ENCYCLOPAEDIA . The Greeks seem to have understood by encyclopaedia (i'yKvKXovraLSeia, or E')(KUK)LOS irauusia) in- struction in the whole circle (iv KvKXO or
See also:system of learning—education in arts and sciences . Thus Pliny, in the preface to his Natural
See also:History, says that his
See also:book treated of all the subjects of the encyclopaedia of the Greeks, " Jam omnia attingenda quae Graeci 'Tis iyKvsXo1ra15eias vocant." Quintilian (Inst . Orat. i. ro) directs that before boys are placed under the rhetorician they should be instructed in the other arts, " ut efficiatur orbis ille doctrinae quam Graeci iyKvKhoaa1Seiav vocant." Galen (De victus ratione in morbis acutis, c . I1) speaks of those who are not educated iv T?j EyKVKXoiraLSeia . In these passages of Pliny and Quintilian, however, from one or both of which the
See also:modern use of the word seems to have been taken, EyKUKXLOS ircu&La is now read, and this seems to have been the usual expression .
See also:Vitruvius (
See also:lib. vi. praef.) calls the encyclios or EyKUKXLOS rai&eia of the Greeks "doctrinarum omnium disciplina," instruction in all branches of learning .
See also:Strabo (lib. iv. cap . 1o) speaks of philosophy Kai Ti)v aXX17v irau&eiav Ey,UKALOV .
See also:Tzetzes (Chiliades, xi . 527), quoting from Porphyry's Lives of the Philosophers, says that EyKUaLa µaOi7paTa was the circle of grammar, rhetoric, philosophy and the four arts under it, arithmetic,
See also:geometry and astronomy .
See also:Zonaras explains it as grammar,
See also:poetry, rhetoric, philosophy,
See also:mathematics and simply every
See also:art and science (a rXwr ar&ra TEXv17 Kai E1rLar?77Lf), because sophists go through them as through a circle .
Theidea seems to be a complete course of instruction in all parts of knowledge . An epic poem was called cyclic when it contained the whole
See also:mythology; and among physicians KuKXy Osparsbecv, cyclo curare (
See also:Vegetius, De arte veterinaria, ii . 5, 6), meant a cure effected by a
See also:regular and prescribed course of
See also:diet and
See also:medicine (see Wower, De polymathia, c . 24, § 14) . The word encyclopaedia was probably first used in
See also:English by
See also:Elyot . " In an oratour is required to be a heape of all maner of lernyng: whiche of some is called the worlde of science, of other the circle of
See also:doctrine, whiche is in one worde of greke Encyclopedia " (The Governour, bk. i.
See also:chap. xiii.) . In his Latin
See also:dictionary, 1538, he explains " Encyclios et Encyclia, the cykle or course of all doctrines," and " Encyclopedia, that lernynge whiche comprehendeth all lyberall science and studies." The
See also:term does not seem to have been used as the title of a book by the ancients or in the
See also:middle ages . The edition of the
See also:works of Joachimus Fortius Ringelbergius, printed at
See also:Basel in 1541, is called on the title-page Lucubrationes vel polius absolutissima KvKXo7rat&eca . Paulus Scalichius de Lika, an Hungarian count, wrote Encyclopaediae seu orbis disciplinarum epistemon (Basileae, 1599, 4to) .
See also:Alsted published in 16o8 Encyclopaedia cursus philosophici, and afterwards
See also:expanded this into his
See also:work, noticed below, calling it without any
See also:limitation Encyclopaedia, because it treats of everything that can be learned by man in this
See also:life . This is now the most usual sense in which the word encyclopaedia is used—a book treating of all the various kinds of knowledge . The
See also:form "cyclopaedia " is not merely without any appearance of classical authority, but is etymologically less definite, complete and correct .
For as Cyropaedia means " the instruction ofCyrus," so cyclopaedia may mean " instruction of a circle." Vossius says, " Cyclopaedia is some-times found, but the best writers say encyclopaedia " (De vitiis sermonis, 1645, p . 402) . Gesner says, " KUKXOS est circulus, quae figura est simplicissima et perfectissima simul: nam incipi potest ubicunque in ilia et ubicunque cohaeret . Cyclopaedia itaque significat omnem doctrinarum scientiam inter se cohaerere; Encyclopaedia est institutio in illo circulo." (Isagoge, 1774, i . 40) . In a more restricted sense, encyclopaedia means a system or
See also:classification of the various branches of knowledge, a subject on which many books have been published, especially in Germany, as Schmid's Allgemeine Encyklopadie and Methodologie der Wissenschaften (
See also:Jena, 181o, 4to, 241 pages) . In this sense the Novum Organum of
See also:Bacon has often been called an encyclopaedia . But it is " a grammar only of the sciences: a cyclopaedia is not a grammar, but a dictionary; and to confuse the meanings of grammar and dictionary is to lose the benefit of a distinction which it is fortunate that terms have been coined to convey " (Quarterly Review, cxiii . 354) . Fortunius Licetus, an
See also:Italian physician, entitled several of his
See also:dissertations on
See also:Roman altars and other antiquities encyclopaedias (as, for instance, Encyclopaedia ad .
See also:Aram mysticam Nonarii, Pataviae, 1631, 4to), because in composing them he borrowed the aid of all the sciences . The Encyclopaedia moralis of
See also:Marcellinus de Pise (
See also:Paris, 1646, fol., 4 vols.) is a series of sermons .
Encyclopaedia is often used to mean a book which is, or professes to be, a complete or very full collection or
See also:relating to some particular subject, as
See also:Blaine's work, The Encyclopaedia of Rural Sports (
See also:London, 1852) ; The Encyclopaedia of Wit (London, 18(33); The Vocal Encyclopaedia (London, 1807, 16mo), a collection of songs, catches, &c . The word is frequently used ,for an alphabetical dictionary treating fully of some science or subject, as
See also:Murray, Encyclopaedia of Geography (London, 1834); Lefebvre Laboulaye, Encyclopedie technologique: Dictionnaire
See also:des arts et manufactures (Paris, 1845–1847) . Whether under the name of " dictionary " or " encyclopaedia " large numbers of this class of reference-work have been published . These are essentially encyclopaedic, being subject books and not word-books . The important books of this character are referred to in the articles dealing with the respective subjects, but the following may be mentioned here: the Jewish Encyclopedia, in 12 vols . (1901), a descriptive record of the history, religion, literature and customs of the Jewish
See also:people from the earliest times; the Encyclopaedia of
See also:Sport, 2 vols . (1897–1898); Holtzendorff's Encyklopadie der Rechtswissenschaft (187o; an edition in 2 vols., 1904); the Dictionary of
See also:Economy, edited by R . H . Inglis Palgrave, 3 vols . (1894; reprinted 1901); the Encyclopaedia Biblica, edited by T . K .
See also:Cheyne and J .
See also:Sutherland Black, 4 vols . (1899–1903); the Dictionary of the Bible, edited by
See also:James Hastings, 4 vols., with a supplementary
See also:volume (1904); an interesting series is the Repertoire general du commerce, dealing with the
See also:trade of France, of which one
See also:part, the Encyclopaedia of Trade between the
See also:United States of
See also:America and France, with a preface by M .
See also:Gabriel Hanotaux, appeared, in French and English, in 1904 . The great
See also:Chinese encyclopaedias are referred to in the article on CHINESE LITERATURE . It will be sufficient to mention here the Wen hien t'ung k'ao, compiled by Ma Twa-lin in the 14th century, the encyclopaedia ordered to be compiled by the Emperor Yung-loh in the 15th century, and the Ku
See also:Kin t'u situ thi ch`eeng prepared for the Emperor K'ang-hi (d . 1721), in 5020 volumes . A copy of this enormous work, bound in some 700 'volumes, is in the
See also:British Museum . The most
See also:ancient encyclopaedia extant is Pliny's Natural History in 37 books (including the preface) and 2493 chapters, which may be thus described generally: book 1, preface; book 2, cosmography, astronomy and meteorology; books 3 to 6, geography; books 7 to 11, zoology, including man, and the invention of the arts; books 12 to 19, botany; books 20 to 32, medicines,
See also:vegetable and animal remedies, medical authors and magic; books 33 to 37, metals,
See also:fine arts,
See also:mineralogy and
See also:mineral remedies . Pliny, who died A.D . 79, was not a naturalist, a physician or an artist, and collected his work in his leisure intervals while engaged in public affairs . He says it contains 20,000 facts (too small a number by
See also:half, says Lemaire), collected from 2000 books by too authors .
See also:Hardouin has given a
See also:list Of 464 authors quoted by him .
His work was a very high authority in the middle ages, and 43
See also:editions of it were printed before 1536 . Martianus Minneus Felix
See also:Capella, an
See also:African, wrote (early in the 5th cent.), in
See also:verse and
See also:prose, a sort of encyclopaedia, which is important from having been regarded in the middle ages as a
See also:model storehouse of learning, and used in the
See also:schools, where the scholars had to learn the verses by heart, as a text-book of high-class
See also:education in the arts . It is sometimes entitled Satyra, or Satyricon, but is usually known as De nuptiis Philologiae et Mercurii, though this title is sometimes confined to the first two books, a rather confused allegory ending with the
See also:apotheosis of Philologia and the celebration of her
See also:marriage in the milky way, where
See also:Apollo presents to her the seven liberal arts, who, in the succeeding seven books, describe their respective branches of knowledge, namely, grammar, dialectics (divided into
See also:meta-physics and logic), rhetoric, geometry (geography, with some single geometrical propositions), arithmetic (chiefly the properties of numbers), astronomy and music (including poetry) . The
See also:style is that of an African of the 5th century, full of grandiloquence, metaphors and
See also:strange words . He seldom mentions his authorities, and sometimes quotes authors whom he does not even seem to have read . His work was frequently copied in the middle ages by ignorant transcribers, and was eight times printed from 1499 to 1599 . The best annotated edition is by Kopp (
See also:Frankfort, 1836, 4to), and the most convenient and the best text is that of Eysserhardt (Lipsiae, 1866, 8vo) . Isidore,
See also:bishop of Seville from 600 to 63o, wrote Etymologiarum libri XX . (often also entitled his Origines) at the
See also:request of his friend Braulio, bishop of Saragossa, who after Isidore's
See also:death divided the work into books, as it was
See also:left unfinished, and divided only into titles . The tenth book is an
See also:alphabet of 625 Latin words, not belonging to his other subjects, with their explanations as known to him, and often with their etymologies, frequently very ,absurd . The other books contain 448 chapters, and are:—1, grammar (Latin); 2, rhetoric and dialectics; 3, the four mathematical disciplines—arithmetic, geometry, music and astronomy; 4, medicine;
See also:laws and times (chronology), with a
See also:chronicle ending in 627; 6, ecclesiastical books and offices; 7,
See also:God, angels and the orders of the faithful; 8, the
See also:church and sects; 9,
See also:languages, society and relationships; If, man and portents; 12, animals, in eight classes, namely, pecora et jumenta, beasts, small animals (including
See also:spiders, crickets and ants), serpents,
See also:worms, fishes, birds and small winged creatures, chiefly
See also:insects; 13, the
See also:world and its parts; 14, the
See also:earth and its parts, containing chapters on
See also:Europe and
See also:Libya, that is, Africa; 15, buildings,
See also:fields and their
See also:measures; 16, stones (of which one is
See also:echo) and metals; 17, de
See also:rebus rusticis; 18, war and
See also:games; 19,
See also:ships, buildings and garments; 20, provisions, domestic and rustic
See also:instruments . Isidore appears to have known
See also:Hebrew and Greek, and to have been
See also:familiar with the Latin classical poets, but he is a mere
See also:collector, and his derivations given all through the work are not unfrequently absurd, and, unless when very obvious, will not bear
See also:criticism .
