourselves solely with those periods of which examples survive, we must pass over a wide
See also:gap and begin with the anciently-civilized
See also:land of
See also:Egypt . The sandy
See also:soil and dry
See also:climate of that
See also:country have led to the preservation of
See also:woven stuffs and embroideries of unique historic
See also:interest . The
See also:principal, and by far the earliest, known pieces which have a bearing on the
See also:present subject, found in 1903 in the
See also:tomb of Tethmosis (Thoutm6sis, or Thothmes) IV. at
See also:Thebes, are now in the Cairo Museum . There are three fragments, entirely of
See also:linen, in- wrought with patterns in blue, red,
See also:green and black (fig . I) . A kind of
See also:tapestry method is used, the patterns being wrought upon the warp threads of the ground, instead of upon the finished
See also:web or woven material . Such a
See also:process, generally supplemented, as in this case, by a few stitches of
See also:fine needlework, was still in
See also:common use at a far later
See also:time . The largest of the three fragments at Cairo bears, in addition to rows of
See also:flowers and
See also:papyrus inflorescences, a
See also:cartouche containing the name of Amenophis (Amenhotep) II . (c .
15thcentury B.C.); another is inwrought with the name of Tethmosis III . (c . 16th century B.C.).1 No other embroidered stuffs which can be assigned to so early a date have hitherto come to
See also:light in the Nile valley (nor indeed elsewhere), and the student who wishes to gain a
See also:fuller knowledge of the textile patterns of the
See also:ancient Egyptians must be referred to the
See also:wall-paintings and sculptured reliefs which have been preserved in considerable numbers . From the ancient civilizations of
See also:Babylon and
See also:Assyria no fragments of embroidery, nor even of woven stuffs, have come down to us . The fine series of wall-reliefs from
See also:Nineveh in the
See also:British Museum give some idea of the geometrical and floral patterns and diapers which adorned the robes of the ancient Assyrians . The discovery of the ruins of the palace of Darius I . (521–485 B.C.) at Susa in 1885 has thrown some light upon the textile art of the ancient Persians . They evidently owed much to the nations whom they had supplanted . The famous
See also:relief from this palace (now in the Louvre) represents a procession of archers, wearing long robes covered with small
See also:diaper patterns, perhaps of embroidery . The exact significance of the words used in the
See also:book of Exodus in describing the robes of
See also:Aaron (ch.
See also:xxviii.) and the hangings and ornaments of the Tabernacle (ch.
See also:xxvi.) cannot be deter-
See also:mined, and the " broidered
See also:work " of the prophecy of Ezekiel (ch.
See also:xxvii.) at a later time is also of uncertain meaning . It seems likely that much of this ancient work was of the tapestry class, such as we have found in the early fragments from Thebes . The methods of the ancient Greek embroiderer, or "variegator " ('IrouuXrits) to whom woven garments were submitted 1 See H .
See also:Carter and P . E .
See also:Newberry, Cat. gen.
See also:ant. egypt. du musee du Caire (1904), pl. i. and xxviii . A remarkable piece of
See also:Egyptian needlework, the funeral
See also:tent of
See also:Queen Isi em Kheb (XXIst
See also:Dynasty), was discovered at
See also:Deir el Bahri some years ago . It is described as a
See also:mosaic of leatherwork—pieces of gazelle hide of several
See also:colours, stitched together (see
See also:Stuart, The Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen, 1882) . for enrichment, can only be conjectured . The peplos or woven
See also:cloth made every fifth
See also:year to cover or shade the statue of Athena in the
See also:Parthenon at Athens, and carried at the Panathenaic festival,' was ornamented with the battles of the gods and giants . The
See also:late Dr J . H .
See also:Middleton thought that very possibly most of the elaborate work upon these peploi was done by the
See also:needle . That true embroidery, in the
See also:modern sense—the decoration by means of the needle of a finished woven material—was practised among the ancient Greeks, has been demonstrated by the finding of some textile fragments in
See also:graves in the
See also:Crimea; these are now in the Hermitage at St
See also:Petersburg . One of them, of
See also:purple woollen material, from a tomb assigned to the 4th century B.C., is embroidered in wools of different colours with a man on horseback,
See also:ornament and tendrils .