He seldom mentions his authorities except when he quotes the poets or historians . Yet his work was a great one for the
See also:time, and for many centuries was a much valued authority and a
See also:rich source of material for other works, and he had a high reputation for learning both in his own time and in subsequent ages . His Etymologies were often imitated, quoted and copied .
See also:MSS. are very numerous:, Antonio (whose editor, Bayer, saw nearly 40) says, " plures passimque reperiuntur in bibliothecarum angulis." This work was printed nine times before 1529 . Hrabanus Maurus, whose
See also:family name was Magnentius, wa educated in the abbey of
See also:Fulda, ordained deacon in 8o2 (" Annales Francorum " in Bouquet, Historiens de la France, v . 66), sent to the school of St
See also:Martin of
See also:Tours, then directed by
See also:Alcuin, where he seems to have learned Greek, and is said by
See also:Trithemius to have been taught Hebrew,
See also:Syriac and
See also:Chaldee by
See also:Theophilus an Ephesian . In his Commentaries on
See also:Joshua (lib. ii. c . 5) he speaks of having resided at Sidon . He returned to Fulda and taught the school there . He became
See also:abbot of Fulda in 822, resigned in
See also:April 842, was ordained archbishop of
See also:Mainz on the 26th of
See also:July 847, and died on the 4th of
See also:February 856 . He compiled an encyclopaedia De universo (also called in some MSS . De universali natura, De natura rerum, and De origine rerum) in 22 books and 325 chapters .
It is chiefly a rearrangement of Isidore's Etymologies, omitting the first four books, half of the fifth and the tenth (the seven liberal arts,
See also:law, medicine and the alphabet of words), and copying the
See also:rest, beginning with the seventh book, verbally, though with great omissions, and adding (according to Ritter, Geschichte der Philosophie, vii . 193, from Alcuin, Augustine or some other accessible source) the meanings given in the Bible to the subject
See also:matter of the
See also:chapter; while things not mentioned in Scripture, especially such as belong to classical antiquity, are omitted, so that his work seems to be formed of two alternating parts . His arrangement of beginning with God and the angels long prevailed in methodical encyclopaedias . His last six books follow very closely the
See also:order of the last five of Isidore, from which they are taken . His omissions are characteristic of the diminished
See also:literary activity and more contracted knowledge of his time . His work was presented to
See also:Louis the German,
See also:king of
See also:Bavaria, at
See also:Hersfeld in
See also:October 847, and was printed in 1473, fol., probably at Venice, and again at Strassburg by Mentelin about 1472-1475, fol., 334 pages . Michael
See also:Psellus, the younger, wrote & ao-KaXla 1rav-robairii, dedicated to the emperor Michael Ducas, who reigned 1071-1078 . It was printed by
See also:Fabricius in his Bibliotheca Graeca (1712), vol . V., in 186 pages 4to and 193 chapters, each containing a question and answer . Beginning with divinity, it goes. on through natural history and astronomy, and ends with chapters on excessive
See also:hunger, and why flesh hung from a fig-
See also:tree becomes
See also:tender . As collation with a
See also:Turin MS. showed that 35 chapters were wanting, Harles has omitted the text in his edition of Fabricius, and gives only the titles of the chapters (x . 84-88) .
The author of the most famous encyclopaedia of the middle ages wasVincent (q.v.) of
See also:Beauvais (c . 1190- c.1264), whose work Bibliotheca mundi or
See also:Speculum majus—divided, as we have it, into four parts, Speculum naturale, Speculum doctrinale, Speculum morale (this part should be ascribed to a later
See also:hand), and Speculum historiale—was the great compendium of
See also:mid-13th century knowledge . Vincent of Beauvais preserved several works of the middle ages and gives extracts from many lost
See also:classics and valuable readings of others, and did more than any other
See also:medieval writer to awaken a taste for classical literature . Fabricius (Bibl . Graeca, 1728, xiv. pp . 107-125) has given a list of 328 authors, Hebrew, Arabic; Greek and Latin, quoted in the Speculum naturale . To these should be added about
See also:loo more for the doctrinale and historiale . As Vincent did not know Greek or Arabic, he used Latin
See also:translations . This work is dealt with separately in the article on VINCENT OF BEAUVAIS . Brunetto
See also:Latini of Florence (
See also:born 1230, died 1294), the
See also:master of
See also:Dante and Guido
See also:Cavalcanti, while an
See also:exile in France between 126o and 1267, wrote in French Li Livres dou Tresor, in 3 books and 413 chapters . Book i. contains the origin of the world, the history of the Bible and of the foundation of governments, astronomy, geography, and lastly natural history, taken from Aristotle, Pliny, and the old French Bestiaries . The first part of Book ii.,' on morality, is from the Ethics of Aristotle, which Brunetto had translated into Italian .
The second part is little more than a copy of the well-known collection of extracts from ancient and modern moralists, called the Moralities of the Philosophers, of which there are many MSS. in prose and verse . Book iii., on politics, begins with a treatise on rhetoric, chiefly from
See also:Cicero De inventione, with many extracts from other writers and Brunetto's remarks . The last part, the most
See also:original and interesting of all, treats of the
See also:government of the Italian republics of the time . Like many of his contemporaries, Brunetto revised his work, so that there are two editions, the second made after his return from exile . MSS. are singularly numerous, and exist in all the dialects then used in France .. Others were written in Italy . It was translated into Italian in the latter part of the 13th century by Bono Giamboni, and was printed at Trevigi, 1474, fol., Venice, 1528 and 1J33 . The Tesoro of Brunetto must not be confounded with his Tesoretto, an Italian poem of 2937 short lines .
See also:Napoleon I. had intended to have the French text of the Tesoro printed with commentaries, and appointed a commission for the purpose . It was at last published in the Collectiondes documents inedits (Paris, 1863, 4to, 772 pages), edited by Chabaille from 42 MSS . Bartholomew de Glanville, an English Franciscan friar, wrote about 1360 a most popular work, De proprietatibus rerum, in 19 books and 1230 chapters . Book relates to God; 2, angels; 3, the soul; 4, the substance of the
See also:body; 5, anatomy; 6, ages; 7, diseases; 8, the heavens (astronomy and
See also:astrology); 9, time; to, matter and form; If, air; 12, birds (including insects, 38 names, Aquila to Vespertilio) ; 13,
See also:water (with fishes) ; 14, the earth (42 mountains, Ararath to Ziph) ; 15, provinces (171 countries, Asia to Zeugia); 16, precious stones (including
See also:coral, pearl,
See also:salt, 104 names,
See also:Arena to Zinguttes) ; 17, trees and herbs (197, Arbor to Zucarum); 18, animals (114,
See also:Aries to Vipera) ; 19,
See also:colours, scents, flavours and liquors, with a list of 36 eggs (Aspis to Vultur) .
Some editions add book 20, accidents of things, that is, numbers, measures, weights and sounds . The Paris edition of 1574 has a book on bees . There were 15 editions before 1500 . An English
See also:translation was completed 11th February 1398 by
See also:John Trevisa, and printed by Wynkyn de Worde,
See also:Westminster, 1495 ? fol.; London, 1533, fol.; and with considerable additions by
See also:Stephen Batman, a physician, London, 582, fol . It was translated into French by Jehan Corbichon at the command of
See also:Charles V. of France, and printed 14 times from 1482 to 1556 . A Dutch translation was printed in 1479, and again at
See also:Haarlem, 1485, fol.; and a
See also:Spanish translation by Padre Vincente de
See also:Burgos, Tholosa, 1494, fol .
See also:Pierre Bersuire (Berchorius), a
See also:prior of the abbey of St
See also:Eloi in Paris, where he died in 1362, wrote a kind of encyclopaedia, chiefly relating to divinity, in three parts:—Reductorium morale super tot am Bibliam, 428 moralitates in 34 books on the Bible from
See also:Genesis to Apocalypse; Reductorium morale de proprietatibus rerum, in 14 books and 958 chapters, a methodical encyclopaedia or system of nature on the plan of Bartholomew de Glanville, and chiefly taken from him(Berchorius places animals next after fishes in books 9 and ro, and adopts as natural classes volatilia, natatilia and gressibilia) ; Dictionarius, an alphabetical dictionary of 3514 words used in the Bible with moral expositions, occupying in the last edition 1558
See also:folio pages . The first part was printed 11 times from 1474 to 1515, and the third 4 times . The three parts were printed together as Petri Berchorii
See also:opera omnia (an incorrect title, for he wrote much besides), Moguntiae, 1609, fol., 3 vols., 2719 pages; Coloniae Agrippinae, 1631, fol., 3 vols.; ib . 1730-1731, fol., 6 vols., 2570 pages . A very popular small encyclopaedia,
See also:Margarita philosophica, in 12 books, divided into 26 tractates and 573 chapters, was written by Georg Reisch, a German, prior of the
See also:Carthusians of
See also:Freiburg, and
See also:confessor of the emperor Maximilian I . Books 1-7 treat of the seven liberal arts; 8, 9, principles and origin of natural things; 1o, 11, the soul, vegetative, sensitive and intellectual; 12, moral philosophy .
The first edition,
See also:Heidelberg, 1496, 4t0, was followed by 8 others to 1535 . An Italian translation by the astronomer Giovanno Paolo Gallucci was published at Venice in 1594, 1138 small
See also:quarto pages, of which 343 consist of additional tracts appended by the translator .
See also:Raphael Maffei, called Volaterranus, being a native of
See also:Volterra, where he was born in 1451 and died 5th
See also:January 1522, wrote
See also:Commentarii Urbani (Rome, 15o6, fol., in 38 books), so called because written at Rome . This encyclopaedia, printed eight times up to 1603, is remarkable for the great importance given to geography, and also to biography, a subject not included in previous encyclopaedias . Indeed, the book is formed of three nearly equal parts,—geographia, 11 books; anthropologia (biography), 11 books; and philologia, 15 books . The books are not divided into short chapters in the ancient manner, like those of its predecessors . The edition of 1603 contains 814 folio pages . The first book consists of the table of contents and a classed
See also:index; books 2-12, geography; 13-23, lives of illustrious men, the popes occupying book 22, and the emperors book 23; 24-27, animals and
See also:plants; 28, metals, gems, stones, houses and other inanimate things; 34, de scientiis cyclicis (grammar and rhetoric); 35, de scientiis mathematicis, arithmetic, geometry, optica, catoptrica, astronomy and astrology; 36-38, Aristotelica (on the works of Aristotle) . Giorgio Valla, born about 1430 at Placentia, and therefore called Placentinus, died at Venice in 1499 while lecturing on the immortality of the soul . Aldus published his work, edited by his son Giovanni Pietro Valla, De expetendis et fugiendis rebus, Venetiis, 1501, fol . 2 vols . It contains 49 books and 2119 chapters .
Book 1 is
See also:introductory, on knowledge, philosophy and mathematics, considered generally (he divides everything to be sought or avoided into three kinds—those which are in the mind, in the body by nature or
See also:habit, and thirdly,
See also:external, coming from without); books 2-4, arithmetic; 5-9, music; 10-15, geometry, including Euclid and mechanics—book 15 being in three long chapters—de spiritualibus, that is,
See also:pneumatics and hydraulics, de catoptricis, and de optice; 16-19, astrology (with the structure and use of the astrolabe); 20-23, physics (including
See also:metaphysics) ; 24-30, medicine; 31-34, grammar; 35-37, dialectics; 38, poetry; 39, 40, rhetoric; 41, moral philosophy; 42-44,
See also:economics; 45, politics; 46-48, de corporis cornmodis et incommodi"s, on the
See also:good and evil of the body (and soul); 49, de rebus externis, as
See also:glory, grandeur, &c . Antonio
See also:Zara, born 1574, made bishop of Petina in
See also:Istria 'Poo, finished on the, 17th of January 1614 a work published as Anatomia ingeniorum et scientiarum, Venetiis, 1615, 4to, 664 pages, in four sections and 54 membra . The first section, on the dignity and excellence of man, in 16 membra, considers him in all his bodily and
See also:mental aspects . The first membrum describes his structure and his soul, and in the latter part contains the author's preface, the deeds of his ancestors, an account of himself, and the dedication of his book to
See also:Ferdinand, archduke of
See also:Austria . Four membra treat of the
See also:discovery of character by chiromancy,
See also:physiognomy, dreams and astrology . The second section treats of 16 sciences of the imagination—writing, magic, poetry, oratory, courtiership (aulicitas), theoretical and mystic arithmetic, geometry, architecture,
See also:optics, cosmography, astrology,
See also:practical medicine, war, government . The third section treats of 8 sciences of intellect—logic, physics, meta-physics, theoretical medicine, ethics, practical
See also:jurisprudence, judicature, theoretical
See also:theology . The
See also:fourth section treats of 12 sciences of memory—grammar, practical arithmetic, human history, sacred canons, practical theology, sacred history, and lastly the creation and the final catastrophe . The book, now very rare, is well arranged, with a copious index, and is full of curious learning . Johann Heinrich Alsted, born 1588, died 1638, published Encyclopaedia septem tomis distincta, Herbornae Nassoviorum, 163o, fol . 7 vols., 2543 pages of very small type . It is in 35 books, divided into 7 classes, preceded by 48 synoptical tables of the whole, and followed by an index of 119 pages .
I . Praecognita disciplinarum, 4 books, hexilogia, technologia, archelogia, didactica, that is, on intellectual habits and on the classification, origin and study of the arts . II .
See also:Philology, 6 books, lexica, grammar, rhetoric, logic, oratory and poetry; book 5, lexica, contains dictionaries explained in Latin of 1076 Hebrew, 842 Syriac, 1934 Arabic, 1923 Greek and 2092 Latin words, and also nomenclator technologiae, &c., a classified vocabulary of terms used in the arts and sciences, in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, filling 34 pages; book 6 contains Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin and German grammars; book to, poetica, contains a list of 61 Rotwelsch words . III . Theoretic philosophy, io books:—book Ia, metaphysics; 12, pneumatics (on
See also:spirits); 13, physics; 14, arithmetic; 15, geometry; 16, cosmography; 17, uranometria (astronomy and astrology); 18, geography (with maps of the Old World, eastern Mediterranean, and
See also:Palestine under the Old and New Testaments, and a
See also:plate of Noah's
See also:ark); 19, optics; 20, music . IV . Practical philosophy, 4 books:—21, ethics; 22, economics (on relationships); 23, politics, with florilegium politicum, 119 pages of extracts from historians, philosophers and orators; 24, scholastics (on education, with a florilegium of 25 pages) . V . The three
See also:superior faculties :-25, theology; 26, jurisprudence; 27, medicine (ending with the rules of the Salernian school) . VI .
See also:Mechanical arts in general:—book 28, mathematical mechanical arts; book 29,
See also:agriculture, gardening, care of animals,
See also:brewing, preparing medicines, metallurgy (with
See also:mining) ; book 30,
See also:physical mechanical arts—printing, dialling, &c .
Under paedutica (games) is
See also:Vida's Latin poem on
See also:chess, and one by Leuschner on the ludus Lorzius . VII . Farragines disciplinarum, 5 books:—31,
See also:mnemonics; 32, history; 33, chronology; 34, architecture; 35, quodlibetica,
See also:miscellaneous arts, as magic, cabbala,
See also:alchemy, magnetism, &c., with others apparently distinguished and named by himself, as, paradoxologia, the art of explaining paradoxes; dipnosophistica, the art of philosophizingwhile feasting; cyclognomica, the art of conversing well de quovis scibili; tabacologia, the nature, use and abuse of
See also:tobacco, &c.—in all 35 articles in this book . Alsted's encyclopaedia was received with very great applause, and was highly valued . Lami (Entretiens, 1684, p . 188) thought it almost the only encyclopaedia which did not deserve to be despised . Alsted's learning was very various, and his
See also:reading was very extensive and diversified . He gives few references, and
See also:Thomasius charges him with
See also:plagiarism, as he often copies literally without any
See also:acknowledgment . He wrote not long before the appearance of encyclopaedias in modern languages superseded his own and other Latin books, and but a short time before the alphabetical arrangement began to prevail over the methodical . His book was reprinted, Lugduni, 1649, fol . 4 vols., 2608 pages .
See also:Jean de 1VIagnon, historiographer to the king of France, undertook to write an encyclopaedia in French heroic verse, which was to fill ten volumes of 20,000 lines each, and to render
See also:libraries merely a useless
See also:ornament .
But he did not live to finish it, as he was killed at
See also:night by robbers on the Pont Neuf in Paris, in April 1662 . The part he left was printed as La Science universelle, Paris, 1663, fol., 348 pages,—,o books containing about 11,000 lines . They begin with the nature of God, and end with the history of the fall of man . His verses, say Chaudon and Delandine, are perhaps the most nerveless, incorrect, obscure and
See also:flat in French poetry; yet the author had been the friend of
See also:Moliere, and had acted with him in
See also:comedy . Louis Moreri(born on the 25th of
See also:March 1643 at Bargemont, in the
See also:diocese of
See also:Frejus, died on the loth of July 168o at Paris) wrote a dictionary of history, genealogy and biography, Le'
See also:Grand Dictionnaire historique, ou le melange curieux de l'histoire sacree et profane,
See also:Lyons, 1674, fol . He began a second edition on a larger scale, published at Lyons in 1681, in two volumes folio; the
See also:sixth edition was edited by Jean le Clerc, Amsterdam, 1691, fol . 4 vols.; the twentieth and last edition, Paris, 1759, fol . 10 vols . Moreri's dictionary, 'still very useful, was of great value and importance, although not the first of the kind . It superseded the very inferior compilation of Juigne-Broissinere, Dictionnaire theologique, historique, poetique, cosmographique, et chronologique, Paris, 1644, 4to;
See also:Rouen, 1668, &c.,—a translation, with additions, of the Dictionarium historicum, geographicum, et poeticism of Charles
See also:Estienne, published in 1553, 4to, and often afterwards . As such a work was much wanted, Juigne's book went through twelve editions in less than
See also:thirty years, notwithstanding its want of criticism, errors, anachronisms, defects and inferior style . Johann Jacob
See also:Hofmann (born on the 11th of
See also:September 1635, died on the loth of March 1706), son of a schoolmaster at Basel, which he is said never to have left, and where he was
See also:professor of Greek and History, wrote
See also:Lexicon universale historicogeographico - chronologico - poetico - philologicum, Basileae, 1677, fol .
2 vols., 1823 pages, a dictionary of history, biography, geography, genealogies of princely families, chronology, mythology and philology . At the end is Nomenclator MLEo7'AWTTOS, an index of names of places, people, &c., in many languages, care-fully collected, and explained in Latin, filling fro pages; with an index of subjects not forming
See also:separate articles, occupying 34 pages . In 1683 he published a continuation in 2 vols. fol., 2293 pages, containing, besides additions to the subjects given in his lexicon, the history of animals, plants, stones, metals, elements, stars, and especially of man and his affairs, arts, - honours, laws, magic, music,
See also:rites and a vast number of other subjects . In 1698 he published a second edition, Lugduni Batavorum, fol . 4 vols., 3742 pages, incorporating the continuation with additions . From the great extent of his plan, many articles, especially in history, are superficial and faulty . Etienne
See also:Chauvin was born at Nismes on the 18th of April 164o . He fled to
See also:Rotterdam on the revocation of the edict of Nantes, and in 1688 supplied
See also:Bayle's place in his lectures on philosophy . In 1695 he was invited by the elector of
See also:Brandenburg to go as professor of philosophy to Berlin, where he became the representative of the Cartesian philosophy, and died on the 6th of April 1725 . He wrote Lexicon rationale, sive
See also:thesaurus philosophicus ordine alphabetico digestus, Rotterdami, 1692, fol., 746 pages and 30 plates . An improved and enlarged edition was printed as Lexicon philosophicum secundis curis, Leovardiae, 1713, large folio, 725 pages and 30 plates . This great work may be considered as a dictionary of the Cartesian philosophy, and was very much used by
See also:Brucker and other earlier historians of philosophy .
It is written in a very dry and scholastic style, and seldom names authorities . The great dictionary of French, begun by the FrenchAcademy on the 7th of February 1639, excluded all words especially belonging to science and the arts . But the success of the
See also:rival dictionary of Furetiere, which, as its title-page, as well as that of the Essais published in 1684, conspicuously announced, professed to give "
See also:les termes de toutes les Sciences et des Arts," induced Thomas Corneille, a member of the Academy, to compile Le Dictionnaire des arts et des sciences, which the Academy published with the first edition of their dictionary, Paris, 1694, folio, as a supplement in two volumes containing 1236 pages . It was reprinted at Amsterdam, 1696, fol . 2 vols., and at Paris in 1720, and again in 1732, revised by Fontenelle . A long series of dictionaries of arts and sciences have followed Corneille in placing in their titles the arts before the sciences, which he probably did merely in order to differ from Furetiere . Corneille professed to quote no author whom he had not consulted; to take plants from Dioscorides and Matthiolus, medicine from Ettmuller, chemistry from a MS. of
See also:Perrault, and architecture,
See also:painting and sculpture from Felibien; and to give an abridged history of animals, birds and fishes, and an account of all religious and military orders and their statutes, heresiarchs and heresies, and dignities and charges ancient and modern . Pierre Bayle (born on the 18th of
See also:November 1647, died on the 28th of
See also:December 1706) wrote a very important and valuable work, Dictionnaire historique et critique, Rotterdam, 1697, fol . 2 vols . His design was to make a dictionary of the errors and omissions of Moreri and others, but he was much embarrassed by the numerous editions and supplements of Moreri . A second edition with an additional volume appeared at Amsterdam in 1702, fol . 3 vols .