Another woollen piece, attributed to the following century, has a
See also:stem and arrow-
See also:head leaves worked in gold
See also:thread' In turning to ancient Rome, it is well first briefly to
See also:notice Pliny's account of the craft (Nat . Hist. viii.), as recording the views current in Rome at his time (1st century A.D.) . After
See also:relating that
See also:Homer mentions embroidered garments (pictas vestes), he states that the Phrygians first used the needle for embroidered robes, which were thence called Phrygionian (Phrygioniae), and that Attalic garments were named from Attalus II.,
See also:king of
See also:Pergamum (159–138 B.C.), the inventor of the art of embroidering in gold . He further relates that Babylon gave the name to embroideries of
See also:divers colours, for the production of which that city was famous . By the Romans the art was designated as "
See also:painting with the needle " (acu pingere), a
See also:term used by Virgil in speaking of the decoration of robes, by Ovid (who describes it as an art taught by
See also:Minerva), and by
See also:Roman writers generally when referring to embroidery.' It is to be regretted that no examples have. been discovered in the neighbourhood of the Roman capital . For embroideries made under Roman influence we must again look ,to Egypt . They formed the decoration of garments' and mummy-wrappings from the cemeteries in Upper and
See also:Middle Egypt, which have been so extensively rifled of late years . Those of Roman type date approximately from the first five centuries of the Christian era . The earliest represent human figures, animals, birds, geometrical and interlacing ornaments, vases, fruit, flowers and foliage (especially the
See also:vine) . They are generally done in purple wool and undyed linen thread by the tapestry process employed in Egypt at least fifteen centuries earlier, as we have seen; most of the patterns have had the lines more clearly marked out by the ordinary method of needlework . Towards the end of this
See also:period a greater choice of colours is seen, and Christian symbols appear . At this time examples worked entirely upon the finished web are found (fig .
2) . The transition is easy from such work to the veritable " needle-paintings," representing scenes from the gospels, produced in Egypt shortly after (fig . 3) . Such embroideries are evidently akin to those mentioned by
See also:Bishop Asterius (330-410), who describes the garments worn by effeminate Christians as painted like the walls of their houses.' From the time of Justinian (527–565) onwards for some centuries, the art of
See also:Europe, embroidery with the
See also:rest, was dominated by that of the
See also:empire . To trace the progress of the highly conventionalized Byzantine
See also:style, becoming more rigid and stereotyped as time passes, belongs to the general hi
See also:Cory of art, and such a task cannot be attempted here . P€rhaps the most remarkable example of all which have survived ' The procession at this festival is represented upon the
See also:frieze of the Parthenon . z See Compte rendu de la
See also:Comm .
See also:Imp . Arch., 1878–1879 (St Petersburg), pl. iii. and v . $ For an account of the conditions under which Greek and Roman embroiderers worked, see Alan S .
See also:Cole, " Some Aspects of Ancient and Modern Embroidery," Journal of the Society of Arts, vol . 'iii., 1905, PP .
958, 959 . 'Chiefly tunics withvertical bands (clavi) and medallions (orbi- culae), and an ample
See also:outer robe or cloak . The Adoration of the Magi is represented upon the
See also:lower border of the long robe worn by the empress Theodora (wife of Justinian) in the mosaic in the
See also:church of S . Vitale at Ravenna.to illustrate the work of the Byzantine embroiderers is the blue
See also:silk robe known as the dalmatic of Charlemagne or of
See also:Leo III., in the sacristy of St
See also:Peter's at Rome (fig . 4) . According to the present consensus of opinion it belongs to a later time than either of those dignitaries, dating most probably from the 12th century' In front is represented Christ enthroned as
See also:judge of the
See also:world, a youthful but majestic figure; on the back is the Transfiguration . These, as well as the minor subjects, are explained by Greek inscriptions . The wide influence of Byzantine art gradually died out after the Latin
See also:sack of FrG . 3.–Embroidered
See also:panel from a linen garment, with a
See also:representation of the
See also:Annunciation and the Salutation . Found in a cemetery in Egypt . Coptic work of the 6th or 7th century A.D . Constantinople in the year 1204, although the style lingered, and lingers still, in certain localities, notably at
See also:Mount Athos .