The fourth edition, Rotterdam, 1720, fol . 4 vols., was much enlarged from his
See also:manuscripts, and was edited by Prosper Marchand . It contains 3132 pages besides tables, &c . The ninth edition was published at Basel; 1741, fol. so vols . It was translated into English from the second edition, London, 1709, fol . 4 vols., with some slight additions and corrections by the author; and again from the fifth edition of 1730 by Birch and Lockman, London, 1734-1740, fol . 5 vols . J . G. de Chaufepie published Nouveau Dictionnaire historique, Amsterdam, 1750-1756, fol . 4 vols., as a supplement to Bayle . It chiefly consists of the articles added by the English translators with many corrections and additions, and about 500 new articles added by himself, and contains in all about 1400articles . Prosper Marchand, editor of the fourth edition, left at his death on the 14th of January 1756 materials for a supplementary Dictionnaire historique, La Haye, 1758, fol .
2 vols., 891 pages, 136 articles . It had occupied his leisure moments for
See also:forty years . Much of his work was written on small scraps of paper, sometimes 20 in half a page and no larger than a
See also:nail, in such small characters that not only the editor but the printer had to use powerful magnifiers . Bayle's dictionary was also translated into German,
See also:Leipzig, 1741-1744, fol . 4 vols., with a preface by J . C . Gottsched . It is still a work of great importance and value . Vincenzo Maria Coronelli, a Franciscan friar, who was born in Venice about r65o, made cosmographer to the republic in 1685, became general of his order in 1702, and was found dead at his study table on the 9th of December 1718, began in 1701 to publish a general alphabetical encyclopaedia, written in Italian, at which he had been working for thirty years, Biblioteca universale sacro-profana . It was to explain more than 300,000 words, to include history and biography as well as all other subjects, and to extend to 45 volumes folio . Volumes 1-39 were to contain the dictionary A to Z; 40, 41, the supplement; 42, retractations and corrections; 43, universal index; 44,index divided into matters; 45, index in various languages . But seven volumes only were published, Venezia, 1701-1706, fol., 5609 pages, A to Caque .
The first six volumes have each an index of from 28 to 48 pages (in all 224 pages) of subjects, whether forming articles or incidental . The articles in each are numbered, and amount to 30,269 in the six volumes, which complete the
See also:letter B . On an
See also:average 3 pages contain 22 articles . Each volume is dedicated to a different patron—the
See also:pope, the
See also:doge, the king of Spain, &c . This work is remarkable for the extent and completeness of its plan, and for being the first great alphabetical encyclopaedia, as well as for being written in a modern language, but it was hastily written and very incorrect . Never, perhaps, says
See also:Tiraboschi (Storia della letteratura italiana, viii . 546), was there so
See also:quick a writer; he composed a folio volume as easily as others would a page, but he never perfected his works, and what we have of this book iyill not induce us to regret the want of the
See also:remainder . The first alphabetical encyclopaedia written in English was the work of a London clergyman, John
See also:Harris (born about 1667, elected first secretary of the Royal Society on the 3oth of November 1709, died on the 7th of September 1719), Lexicon technicum, or an universal English Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, London, 1704, fol., 1220 pages, 4 plates, with many diagrams and figures printed in the text . Like many subsequent English encyclopaedias the pages are not numbered . It professes not merely to explain the terms used in the arts and sciences, but the arts and sciences themselves . The author complains that he found much less help from previous dictionaries than one would suppose, that Chauvin is full of obsolete school terms, and Corneille gives only
See also:bare explanations of terms, which often relate only to
See also:simple ideas and
See also:common things . He omits theology, antiquity, biography and poetry; gives only technical history, geography and chronology; and in logic, metaphysics, ethics, grammar and rhetoric, merely explains the terms used .
In mathematics and anatomy he professes to be very full, but says that the catalogues and places of the stars are very imperfect, as
See also:Flamsteed refused to assist him . In botany he gave from Ray, Morrison and Tournefort " a
See also:pretty exact botanick lexicon, which was what we really wanted before," with an account of all the " kinds and subalternate
See also:species of plants, and their specific differences " on Ray's method . He gave a table of fossils from Dr Woodward, professor of medicine in Gresham
See also:College, and took great pains to describe the parts of a
See also:ship accurately and particularly, going often on
See also:board himself for the purpose . In law he abridged from the best writers what he thought necessary . He meant to have given at the end an alphabet for each art and science, and some more plates of anatomy and ships, but the undertaker could not afford it at the price." A review of his work, extending to the unusual length of four pages, appeared in the Philosophical Transactions, 1704, p . 1699 . This volume was reprinted in 1708 . A second volume of 1419 pages and 4 plates appeared in 1710, with a list of about 1300 subscribers . Great part of it consisted of mathematical and astronomical tables, as he intended his work to serve as a small mathematical library . He was allowed by Sir Isaac
See also:Newton to
See also:print his treatise on acids . He gives a table of logarithms to seven figures of decimals (44 pages), and one of sines, tangents and secants (12o pages), a list of books filling two pages, and an index of the articles in both volumes under 26 heads, filling 5o pages . The longest lists are law (1700 articles), chyrurgery, anatomy, geometry, fortification, botany and music .
The mathematical and physical part is considered very able . H'e often mentions his authorities, and gives lists of books on particular subjects, as botany and chronology . His dictionary was long very popular . The fifth edition was published in 1736, fol . 2 vols . A supplement, including no new subjects, appeared in 1744, London, fol., 996 pages, 6 plates . It was intended to rival
See also:Chambers's work (see below), but, being considered a bookseller's
See also:speculation, was not well received . Johann Hubner, rector of the Johanneum in
See also:Hamburg, born on the 17th of March 1668, wrote prefaces to two dictionaries written in German, which
See also:bore his name, and were long popular . The first was Reales Skulls Zeitungs- and Conversations-Lexicon, Leipzig, 1704, 8vo; second edition, 1706, 947 pages; at the end a
See also:register of arms, and indexes of Latin and French words; fifth edition, 1711; fifteenth edition 1735, 1119 pages . The thirty-first edition was edited and enlarged by F . A . Ruder, and published by Brockhaus, Leipzig, 1824-1828, 8vo, 4 vols., 3088 pages .
It was translated into Hungarian by
See also:Fejer, Pesten, 1816, 8vo, 5 vols., 2958 pages . The second, published as a supplement, was Curieuses and reales Natur- Kunst-
See also:Berg- Gewerb- and Handlungs-Lexicon, Leipzig, 1712, 8vo, 788 pages, frequently reprinted to 1792 . The first relates to the political state of the world, as religion, orders, states,
See also:rivers, towns, castles, mountains, genealogy, war, ships; the second to nature, science, art and commerce . They were the work of many authors, of whom Paul Jacob Marpurger, a celebrated and voluminous writer on trade and commerce, born at
See also:Nuremberg on the 27th of
See also:June 1656, was an extensive contributor, and is the only one named by Hubner . Johann Theodor
See also:Jablonski, who was born at
See also:Danzig on the 15th of December 1654, appointed secretary to the newly founded Prussian Academy in 1700, when he went to Berlin, where he died on the 28th of April 1731, published Allgemeines Lexicon der Kiinste and Lissenschaften, Leipzig, 1721, 4to, a short but excellent encyclopaedia still valued in Germany . It does not include theology, history, geography, biography and genealogy . He not only names his authorities, but gives a list of their works . A new edition in 1748 was increased one-third to 1508 pages . An improved edition,
See also:Konigsberg and Leipzig, 1767, 4to, 2 vols., 1852 pages, was edited by J . J .
See also:Schwabe, public teacher of philosophy at Leipzig . Ephraim Chambers (q.v.) published his Cyclopaedia; or an Universal Dictionary of Art and Sciences,containing an Explication of the Terms and an Account of the Things Signified thereby in the several Arts, Liberal and Mechanical, and the several Sciences, Human and Divine, London, 1728, fol .
2 vols . The dedication to the king is dated October 15, 1727 . Chambers endeavoured to connect the scattered articles relating to each subject by a system of references, and to consider " the several matters, not only in themselves, but relatively, or as they respect each other; both to treat them as so many wholes and as so many parts of some greater whole." Under each article he refers to the subject to which it belongs, and also to its subordinate parts; thus
See also:Copyhold has a reference to Tenure, of which it is a particular kind, and other references to Rolls,
See also:Manor,Fine,Charterland and
See also:Freehold . In his preface he gives an " analysis of the divisions of knowledge," 47 in number, with classed lists of the articles belonging to each, intended to serve as table of contents and also as a rubric or
See also:directory indicating the order in which the articles should be read . But it does so very imperfectly, as the lists are curtailed by many et caeteras; thus 19 occur in a list of 119 articles under Anatomy, which has nearly 2200 articles in
See also:Rees's index . He omits etymologies unless " they appeared of some significance "; he gives only one grammatical form of each word, unless
See also:peculiar ideas are arbitrarily attached to different forms, as precipitate, precipitant, precipitation, when each has an article; and he omits complex ideas generally known, and thus " gets
See also:free of a vast load of plebeian words." His work, he says, is a collection, not the produce of one man's wit, for that would go but a little way, but of the whole common-
See also:wealth of learning . " Nobody that fell in my way has been spared, antient or modern, foreign nor domestic, Christian or
See also:Jew nor
See also:heathen." To the subjects given by Harris he adds theology, metaphysics, ethics, politics, logic, grammar, rhetoric and poetry, but excludes history, biography, genealogy, geography and chronology, except their technical parts . A second edition appeared in 1738, fol . 2 vols., 2466 pages, " re-touched and amended in a thousand places." A few articles are added and some others enlarged, but he was prevented from doing more because " the booksellers were alarmed with a
See also:bill in parliament containing a clause to oblige the publishers of all improved editions of books to print their improvements separately." The bill after passing the
See also:Commons was unex-pectedly thrown out by the Lords; but fearing that it might be revived, the booksellers thought it best to retreat though more than twenty sheets had been printed . Five other editions were published in London, 1739 to 1751-1752, besides one in
See also:Dublin, 1742, all in 2 vols. fol . An Italian translation, Venezia, 1748-1749, 4to, 9 vols., was the first complete Italian encyclopaedia . When Chambers was in France in 1739 he rejected very favourable proposals to publish an edition there dedicated to Louis XV .
His work was judiciously, honestly and carefully done, and long maintained its popularity . But it had many defects and omissions, as he was well aware; and at his death, on the 15th of May 1740, he had collected and arranged materials for seven new volumes . John
See also:Scott was employed by the booksellers to select such articles as were
See also:fit for the
See also:press and to supply others . He is said to have done this very efficiently until appointed sub-
See also:preceptor to the
See also:prince of
See also:Wales and Prince
See also:Edward . His task was entrusted to Dr (afterwards called Sir John)
See also:Hill, who performed it very hastily, and with characteristic carelessness and self-sufficiency, copying freely from his own writings . The Supplement was published in London, 1753, fol . 2 vols., 3307 pages and 12 plates . As Hill was a botanist, the botanical part, which had been very defective in the Cyclopaedia, was the best . Abraham Rees (1743-1825), a famous
See also:minister, published a revised and enlarged edition, " with the supplement and modern improvements incorporated in one alphabet," London, 1778-1788, fol . 2 vols., 5010 pages (but not paginated), 159 plates . It was published in 418 numbers at 6d. each . Rees says that he has added more than 4400 new articles .