See also:Sicily succeeded
See also:Byzantium as the capital of the 6 Writers have assigned different
See also:dates to this vestment:
See also:Alford, Needlework as Art (earlier than the 13th century) ; F . Bock, Die Kleinodien (12th century); S . Boisser6e, Uber die Kaiser-Dalmatica in der St Peterskirche zu Rom (12th or first
See also:half of 13th century) ; A . S . Cole, Cantor Lectures at Society of Arts, 19os (possibly of 9th century) ;
See also:Lindsay, Christian Art (12th or early 13th century); A . Venturi, Storia dell' arte (loth or 11th century); T . Braun, Liturg . Gewandung, p . 305 and note (late 14th or early 15th century) . arts in Europe, although its ascendancy was of brief duration . Under the Norman
See also:kings of Sicily the style was strongly
See also:oriental, consequent upon the earlier occupation of the
See also:island by the
See also:Saracens, and upon the employment of Saracenic craftsmen by the
See also:Normans . The magnificent red silk
See also:mantle at Vienna, embroidered in gold thread with a date-palm and two lions springing upon camels, and enriched with pearls and
See also:enamel plaques, bears
See also:round the edge an Arabic inscription, recording that it was made in the royal factory of the capital of Sicily (Palermo) in the year 528 (=A.D .
1134) . At that timeRoger, the first Norman king, was on the
See also:throne . Another of the imperial
See also:coronation-robes—a linen
See also:alb with gold embroidery—is also at Vienna .l An inscription in Latin and Arabic states that it was made in the year 1181, under the reign of
See also:William II . (Norman king of Sicily, 1166–1189) . From about that time distinct
See also:national styles began to develop in different places . In tracing the progress of the embroiderer's art during the middle ages we must rely mainly upon the many fine examples of ecclesiastical work which have been preserved . The costumes of men and
See also:women, as well as curtains and hangings and such articles of domestic use, were often richly adorned with embroidery . These have mostly perished; while the careful preservation and comparatively infrequent use of the
See also:vestments and other
See also:objects devoted to the service of the church have given us tangible evidence of the attainments of the
See also:medieval embroiderer . Much of this work was produced in convents, but old documents show that in monasteries also were to be found men known for their skill in needlework . Other names, both of men and women, are recorded, showing that the craft was by no means exclusively confined to monastic foundation_ .
See also:Gilds of embroiderers existed far back in medieval times . In England the craft has been a favourite employment for many centuries, and persons of all ranks have occupied their spare
See also:hours at needlework .
Some embroidered fragments, found in 1826–1827 in the tomb of St
See also:Cuthbert at Durham, and now kept in the
See also:cathedral library, were worked, chiefly in gold thread, by
See also:order of iElffla;da, queen of
See also:Edward the Elder, for Fridestan, bishop of Winchester, early in the loth century . ' Both are illustrated in F . Bock, Die Kleinodien . In the later
See also:part of the following century the "
See also:Bayeux tapestry " was produced—a work of unique importance (
See also:Plate I. fig . 7) . It is a
See also:band of linen, more than 230 ft. long, embroidered in coloured wools with the
See also:story of the Norman
See also:conquest of England . (See BAYEUX TAPESTRY.) Some fragments of metallic embroidery on silk, of the 12th and 13th centuries, may be seen in the library of
See also:Worcester cathedral . They were removed from the coffins of two bishops, William de
See also:Blois (1218–1236) and Walter de Cantelupe (1236-1266) . A fragment of gold embroidery from the tomb of the latter bishop is preserved in the
See also:Victoria and
See also:Albert Museum at South
See also:Kensington, and others are in the British Museum . In the 13th century
See also:English embroidery was famous throughout western Europe, and many embroidered objects are described in inventories of that time as being de opere anglicano . During that century, and the early part of the next, English work was at its best . The most famous example is the " Syon
See also:cope " at South Kensington, belonging to the latter half of the 13th century (see COPE, Plate I. fig .
2) . It represents the coronation of the Virgin, the Crucifixion, thearchangel Michael transfixing the
See also:dragon, the
See also:death and
See also:burial of the Virgin, our Lord
See also:meeting Mary Magdalene in the
See also:garden, the Apostles and the hierarchies of angels . The broad
See also:orphrey is embroidered with a series of heraldic
See also:shields (Plate II. fig . 9) . Other embroideries of the period are at
See also:Aston, Chesterfield (Col .
See also:Butler-Bowden), Victoria and Albert and British museums, Rome (St
See also:John Lateran), Bologna,
See also:Pienza, Anagni, Ascoli, St Bertrand de Comminges,
See also:Lyons museum,
See also:Madrid (archaeological museum), Toledo and
See also:Vich . During the course of the 14th and 15th centuries embroideries produced in England were not equal to the earlier work . To-wards the end of the latter century, and until the dissolution of the monasteries in the next, much ecclesiastical embroidery of effective design was done, and many examples are still to be seen in churches throughout the country . In the Tudor period the costumes of the wealthy were often richly adorned with needlework . The portraits of King
See also:Henry VIII., Queen
See also:Elizabeth and their courtiers show how magnificent was the embroidery used for such purposes . Many examples, especially of the latter reign, worked with very effective and beautiful floral patterns, have come down to these times . A kind of embroidery known as " black work," done in black silk on linen, was popular during the same reign .
See also:tunic embroidered for Queen Elizabeth, with devices copied from contemporary woodcuts, is an excellent example of this work . It now belongs to the
See also:Viscount Falkland . Another class of work, popular at the same time, was closely worked in wools and silks on open-mesh material like
See also:canvas, which was entirely covered by the embroidery . Figures in
See also:costume were often introduced (Plate I. fig . 6) . This method was much practised in France, and the term applied to it in that country, " au
See also:petit point," has become generally used . Through-out the 17th and 18th centuries embroidery in England, though sometimes lacking in
See also:good taste, maintained generally a high standard, and that done to-
See also:day, based on the study of old examples, need not fear comparison with any modern work . During these three centuries bold floral patterns for hangings, curtains and coverlets have been usual (Plate III. fig . 13), but smaller
See also:works, such as samplers, covers of work-boxes, and pictorial and landscape subjects (fig . 5), have been produced in large numbers . In the 18th century gentlemen's coats and waistcoats and ladies' dresses were extensively embroidered . In France, embroidery, like all the arts practised by that nation, has been characterized by much
See also:grace and beauty, and many good specimens belonging to different periods are known .
The vestments associated with the name of St
See also:Thomas of Canter-bury at
See also:Sens may be either of French or English work (12th century) . To the later part of the following century belongs a band of embroidery, representing the coronation of the Virgin, the Adoration of the Magi, the presentation in the
See also:Temple, and other subjects beneath
See also:arches, preserved in the Hotel-Dieu at Chateau
See also:Thierry . The mitre of
See also:Jean de Marigny, archbishop of
See also:Rouen (1347–1351), in the museum at
See also:Evreux, 312 embroidered with figures of St Peter and St Eloy, may be regarded as representative of 14th-century work . An
See also:altar-frontal with the Annunciation embroidered in silks and gold and
See also:silver upon a blue silk
See also:damask ground, now in the museum at
See also:Lille, is a very beautiful example of Franco-Flemish art in the second half of the 15th century . It was originally in the church at Noyelleslez-Seclin . An embroidery more characteristically French, and belonging to the same century, is in the museum at
See also:Chartres . It is a
See also:triptych, having in the middle a pieta, on the
See also:left wing St John the Evangelist, and on the right St Catherine of Alexandria . Each
See also:leaf has a
See also:canopy of architecture represented in perspective . In the 16th century an effective style of embroidery was practised in France; the
See also:pattern is generally a graceful combination of floral and
See also:scroll forms, cut out of
See also:velvet, satin or silk, and applied to a thick woollen cloth . Later work, chiefly of a floral character, has served for the decoration of costumes, ecclesiastical vestments, curtains and hangings, and the seats and backs of chairs . Under the
See also:rule of the dukes of
See also:Burgundy in the 15th century art in the
See also:southern provinces of the
See also:Netherlands prospered Fxe . 5.-
See also:Oval picture in silk embroidery: Fame scattering Flowers over
See also:Shakespeare's Tomb .