At the end he gives an index of articles, classed under loo heads, numbering about 57,000 and filling 8o pages . The heads, with 39
See also:cross references, are arranged alphabetically . Subsequently there were reprints . One of the largest and most comprehensive encyclopaedias was undertaken and in a great measure completed by Johann Heinrich Zedler, a bookseller of Leipzig, who was born at
See also:Breslau 7th January 1706, made a Prussian commerzienrath in 1731, and died at Leipzig in 1760,--Grosses vollstandiges Universal Lexicon Aller Wissenschaften and Kiinste welche bishero durch menschlichen Verstand and Wits erfunden and verbessert worden,
See also:Halle and Leipzig, 1732-1750, fol . 64 vols., 64,309 pages; and Nothige Supplemente, ib . 1751-1754, vols. i. to iv., A to Caq, 3016 pages . The columns, two in a page, are numbered, varying from 1356 in vol. li. to 2588 in vol. xlix . Each volume has a dedication, with a portrait . The first nine are the emperor, the
See also:kings of Prussia and Poland, the empress of Russia, and the kings of England, France, Poland, Denmark and Sweden . The dedications, of which two are in verse, and all are signed by Zedler, amount to 459 pages . The supplement has no dedications or portraits . The preface to the first volume of the work is by Johann
See also:Peter von Ludewig, chancellor of the university of Halle (born 15th
See also:August 169o, died 6th September 1743) .
Nine editors were employed, whom Ludewig compares to the ninemuses; and the whole of each subject was entrusted to the same
See also:person, that all its parts might be uniformly treated . Carl Gunther Ludovici (born at Leipzig 7th August 1707, public teacher of philosophy there from 1734, died 3rd July 1778) edited the work from vol. xix., beginning the letter M, and published in 1739, to the end, and also the supplement . The work was published by subscription . Johann Heinrich
See also:Wolff, an eminent
See also:merchant and shopkeeper in Leipzig, born there on the 29th of April 169o, came to Zedler's assistance by advancing the funds for expenses and becoming answerable for the subscriptions, and spared no cost that the work might be complete . Zedler very truly says, in his preface to vol. xviii., that his Universal Lexicon was a work such as no time and no nation could show, and both in its plan and execution it is much more comprehensive and complete than any previous encyclopaedia . Colleges, says Ludewig, where all sciences are taught and studied, are on that account called
See also:universities, and their teaching is called studium universals; but the Universal Lexicon contains not only what they teach in theology, jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy, history, mathematics, &c., but also many other things belonging to courts, chanceries,
See also:hunting, forests, war and peace, and to artists, artizans, housekeepers and merchants not thought of in colleges . Its plan embraces not only history, geography and biography, but also genealogy, topography, and from vol. xviii., published in 1738, lives of illustrious living persons . Zedler inquires why death alone should make a deserving man capable of having his services and worthy deeds made known to the world in print . The lives of the dead, he says, are to be found in books, but those of the living are not to be met with anywhere, and would often be more useful if known . In consequence of this preface, many lives and genealogies were sent to him for publication . Cross references generally give not only the article referred to, but also the volume and
See also:column, and, when necessary, such brief information as may distinguish the word referred to from others similar but of different meaning . Lists of authorities, often long, exact and valuable are frequently appended to the articles .
This work, which is well and carefully compiled, and very trustworthy, is still a most valuable book of reference on many subjects, especially topography, genealogy and biography . - The genealogies and family histories are excellent, and many particulars are given of the lives and works of authors not easily found elsewhere . A work on a new plan was published by
See also:Dennis de Coetlogon, a Frenchman naturalized in England, who styled himself " Knight of St Lazare, M.D., and member of the Royal Academy of
See also:Angers "—An Universal History of Arts and Sciences, London, 1745, fol . 2 vols., 2529 pages, 33 plates and 161 articles arranged alphabetically . He " endeavours to render each treatise as complete as possible, avoiding above all things needless repetitions, and never puzzling the reader with the least reference." Theology is divided into several
See also:treatises; Philosophy into Ethicks, Logick and Metaphysick, each under its letter; and Physick is subdivided into Anatomy, Botany, Geography, Geometry, &c . Military Art is divided into Army, Fortification, Gunnery . The royal licence is dated 13th March 1740-1741, the dedication is to the duke of
See also:Gisors, the pages are numbered, there is an appendix of 35 pages of astronomical tables, and the two indexes, one to each volume, fill 69 pages, and contain about 9000 subjects . The type is large and the style diffuse, but the subject matter is sometimes curious . The author says that his work is the only one of the kind, and that he wrote out with his own hand every
See also:line, even the index . But notwithstanding the novelty of his plan, his work does not seem ever to have been popular . Gianfrancesco Pivati, born at
See also:Padua in 1689, died at Venice in 1764, secretary of the Academy of Sciences at Venice, who had published in 1744 a 4to volume containing a Dizionario universals, wrote Nuovo dizionario scientifico e curioso sacroprofano, Venezia, 1746-1751, fol . 10 vols., 7791 pages, 597 plates .
It is a general encyclopaedia, including geography, but not history or biography . He gives frequent references to his authorities and much curious information . His preliminary discourse (8o pages) contains a history of the several sciences from mathematics to geography . The book was published by subscription, and at the end of the last volume is a Catalogo dei Signori Associati, 252 in number, who took 266 copies . It is also remarkable for the number of its plates, which are engraved oncopper . In each volume they are placed together at the end, and are preceded by an explanatory index of subjects referring to the plates and to the articles they illustrate . One of the greatest and most remarkable literary enterprises of the 18th century, the famous French Encyclopedie, originated in a French translation of Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia, begun in 1743 and finished in 1745 by John Mills, an Englishman
See also:resident in France, assisted by Gottfried Sellius, a very learned native of Danzig, who, after being a professor at Halle and
See also:Gottingen, and residing in
See also:Holland, had settled in Paris . They applied to Lebreton, the king's printer, to publish the work, to fulfil the formalities required by French law, with which, as foreigners, they were not acquainted, and to solicit a royal
See also:privilege . This he obtained, but in his own name alone . Millscomplained so loudly and bitterly of this deception that Lebreton had to acknowledge formally that the privilege belonged en toute propriele to John Mills . But, as he again took care not to acquaint Mills with the necessary legal formalities, this title soon became invalid . Mills then agreed to
See also:grant him part of his privilege, and in May 1745 the work was announced as Encyclopedie ou dictionnaire universel des arts et des sciences, folio, four volumes of 250 to 260 sheets each, with a fifth of at least 120 plates, and a vocabulary or list of articles in French, Latin, German, Italian and Spanish, with other lists for each language explained in French, so that foreigners might easily find any article wanted .
It was to be published by subscription at 135 livres, but for large paper copies 200 livres, the first volume to be delivered in June 1746, and the two last at the end of 1748 . The subscription list, which was considerable, closed on the 31st of December 1745 . Mills demanded an account, which Lebreton, who had again omitted certain formalities, insultingly refused . Mills brought an
See also:action against him, but before it was decided Lebreton procured the revocation of the privilege as informal, and obtained another for himself dated the 21st of January 1746 . Thus, for unwittingly contravening regulations with which his unscrupulous publisher ought to have made him acquainted, Mills was despoiled of the work he had both planned and executed, and had to return to England . Jean Paul de Gua de Malves, professor of philosophy in the college of France (born at
See also:Carcassonne in 1713, died on the 15th of June 1785), was then engaged as editor merely to correct errors and add new discoveries . But he proposed a thorough revision, and obtained the assistance of many learned men and artists, among whom Desessarts names Louis, Condillac, d'
See also:Alembert and
See also:Diderot . But the publishers did not think his reputation high enough to ensure success, withheld their confidence, and often opposed his plans as too expensive . Tired at last of disputes, and too easily offended, de Gua resigned the editorship . The publishers, who had already made heavy advances, offered it to Diderot, who was probably recommended to them by his very well received Dictionnaire universel de medicine, Paris, 1746-1748, fol . 6 vols., published by Briasson,
See also:David and
See also:Durand, with notes and additions by
See also:Julien Busson,
See also:regent of the
See also:faculty of medicine of Paris . It was a translation, made with the assistance of Eidous and
See also:Toussaint, of the celebrated work of Dr Robert James, inventor of the fever powders, A Medicinal Dictionary, London, 1743-1745, fol .
3 vols., 3275 pages and 98 plates, comprising a history of drugs, with chemistry, botany and natural history so far as they relate to medicine, and with an
See also:historical preface of 99 pages (in the translation 136) . The proposed work was to have been similar in character . De Gua's papers were handed over to Diderot in great confusion . He soon persuaded the publishers to undertake a far more original and comprehensive work . His friend d'Alembert undertook to edit the mathematics . Other subjects were allotted to 21 contributors, each of whom received the articles on this subject in Mills' translation to serve as a basis for his work . But they were in most cases so badly composed and translated, so full of errors and omissions, that they were not used . The contributions were to be finished in three months, but none was ready in time, except Music by
See also:Rousseau, which he admits was hastily and badly done . Diderot was imprisoned at
See also:Vincennes, on the 29th of July 1749, for his Letire sur les aveugles . He was closely confined for 28 days, and was then for three months and ten days a prisoner on parole in the
See also:castle . This did not stop the printing, though it caused delay . The prospectus by Diderot appeared in November 1750 .
The work, was to form 8 vols. fol., with at least 60o plates . The first volume was published in July 1751, and delivered to the subscribers in August . The second appeared in January 1752 . An arret of thecouncil, 9th of February, suppressed both volumes as injurious to the king's authority and to religion . Malesherbes, director-general of the Librairie, stopped the issue of volume ii., 9th of February, and on the 21st went with a lettre de cachet to Lebreton's to seize the plates and the MSS., but did not find, says Barbier, even those of volume iii., as they had been taken to his own
See also:house by Diderot and one of the publishers . The
See also:Jesuits tried to continue the work, but in vain . It was less easy, says
See also:Grimm, than to ruin philosophers . The Dictionnaire de Trevoux pronounced the completion of the Encyclopedie impossible, and the project ridiculous (5th edition, 1752, iii.' 750) . The government had to request the editors to resume the work as one honourable to the nation . The
See also:marquis d'
See also:Argenson writes, 7th of May 1752, that Mme de Pompadour had been urging them to proceed, and at the end of June he reports them as again at work . Volume iii., rather improved by the delay, appeared in October 1753; and volume vii., completing G, in November 1757 . The clamours against the work soon recommenced .
D'Alembert retired in January 1758, weary of sermons, satires and intolerant and absurd censors . .The
See also:parlement of Paris, by an arret, 23rd of January 1759, stopped the sale and distribution of the Encycloperlie, Helvetius's De l'Esprit, and six other books; and by an arret, 6th February, ordered them all to be burnt, but referred the Encyclopedie for examination to a commission of nine . An
See also:area du conseil, 7th of March, revoked the privilege of 1746, and stopped the printing . Volume viii. was then in the press . Malesherbes warned Diderot that he would have his papers seized next
See also:day; and when Diderot said he could not make a selection, or find a place of safety at such short
See also:notice, Malesherbes said, " Send them to me, they will not look for them there." This, according to Mme de Vandeul, Diderot's daughter, was done with perfect success . In the article Pardonner Diderot refers to these persecutions, and says, " In the space of some months we have seen our
See also:fortune, liberty and life imperilled." Malesherbes, Choiseul and Mme de Pompadour protected the work; Diderot obtained private permission to go on printing, but with a strict
See also:charge not to publish any part until the whole was finished . The Jesuits were condemned by the parlement of Paris in 1762, and by the king in November 1764 . Volume is of plates appeared in 1762, and volumes viii. to xvii., ten volumes of text, 9408 pages, completing the work, with the 4th volume of plates in 1765, when there were 4250 subscribers . The work circulated freely in the provinces and in foreign countries, and was secretly distributed in Paris and
See also:Versailles . The general
See also:assembly of the
See also:clergy, on the loth of June 1765, approved articles in which it was condemned, and on the 27th of September adopted a memoire to be presented to the king . They were forbidden to publish their acts which favoured the Jesuits, but Lebreton was required to give a list of his subscribers, and was put into the Bastille for eight days in 1766 . A royal order was sent to the subscribers to deliver their copies to the
See also:lieutenant of
See also:police .
Voltaire in 1774 relates that, at a
See also:petit souper of the king at Trianon, there was a debate on the composition of
See also:gunpowder . Mme de Pompadour said she did not know how her
See also:rouge or her
See also:silk stockings were made . The duc de la Valliere regretted that the king had confiscated their encyclopaedias, which could decide everything . The king said he had been told that the work was most dangerous, but as he wished to
See also:judge for himself, he sent for a copy . Three servants with difficulty brought in the 21 volumes . The
See also:company found everything they looked for, and the king allowed the confiscated copies to be returned . Mme de Pompadour died on the 15th of April 1764 . Lebreton had half of the
See also:property in the work, and Durand, David and Briasson had the rest . Lebreton, who had the largest printing
See also:office in Paris, employed 5o workmen in printing the last ten volumes . He had the articles set in type exactly as the authors sent them in, and when Diderot had corrected the last
See also:proof of each
See also:sheet, he and his foreman, hastily, secretly and by night, unknown to his partners in the work, cut out whatever seemed to them daring, or likely to give offence, mutilated most of the best articles without any regard to the. consecutiveness of what was left, and burnt the
See also:manuscript as they proceeded . The printing of the work was nearly finished when Diderot, having to consult one of his great philosophical articles in the letter S, found it entirely mutilated . He was confounded, says Grimm, at discovering the atrocity of the printer; all the best articles were in the same confusion .
This discovery put him into a state of frenzy and despair from rage and grief . His daughter never heard him speak coolly on the subject, and after twenty years it still made him angry . He believed that every one knew as well as he did what was wanting in each article, but in fact themutilation was not perceived even by the authors, and for many years was known to few persons . Diderot at first refused to correct the remaining proofs, or to do more than write the explanations of the plates . He required, according to Mme de Vandeul, that a copy, now at St
See also:Petersburg with his library, should be printed with columns in which all was restored . The mutilations began as far back as the article
See also:Intendant . But h9w far, says Rosenkranz, this murderous, incredible and infamous operation was carried cannot now be exactly ascertained . Diderot's articles, not including those on arts and trades, were reprinted in Naigeon's edition (Paris, 1821, 8vo, 22 vols.) . They fill 4132 pages, and number 1139, of which 6o1 were written for the last ten volumes . They are on very many subjects, but principally on grammar, history, morality, philosophy, literature and metaphysics . As a contributor, his
See also:special department of the work was philosophy, and arts and trades . He passed whole days in workshops, and began by examining a machine carefully, then he had it taken to pieces and put together again, then he watched it at work, and lastly worked it himself .
He thus learned to use such complicated
See also:machines as the stocking and cut
See also:velvet looms . He at first received 1200 livres a
See also:year as editor, but afterwards 2500 livres a volume, besides a final sum of 20,000 livres . Although after his engagement he did not suffer from poverty as he had done before, he was obliged to sell his library in order to provide for his daughter . De Jaucourt spared neither time, trouble nor expense in perfecting the work, for which he received nothing, and he employed several secretaries at it for ten years . To pay them he had to sell his house in Paris, which Lebreton bought with the profits derived from De Jaucourt's work . All the publishers made large fortunes; their expenses amounted to 1,558,000 livres and their profits to 2,162,000 . D'Alembert's " Discours Preliminaire," 45 pages, written in 1750, prefixed to the first volume, and delivered before the French Academy on his reception on the 19th of December 1754, consists of a systematic arrangement of the various branches of knowledge, and an account of their progress since their revival . His system, chiefly taken from Bacon, divides them into three classes, under memory, reason and
See also:imagination . Arts and trades are. placed under natural history, superstition and magic under science de Dieu, and orthography and
See also:heraldry under logic . The literary world is divided into three corresponding classes —erudits, philosopher and
See also:beaux esprits . As in Ephraim Chambers's Cyclopaedia, history and biography were excluded, except incidentally; thus Aristotle's life is given in the article Aristotelisme . The science to which an article belongs is generally named at the beginning of it, references are given to other articles, and the authors' names are marked by initials, of which lists are given in the earlier volumes, but sometimes their names are subscribed in full .
Articles by Diderot have nomark, and those inserted by him as editor have an asterisk prefixed . Among the contributors were Voltaire,
See also:Marmontel, Montesquieu, D'
See also:Anville, D'Holbach and Turgot, the
See also:leader of the new school of economists which made its first appearance in the pages of the E wyclopedie . Louis wrote the surgery,
See also:Daubenton natural history, Eidous heraldry and art, Toussaint jurisprudence, and Condamine articles on South America . No encyclopaedia perhaps has been of such political importance, or has occupied so conspicuous a place in the
See also:civil and literary history of its century . It sought not only to give information, but to
See also:guide opinion, It was, as Rosenkranz says (Diderot, i . 157), theistic and heretical . It was opposed to the church, then all-powerful in France, and it treated
See also:dogma historically . It was, as Desnoiresterres says (Voltaire, v . 164), a war machine; as it progressed, its attacks both on the church and the still more despotic government, as well as on
See also:Christianity itself, became bolder and more undisguised, and it was met by opposition and persecution unparalleled in the history of encyclopaedias . Its execution is very unequal, and its articles of very different value . It was not constructed on a regular plan, or subjected to sufficient supervision; articles were sent in by the contributors, and not seen by the editors until they were in type . In each subject there are some excellent articles, but others are very inferior or altogether omitted, and references are often given to articles which do not exist .
Thus marine is said to be more than three-fourths deficient; and in geography errors and omissions abound—even capitals and
See also:sovereign states are overlooked, while villages are given as towns, and towns are described which never existed . The style is too generally loose, digressive and inexact;
See also:dates are seldom given; and discursiveness, verbosity and dogmatism are frequent faults . Voltaire was constantly demanding truth, brevity and method, and said it was built half of marble and half of
See also:wood . D'Alembert compared it to a
See also:harlequin's coat, in which there is some good stuff but too many rags . Diderot was dissatisfied with it as a whole; much of it was compiled in haste; and carelessly written articles and incompetent contributors were admitted for want of
See also:money to pay good writers . Zedler's Universal Lexicon is on the whole much more useful for reference than its far more brilliant successor . The permanent value of encyclopaedias depends on the proportion of exact and precise facts they contain and on their systematic regularity . The first edition of the Encyclopedie, in 17 vols. folio, 16,288 pages, was imitated by a counterfeit edition printed at
See also:Geneva as the volumes appeared in Paris . Eleven folio volumes of plates were published at Paris (1762 to 1772), containing 2888 plates and 923 pages of explanation, &c . A supplement was printed at Amsterdam and Paris (1776–1777), fol . 5 vols., 3874 pages, with 224 plates . History was introduced at the wish of the public, but only " the general features which mark epochs in the
See also:annals of the world." The astronomy was by Delalande, mathematics by Condorcet, tables by Bernouilli, natural history by
See also:Adanson, anatomy and physiology by Haller .
Daubenton, Condamine, Marmontel and other old contributors wrote many articles, and several were taken from foreign editions . A very full and elaborate index of the articles and subjects of the 33 volumes was printed at Amsterdam in 178o, fol . 2 vols . 1852 pages . It was made by Pierre Mouchon, who was born at Geneva on the 30th of July 1735, consecrated minister on the 18th of August 1758, pastor of the French church at Basel 1766, elected a pastor in Geneva on the 6th of March 1788,
See also:principal of the college there 22nd of April 1791, died on the 20th of August 1797 . This Table analytique, which took him five years to make, was undertaken for the publishers
See also:Cramer and De Tournes, who gave him 800 louis for it . Though very exact and full, he designedly omits the attacks on Christianity . This index was rendered more useful and indispensable by the very diffuse and digressive style of the work, and by the vast number of its articles . A complete copy of the first edition of the Encyclopedie consists.of 35 vols. fol., printed 1751–1780, containing 23,135 pages and 3132 plates . It was written by about 16o contributdrs . About 1761 Panckoucke and other publishers in Paris proposed a new and revised edition, and bought the plates for 250,000 livres . But, as Diderot indignantly refused to edit what he considered a
See also:fraud on the subscribers to the as yet unfinished work, they began simply to reprint the work, promising supplementary volumes .
When three volumes were printed the whole was seized in 1770 by the government at the complaint of the clergy, and was lodged in the Bastille . The plan of a second French edition was laid aside then, to be revived twenty years later in a very different form . Foreign editions of the Encyclopedie are numerous, and it is difficult to enumerate them correctly . One, with notes by Ottavio
See also:Diodati, Dr Sebastiano Paoli and Carlo Giuliani, appeared at Lucca (1758–1771), fol . 17 vols. of text and to of plates . Though it was very much expurgated, all engaged in it were excommunicated by the pope in 1759 . An attempt made at
See also:Siena to publish an Italian translation failed . An addition by the
See also:abbe Serafini and Dr Gonnella (Livourne, 1770), &c., fol . 33 vols., returned a profit of 6o,000 piastres, and was protected by
See also:Leopold II., who secured the pope's silence . Other editions are Geneve, Cramer (1772–1776), a facsimile reprint . Geneve, Pellet (1777–1779), 4to, 36 vols. of text and 3 of plates, with 6 vols. of Mouchon 's index (Lyon, 1780), 4to; Geneve et Neufchatel, Pellet (1778–1779), 4to, 36 vols. of text and 3 of plates;
See also:Lausanne (1778–1781), 36 vols . 4to, or 72
See also:octavo, of text and 3 of plates (1779–1780) ; Lausanne et
See also:Bern, chez les Societes Typographiques (1780–1782), 36 vols .