English work of the 18th century . greatly, and able artists were found to meet the wishes of those munificent rulers . The
See also:schools of painting, which flourished under their patronage, appear to have very considerably influenced the embroiderers' art .
See also:Great care and pains were given to reproduce as accurately as possible the painted
See also:cartoon or picture which served as the
See also:model . The heads are individualized, and the folds of the draperies are laboriously worked out in detail . The
See also:masonry of buildings, the veinings of marble, and the architectural enrichments are often represented with careful fidelity, and landscape backgrounds are shdwn in every detail . As in the case of the tapestries of the Netherlands—the finest which the world has seen—there can be no doubt that patrons of art and donors, when requiring embroideries to be made, secured the services of eminent painters for the designs . There are many examples of such careful work . A set of vestments known as the ornement de la Toison d'Or, now in the
See also:Hof-museum at Vienna, is embroidered in the most minute manner with sacred subjects and figures of
See also:saints and angels . The stiff disposal of many of these figures, within flattened hexagons arranged in zones, is not pleasing, but the needlework is most remarkable for skill and carefulness . They are of 15th-century work . A cope belonging to the second half of that century was given to the cathedral of Tournay by Guillaume Fillatre,
See also:abbot of St
See also:Bertin at St Omer, and bishop of Tournay (d .
1473) . It is now in the museum there . Upon the orphreys and
See also:hood are represented the seven Works of Mercy . The
See also:body of the cope, of plain red velvet, is powdered with stags' heads and martlets (the heraldic
See also:bearings of the bishop) ;between the antlers of the stags is worked in each case the initial
See also:letter of the bishop's name, and the worse is embroidered with his arms . Some panels of embroidery, once decorating an altar in the abbey of Grimbergen, and now at Brussels, illustrate the best class of Flemish needle-work in the 16th century . The scenes are taken from the
See also:Gospel: the
See also:marriage at
See also:Cana, Christ in the
See also:house of the Pharisee, Christ in the house of Zacchaeus, the Last Supper, and the supper at
See also:Emmaus . In the museum at
See also:Bern there are some embroideries of great historic and
See also:artistic interest, found in the tent of
See also:Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, after his defeat at Granson in 1476 . They include some armorial panels and two tabards or heralds' coats . A
See also:tabard of the following century, with the royal arms of Spain in applied work, and most probably of Flemish origin, is preserved in the archaeological museum at
See also:Ghent . The later art of
See also:Holland was largely influenced by the Dutch conquests in the East Indies at the end of the 16th century, and the subsequent founding of the Dutch East India
See also:Company . Embroideries were among the articles produced in the East under Dutch influence for exportation to Holland . Much embroidery for ecclesiastical purposes has been executed in Belgium of late years .
It follows medieval
See also:models, but is lacking in the qualities which make those of so much importance in the history of the art . There is perhaps little worthy of
See also:special notice in Italy before the beginning of the 14th century, but the embroideries produced at that time show great skill and are very beautiful . The names of two Florentine embroiderers of the 14th century-both men—have come down to us, inscribed upon their handiwork . A fine frontal for an altar, very delicately worked in gold and silver and silks of many colours, is preserved in the archaeological museum at Florence . The subject in the middle is the coronation of the Virgin; on either side is an
See also:arcade with figures of apostles and saints . The embroiderer's name is worked under the central subject: Jacobus Cambi de Floretia me fecit MCCCXXXVIII . The other example is in the
See also:basilica at
See also:Manresa in Spain . It also is an altar-frontal, worked in silk and gold upon an, embroidered gold ground . There is a large central panel representing the Crucifixion, with nine scenes from the Gospel on each side . The embroidered inscription is as follows: Geri Lapi rachamatore me fecit in Florentia . It is of 14th-century work . An embroidered orphrey in the Victoria and Albert Museum belongs to the early part of the same century .