8vo of text and 3 vols . 4to of plates (1782) . These four editions have the supplement incorporated . Fortune
See also:Barthelemy de Felice, an Italian
See also:monk, born at Rome on the 24th of August 1723, who had been professor at Rome and Naples, and had become a
See also:Protestant, printed a very incorrect though successful edition (Yverdun, 1770–1780) 4t0, 42 vols. of text, 5 of supplement and to of plates . It professed to be a new work,
See also:standing in the same relationship to the Encyclopedie as that did to Chambers's, which is far from being the case . Sir
See also:Joseph Ayloffe issued proposals, 14th December 1751, for an English translation of the Encyclopedie, to be finished by
See also:Christmas.1756, in to vols . 4to, with at least 600 plates . No. t appeared in January 1752, but met with little success . Several selections of articles and extracts have been published under the title of L'Esprit de l'Encyclopedie . The last was by Hennequin (Paris, 1822–1823), 8vo, 15 vols . An English selection is Select Essays from the Encyclopedy (London, 1773), 8vo . The articles of most of the principal contributors have been reprinted in the editions of their respective works .
Voltaire wrote 8 vols . 8vo of a kind of fragmentary supplement, Questionssur l'Encyclopedie, frequently printed, and usually included in editions of his works, together with his contributions to the Encyclopedie and his Dictionnaire philosophique . Several special dictionaries have been formed from the Encyclopedie, as the Dictionnaire portatif des arts et metiers (Paris, 1766), 8vo, 2 vols. about 1300 pages, by Philippe Macquer,
See also:brother of the author of the Dict. de chimie . An enlarged edition by the abbe
See also:Jaubert (Paris, 1773), 5 vols . 8vo, 3017 pages, was much valued and often reprinted . The books attacking and defending the Encyclopedie are very many . No original work of the 18th century, says
See also:Lanfrey, has been more depreciated, ridiculed and calumniated . It has been called
See also:chaos, nothingness, the Tower of
See also:Babel, a work of disorder and destruction, the
See also:gospel of Satan and even the ruins of
See also:Palmyra . The Encyclopaedia Britannica, " by a society of gentlemen in Scotland, printed in
See also:Edinburgh for A .
See also:Bell and C . Macfarquhar, and sold by
See also:Colin Macfarquhar at his printing office in
See also:Nicolson Street," was completed in 1771 in 3 volumes 4to, containing 2670 pages, and 16o copperplates engraved by Andrew Bell . It was published in numbers, of which the two first were issued in December 1768, " price 6d. each, or 8d on a finer paper," and was to be completed in too weekly numbers .
It was compiled, as the title-page says, on a new plan . The different sciences and arts were " digested into distinct treatises or systems," of which there are 45 with cross headings, that is, titles printed across the page, and about 30 other articles more than three pages long . The longest are " Anatomy," 166 pages, and Surgery," 238 pages . " The various technical terms, &c., are explained as they occur in the order of the alphabet." " Instead of dismembering the sciences, by attempting to treat them intelligibly under a multitude of technical terms, they have digested the principles of every science in the form of systems or distinct treatises, and explained the terms as they occur in the order of the alphabet, with references to the sciences to which they belong." This plan, as the compilers say, differs from that of all the previous dictionaries of arts and sciences . Its merit and novelty consist in thecombination of De Coetlogon's plan with that in common use,—on the one hand keeping important subjects together, and on the other facilitating reference by numerous separate articles . It is doubtful to whom the
See also:credit of this plan is due . The editor,
See also:William Smellie, a printer (born in 1740, died on the 24th of June 1795), afterwards secretary and
See also:superintendent of natural history to the Society of Scottish Antiquaries, is said by his biographer to have devised the plan and written or compiled all the chief articles; and he prints, but without date, part of a letter written and signed by Andrew Bell by which he was engaged in the work:—" Sir, As we are engaged in
See also:publishing a dictionary of the arts and sciences, and as you have informed us that there are fifteen capital sciences which you will undertake for and write up the subdivisions and detached parts of these conform to your plan, and likewise to prepare the whole work for the press, &c., &c., we hereby agree to allow you £too for your trouble, &c." Prof . Macvey
See also:Napier says that Smellie " was more likely to have suggested that great improvement than any of his known coadjutors." Archibald
See also:Constable, who was interested in the work from 1788, and was afterwards intimately acquainted with Bell, says Colin Macfarquhar was the actual projector of the Encyclopaedia, and the editor of the two first editions, while Smellie was merely " a contributor for hire " (
See also:Memoirs, ii . 311) . Dr
See also:Gleig, in his preface to the third edition, says: " The idea had been conceived by him (Colin Macfarquhar) and his friend Mr Andrew Bell, engraver . By whom these gentlemen were assisted in digesting the plan which attracted to that work so much public
See also:attention, or whether they had any assistance, are questions in which our readers cannot be interested." Macfarquhar, according to Constable, was a person of excellent taste and very general knowledge, though at starting he had little or no capital, and was obliged to associate Bell, then the principal engraver in Edinburgh, as a partner in his undertaking . The second edition- was begun in 1776, and was published in numbers, of which the first was issued on the 21st of June 1777, and the last, No .
181, on the 18th of September 1784, forming to vols . 4to, dated 1778 to 1783, and containing 8595 pages and 34o plates . The pagination is continuous, ending with page 9200, but 295 pages are inserted in various places, and page 7099 is followed by 8000 . The number and length of the articles were much increased, 72 have cross headings, and more than 150 others may be classed as long articles . At the end is an appendix ("Abatement " to " Wood ") of 200 pages, containing, under the heading Botanical Table, a list of the 931 genera included in the 58 natural orders of
See also:Linnaeus., and followed by a list of 526 books, said to have been the principal authorities used . All the maps are placed together under the article " Geography " (195 pages) . Most of the long articles have numbered marginal titles; " Scotland," 84 pages, has 837 . " Medicine," 309 pages, and "
See also:Pharmacy " have each an index . The plan of the work was enlarged by the addition of history and biography, which encyclopaedias in general had long omitted . " From the time of the second edition of this work, every cyclopaedia of note, in England and elsewhere, has been a cyclopaedia, not solely of arts and sciences, but of the whole wide circle of general learning and miscellaneous information " (Quarterly Review, cxiii . 362) . Smellie was applied to by Bell to edit the second edition, and to take a
See also:share of one-third in the work; but he refused, because the other persons concerned in it, at the
See also:suggestion of " a very distinguished nobleman of very high
See also:rank " (said by Professor Napier to have been the duke of
See also:Buccleuch), insisted upon the introduction of a system of general biography which he considered inconsistent with the character of a dictionary of arts and sciences .
See also:Tytler, M.A., seems to have been selected as the next most eligible compiler . His
See also:father, a man of extensive knowledge, was 53 years minister of Fearn in
See also:Forfarshire, and died in 1785 . Tytler (outlawed by the High
See also:Court of
See also:Justiciary, 7th of January 1793, buried at
See also:Salem in Massachusetts on the 11th of January 1804, aged fifty-eight) " wrote," says
See also:Watt, " many of the scientific treatises and histories, and almost all the minor articles " (Bibliotheca Brit.) . After about a year's preparation, the third edition was announced in 1787; the first number was published early in 1788, and the first volume in October 1788 . There were to be 300 weekly numbers, price is. each, forming 30 parts at 1os . 6d. each, and 15 volumes, with 36o plates . It was completed in 1797 in 18 vols . 4to, containing 14,579 pages and 542 plates . Among the multifarious articles represented in the
See also:frontispiece, which was required by the traditional fashion of the
See also:period, is a
See also:balloon . The maps are, as in subsequent editions, distributed among the articles relating to the respective countries . It was edited by Colin Macfarquhar as far as the article " Mysteries " (by Dr Doig, vol. xii.), when he died, on the 2nd of April 1793, in his forty-eighth year, " worn out," says Constable, " by fatigue and anxiety of mind." His
See also:children's trustees and Andrew Bell requested
See also:George Gleig of
See also:Stirling (consecrated on the 3oth of October 18o8 assistant and successor to the bishop of
See also:Brechin), who had written about twelve articles, to edit the rest of the work; " and for the ' ime, and the limited sum allowed him for the
See also:reward of contributors, his part in the work was considered very well done " (Constable, ii . 312) .
Professor Robison was induced by Gleig to become a contributor . He first revised the article " Optics," and then wrote a series of articles on natural philosophy, which attracted great attention and were long highly esteemed by scientific men . The sub-editors were James
See also:Walker (
See also:Primus Scotiae Episcopus 27th of May 1837, died on the 5th of March 1841, aged seventy) until 1795, then James .
See also:Thomson, succeeded in November 1796 by his brother Thomas, afterwards professor of chemistry at
See also:Glasgow, who remained connected with the Encyclopaedia until 1800 . According to Kerr (Smellie's Life, i . •364-365), 10,000 copies were printed, and the profit to the proprietors was £42,000, besides the payments for their respective work in the conduct of the publication as tradesmen,—Bell as engraver of all the plates, and Macfarquhar as
See also:sole printer . According to Constable (Memoirs, ii . 312), the impression. was begun at 5000 copies, and concluded with a sale of 13,000 . James
See also:Hunter, " an active bookseller of no character," who had a
See also:shop in Middle
See also:Holborn, sold the book to the trade, and on his failure Thomson
See also:Bonar, a
See also:wine merchant, who had married Bell's daughter, became the seller of the book . He quarrelled with his father-in-law, who would not see him for ten years before his death in 1809 . When the edition was completed, the
See also:copyright and remaining books were sold in order to
See also:wind up the concern, and " the whole was
See also:purchased by Bell, who gave £13 a copy, sold all the complete copies to the trade, printed up the
See also:odd volumes, and thus kept the work in the market for several years " (Constable, ii . 312) .
The supplement of the third edition, printed for Thomson Bonar, and edited by Gleig, was published in 18or in 2 vols . 4to, containing 1624 pages and 5o copperplates engraved by D . Lizars . In the dedication to the king, dated Stirling, loth December 1800, Dr Gleig says: " The French Encyclopedie had been accused, and justly accused, of having disseminated far and wide the seeds of anarchy andatheism . If the Encyclopaedia Britannica shall in any degree counteract the tendency of that pestiferous work, even these two volumes will not be wholly unworthy of your
See also:Majesty's attention." Professor Robison added 19 articles to the series he had begun when the third edition was so far advanced . Professor Playfair assisted in " Mathematics." Dr Thomas Thomson wrote " Chemistry," " Mineralogy " and other articles, in which the use of symbols was for the first time introduced into chemistry; and these articles formed the first outline of his System of Chemistry, published at Edinburgh in 1802, 8vo, 4 vols.; the sixth edition, 1821 . The fourth edition, printed for Andrew Bell, was begun in 1800 or 18oi, and finished in 1810 in 20 vols . 4to, containing 16,033 pages, with 581 plates engraved by Bell . The dedication to the king, signed Andrew Bell, is dated Lauristoun, Edinburgh, 1809 . The preface is that of the third edition with the necessary alterations and additions in the latter part . No articles were reprinted from the supplement, as Bell had not the copyright . Professor
See also:Wallace's articles on mathematics were much valued, and raised the scientific character of the work .