It represents the Annunciation, the coronation of the Virgin and figures of apostles and saints beneath arches . In the spandrels are the orders of angels with their names in
See also:Italian . In the best period of Italian art successful painters did not disdain to design for embroidery . Francesco Squarcione (1394-1474), the founder of the Paduan school of painting, and
See also:master of
See also:Mantegna, is called in a document of the year 1423 a tailor and embroiderer (sartor et recamator) . It is recorded that Antonio del
See also:Pollaiuolo painted cartoons which were carried out in embroidery,' and Pierino del Vaga, according to
See also:Vasari, did likewise . In the 16th and 17th centuries large numbers of towels and linen covers were embroidered in red, green or
See also:brown silk with
See also:borders of floral patterns, sometimes (especially in the southern provinces) combined with figure subjects and
See also:bird and animal forms (Plate IV. fig . 15) . Another type of embroidery popular at the same time, both in Italy and Spain, is known as applique (or applied) work . The pattern is cut out and applied to a bright-coloured ground, frequently of velvet, as in the example illustrated (Plate III. fig . 14) . The later embroidery of Sicily follows that of the mainland . A remarkable coverlet, quilted and padded with wool so as to throw the design into relief, is shown to be of Sicilian origin by the inscriptions which it bears Some embroideries from vestments, designed by Pollaiuolo, are still preserved in the Museo dell'
See also:Opera del Duomo, Florence .
(Plate VI. fig . 18) . It represents scenes from the story ofTristan, agreeing in the
See also:main part with the novella entitled " La Tavola Rotonda o 1'istoria di Tristano." The
See also:quilt dates from the end of the 14th century . Many pattern-books for embroidery and
See also:lace were published in Italy in the 16th and 17th centuries.' In the greater part of the
See also:Spanish peninsula art was for many centuries dominated by the
See also:Arabs, who overran the country in the 8th century, and were not finally subdued until the end of the 15th . Hispano-Moorish embroideries of the medieval period usually have interlacing patterns combined with Arabic inscriptions . In the 15th and 16th centuries Italian influence becomes evident . Later the effects of the Spanish conquests in
See also:Asia are seen . Eastern influence is, however, stronger in the case of the Portuguese, who seized
See also:Goa, on the west
See also:coast of the
See also:Indian peninsula, early in the 16th century, and during the whole of that century held the
See also:monopoly of the eastern
See also:trade . Many large embroideries were produced in the Indies, showing eastern floral patterns mingled with representations of Europeans,
See also:ships and coats of arms . Embroideries done in
See also:Portugal in the 16th and 17th centuries strongly reflect the influence of oriental patterns . German embroidery of the 12th and 13th centuries adheres closely to the traditions of Byzantine art . A peculiarity of much medieval German work is a tendency to treat the draperies of the figures as
See also:flat surfaces to be covered with diaper patterns, showing no folds .
A cope from
See also:Hildesheim cathedral, now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, is a typical
See also:illustration of such work, dating from the end of the 13th century . It is embroidered in silk upon linen with the martyrdom of apostles and saints . Other specimens of embroidery in this manner may be seen at
See also:Halberstadt . An altar-frontal from Rupertsburg (
See also:Bingen), belonging to the earlier years of the 13th century, is now in the Brussels museum . It is of purple silk, embroidered with Christ in
See also:majesty and figures of saints . It was no doubt made in the time of Siegfried, archbishop of
See also:Mainz (1201-1230), who is represented upon it . A type of medieval German embroidery is done in
See also:white linen thread on a loose linen ground—a sort of darning-work (Plate II. fig. ro) . Earlier specimens of this work are often diversified by using a variety of stitches tending to
See also:form diaper patterns . The use of long scrolling bands with inscriptions explaining the subjects represented is more usual in German work than in that of any other country . In the 15th century much fine embroidery was•produced in the neighbourhood of Cologne . Later German work shows a preference for bold floral patterns, sometimes mingled with
See also:heraldry; the larger examples are often worked in wool on a woollen cloth ground (Plate II. fig . 8) .
The embroidery of the
See also:northern nations (Denmark, Scandinavia,
See also:Iceland) was later in development than that of the southern peoples . Figure subjects evidently belonging to as late a period as the 17th century are still disposed in formal rows of circles, and accompanied by primitive ornamental forms (Plate III. fig . 12) . A remarkable early embroidered fabric covers the relics of St Knud (Canute, king of Denmark, 1o8o-ro86) in his
See also:shrine in the church dedicated to him at
See also:Odense . It is apparently contemporary work . The pattern consists of displayed eagles within oval compartments, in blue on a red ground . In
See also:Greece and the islands of the eastern Mediterranean embroidery has been much employed for the decoration of costumes, portieres and
See also:bed-curtains . Large numbers have been acquired in Crete (Plate IV. fig . 16), and patterns of a distinctive character are also found in Rhodes, Cos,
See also:Patmos and other islands . Some examples show traces of the influence of the Venetian trading settlements in the
See also:archipelago in the 16th and 17th centuries . Among the
See also:Turks a great development of the arts followed upon the conquest of Asia Minor and the Byzantine territory in Europe . Their embroideries show a 1Others, sometimes with the same illustrations, appeared in France and Germany, and no doubt forwarded the general tendency towards Italian models at the time .
A few pattern-books were also published in England.preference for floral forms—chiefly
See also:roses, tulips, carnations and hyacinths—which are treated with great decorative skill . The use of embroidery in Asia—especially in India,
See also:China, Turkestan and Persia—dates back to very early times . The conservatism of all these peoples renders the date of surviving examples often difficult to establish, but the greater number of such embroideries now to be seen in Europe are certainly of no great age . India has produced vast quantities of embroideries of varying excellence . The fine woollen shawls of
See also:Kashmir are widely famed; their first production is supposed to date back to a remote period . The somewhat
See also:gaudy effect of many Indian embroideries is at times intensified by the addition of beetles' wings, tinsel or fragments of looking-
See also:glass . China is the
See also:original home of the silkworm, and the textile arts there reached an advanced stage at a date long before that of any equally skilful work in Europe . Embroideries worked there are generally in silk threads on a ground of the same material . Such work is largely used for various articles of costume, and for coverlets, screens, banners,
See also:chair-covers and table-hangings . The ornaments upon the robes especially are prescribed according to the
See also:rank of the wearer . The designs include elaborate landscapes with buildings and figures, dragons, birds, animals, symbolic devices, and especially flowers (Plate III. fig . 1I) .
Dr Bushell states that the stuff to be embroidered is first stretched upon.a
See also:frame, on pivots, and that pattern-books with woodcuts have been published for the workers' guidance . A kind of embroidery exported in large quantities from
See also:Canton to Europe rivals painting in the variety and gradation of its colours, and in the smoothness and regularity of its
See also:surface . Embroidery in
See also:Japan resembles in many ways that of China, the country which probably supplied its first models . As a general rule,
See also:Japanese work is more pictorial and fanciful than that of China, and the stitching is looser . It frequently happens that the
See also:brush has been used to add to the variety of the embroidered work, and in other cases the needle has been an
See also:accessory upon a fabric already ornamented with printing or painting . Japanese work is characterized generally by bold and broad treatment, and especial skill is shown in the representation of landscapes—figures, rocks, waterfalls, animals, birds, trees, flowers and clouds being each rendered by a few lines . More elaborate are the large temple hangings, the pattern being frequently thrown into relief, and completely covering the ground material . Embroidery in
See also:Persia has been used to a great extent for the decoration of carpets, for prayer or for use at the bath (Plate V. fig . 17) . Robes, hangings, curtains, tablecovers and portieres are also embroidered . A preference is shown for floral patterns, but the Mahommedans of Persia had no scruples about introducing the forms of men and animals—the former engaged in hawking or
See also:hunting, or feasting in gardens . Panels embroidered with close diagonal bands of flowers were made into loose
See also:trousers for women, now obsolete .
The embroidered shawls ofKerman are widely celebrated . Hangings and covers of cloth patchwork have been embroidered in many parts of Persia, more particularly at
See also:Resht and Ispahan . In Turkestan, and especially at
See also:Bokhara, excellent embroideries have been, and are, produced, some patterns being of a bold floral type, and others conventionalized into hooked and serrated outlines . The work is most usually in bright-coloured silks, red predominating, on a linen material . In
See also:North Africa the embroidery of
See also:Morocco and Algeria deserves notice; the former inclines more to geometrical forms and the latter to patterns of a floral character .
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