Dr Thomas Thomson declined the editorship, and recommended Dr James
See also:Millar, afterwards editor of the Encyclopaedia Edinensis (died on the 13th of July 1827) . ' He was fond of natural history and a good chemist, but, according to Constable, slow and dilatory and not well qualified . Andrew Bell died on the loth of June 18og, aged eighty-three, "leaving," says Constable, "two sets of trustees,' one literary to make the money, the other legal to
See also:lay it out after it was made." The edition began with 1250 copies and concluded at 4000, of which two-thirds passed through the hands of Constable's
See also:firm . Early in 1804 Andrew Bell had offered Constable and his partner Hunter the copyright of the work, printing materials, &c., and all that was then printed of the fourth edition, for £20,000 . This offer was in agitation in March 1804, when the two partners were in London . On the 5th of May 1804, after
See also:Jeffrey's arrival in Edinburgh, as he relates to
See also:Francis Horner, they entrusted him with a design, on which he found that most of his friends had embarked with great eagerness, " for publishing an entire new encyclopaedia upon an improved plan .
See also:Stewart, I understand, is to lend his name, and to write the preliminary discourse, besides other articles . Playfair is to superintend the mathematical department, and Robison the natural philosophy . Thomas Thomson is extremely zealous in the cause . W . Scott has embraced it with great affection . . The authors are to be paid at least as well as reviewers, and are to retain the copyright of their articles for separate publication if they think proper " (
See also:burn, Life of Lord Jeffrey, 1852, ii .
9o) . It was then, perhaps, that Constable gave £loo to Bonar for the copyright of the supplement . The fifth edition was begun immediately after the fourth as a mere reprint . " The management of the edition, or rather mismanagement, went on under the lawyer trustees for several years, and at last the whole property was again brought to the market by public sale . There were about 1800 copies printed of the five first volumes, which formed onelot, the copyright formed another lot, and so on . The whole was purchased by my=elf and in my name for between £13,000 and £14,000 , and it was said by the wise booksellers of Edinburgh and others that I had completely ruined myself and all connected with me by a
See also:purchase to such an enormous amount; this was early in 1812 " (Constable, ii . 314) . Bonar, who lived next
See also:door to the printing office, thought he could
See also:con-duct the book, and had resolved on the purchase . Having a good
See also:deal of money, he seemed to Constable a formidable rival, whose
See also:alliance was to be secured . After " sundry interviews " it was agreed that Constable should buy the copyright in his own name, and that Bonar should have one-third, and also one-third of the copyright of the supplement, for which he gave £200 . Dr James Millar corrected and revised the last 15 volumes . The preface is dated the 1st of December 1814 .
The printing was superintended by Bonar, who died on the 26th of July 1814 . His trustees were repaid his advances on the work, about £6000, and the copyright was valued at £11,000, of which they received one-third, Constable adding £500, as the book had been so extremely successful . It was published in 20 vols., 16,017 pages, 582 plates, price £36, and dated 1817 . Soon after the purchase of the copyright, Constable began to prepare for the publication of a supplement, to be of four or, at the very utmost, five volumes . " The first article arranged for was one on 'Chemistry ' by Sir
See also:Davy, but he went abroad [in October 1813] and I released him from his engagement, and employed Mr
See also:Brande; the second article was Mr Stewart's Dissertation, for which I agreed to pay him £loon, leaving the extent of it to himself, but with this understanding, that it was not to be under ten sheets, and might extend to twenty " (Constable, ii . 318) . Dugald Stewart, in a letter to Constable, the 15th of November 1812, though he declines to engage to execute any of his own suggestions, recommends that four discourses should " stand in front," forming " a general map of the various departments of human knowledge," similar to " the excellent discourse prefixed by D'Alembert to the French Encyclopedie," together with historical sketches of the progress since Bacon's time of modern discoveries in metaphysical, moral and political philosophy, in mathematics and physics, in chemistry, and in zoology, botany and mineralogy . He would only promise to undertake the general map and the first historical
See also:sketch, if his
See also:health and other engagements permitted, after the second volume of his Philosophy of the Human Mind (published in 1813) had gone to press . For the second he recommended Playfair, for chemistry Sir Humphry Davy . He received £loon for the first part-of his dissertation (166 pages), and £700 for the second (257 pages), the right of publication being limited to the Supplement and Encyclopaedia . Constable next contracted with Professor Playfair for a dissertation " to be equal in length or not to Mr Stewart's, for £250; but a short time afterwards I
See also:felt that to pay one eminent individual £1000 because he would not take less would be quite unfair, and I wrote to the worthy Professor that I had fixed his payment at £500." Constable gave him £500 for the first part (127 pages), and would have given as much for the second (90 pages) if it had been as long . His next
See also:object was to find out the greatest defects in the book, and he gave Professor
See also:Leslie £200 and
See also:Graham Dalyell £100 for looking over it .
He then wrote out a prospectus and submitted it in print to Stewart, " but the cautious philosopher referred " him to
See also:fair, who " returned it next day very greatly improved." For this Constable sent him six dozen of very fine old
See also:sherry, only feeling regret that he had nothing better to offer . He at first intended to have two editors, " one for the strictly literary and the other for the scientific department." He applied to Dr Thomas
See also:Brown, who " preferred writing trash of poetry to useful and lucrative employment." At last he fixed on Mr Macvey Napier (born 1777), whom he had known from 1798, and who " had been a hard student, and at college laid a good foundation for his future career, though more perhaps in general information than in what would be, strictly speaking, called scholarship; this, however, does not fit him the less for his
See also:present task." Constable, in a letter dated the 11th of June 1813, offered him £300 before the first part went to press, £150 on the completion at press of each of the eight half volumes, £500 if the work was reprinted or extended beyond 7000 copies and £200 for incidental expenses . " In this way the composition of the four volumes, including the introductory dissertations, will amount to considerably more than £9000." In a postscript the certain payment is characteristically increased to £1575, the contingent to £735, and the
See also:allowance for incidental expenses to £300 (Constable, ii . 326) . Napier went to London, and obtained the co-operation of many literary men . The supplement was published in half-volume parts from December 1816 to April 1824 . It formed six volumes 4to, containing 4933 pages, 125 plates, 9 maps, three dissertations and 669 articles, of which a list is given at the end . The first dissertation, on the " progress of metaphysical, ethical and political philosophy," was by Stewart, who completed his plan only in respect to metaphysics . He had thought it would be easy to adapt the intellectual map or general survey of human knowledge, sketched by Bacon and improved by D'Alembert, to the advanced state of the sciences, while its unrivalled authority would have softened criticism . But on closer examination he found the logical views on which this systematic arrangement was based essentially erroneous; and, doubting whether the time had come for a successful repetition of this bold experiment, he forebore to substitute a new
See also:scheme of his awn . Sir James
See also:Mackintosh characterized this discourse as " the most splendid of Mr . Stewart's works, a composition which no otherliving writer of English prose has equalled " (Edinburgh Review,
See also:xxvii .
191, September 1816) . The second dissertation, " On the progress of mathematics and physics," was by Playfair, who died 19th July 1819, when he had only finished the period of Newton andLeibnitz . The third, by Professor Brande, " On the progress of chemistry from the early middle ages to 1800," was the only one completed . These historical dissertations were admirable and delightful compositions, and important and interesting additions to the Encyclopaedia; but it is difficult to see why they should form a separate department distinct from the general alphabet . The preface, dated March 1824, begins with an account of the more important previous encyclopaedias, relates the history of this to the sixth edition, describes the preparation for the supplement and gives an " outline of the contents, ' and mentions under each great division of knowledge the principal articles and their authors' names, often with remarks on the characters of both . Among the distinguished contributors were Leslie, Playfair, Ivory, Sir John
See also:Tredgold, Jeffrey, John
See also:Sumner, Blanco
See also:Smith and
See also:Hazlitt . Sir Walter Scott, to gratify his generous friend Constable, laid aside Waverley, which he was completing for publication, and in April and May 1814 wrote " Chivalry." He also wrote " Drama " in November 1818, and "
See also:Romance " in the summer of 1823 . As it seemed to the editor that encyclopaedias had previously attended little to political philosophy, he wrote "
See also:Balance of Power," and procured from James
See also:Mill "
See also:Banks for Savings," " Education," ' Law of Nations," " Liberty of the Press," and other articles, which, reprinted cheaply, had, a wide circulation . M'Culloch wrote " Corn Laws," "
See also:Interest," " Money," " Political Economy," &c . Mr
See also:Ricardo wrote " Commerce and " Funding System," and Professor
See also:Malthus, in his article " Population," gave a comprehensive
See also:summary of the facts and reasonings on which his theory rested . In the article "
See also:Egypt " Dr Thomas
See also:Young " first gave to the public an extended view of the results of his successful
See also:interpretation of the hieroglyphic characters on the
See also:stone of Rosetta," with a vocabulary of 221 words in English, Coptic, Hieroglyphic and Enchorial, engraved on four plates . There were about 16o
See also:biographies, chiefly of persons who had died within the preceding 30 years .
Constable " wished short
See also:biographical notices of the first founders of this great work, but they were, in the opinion of my editor, too insignificant to entitle them to the rank which such separate notice, it was supposed, would have given them as literary men, although his own consequence in the world had its origin in their exertions (Memoirs, ii . 326) . It is to be regretted that this wish was not carried out, as was done in the latter volumes of Zedler . Arago wrote "
See also:Double Refraction " and " Polarization of
See also:Light," a note to which mentions his name as author . Playfair wrote Aepinus," and " Physical Astronomy."
See also:Biot wrote "
See also:Electricity " and " Pendulum." He " gave his assistance with alacrity," though his articles had to be translated . Signatures, on the plan of the Encyclopedie, were annexed to each article, the list forming a triple alphabet, A to
See also:XXX, with the full names of the 72 contributors arranged apparently in the order of their first occurrence . At the end of vol. vi. are Addenda and Corrigenda, including "
See also:Interpolation," by Leslie, and " Polarization of Light," by Arago . The sixth edition, " revised, corrected and improved," appeared in half'-volume parts, price 16s. in boards, vol. xx. part ii. completing the work in May 1823 . Constable, thinking it not wise to reprint so large a book year after year without correction, in 1820 selected Mr Charles Maclaren (1782-1866), as editor . " His attention was chiefly directed to the historical and
See also:geographical articles . He was to keep the press going, and have the whole completed in three years." He wrote " America," "
See also:Greece," " Troy," &c . Many of the large articles as " Agriculture," " Chemistry," " Conchology," were new or nearly so; and references were given to the supplement .
A new edition in 25 vols. was contemplated, not to be announced till a certain time after the supplement was finished; but Constable's house stopped payment on the 19th of January 1826, and his copyrights were sold by
See also:auction . Those of the Encyclo- paedia were bought by contract, on the 16th of July 1828, for £615o, by Thomas Allan, proprietor of the Caledonian Mercury,
See also:Adam Black, Abram Thomson, bookbinder, and
See also:Wight, banker, who, with the trustee of Constable's
See also:estate, had previously begun the seventh edition . Not many years later Mr Black purchased all the shares and became sole proprietor . The seventh edition, 21 vols . 4t0 (with an index of 187 pages, compiled by Robert
See also:Cox), containing 17,101 pages and 506 plates, edited by Macvey Napier, assisted by James
See also:Browne, LL.D., was begun in 1827, and published from March 1830 to January 1842 . It was reset throughout and stereotyped . Mathematical diagrams were printed in the text from woodcuts . The first half of the preface was nearly that of the supplement . The list of signatures, containing 167 names, consists of four alphabets with additions, and differs altogether from that in the supplement: many names are omitted, the order is changed and 103 are added . A list follows of over 300 articles, without signatures, by 87 writers . The dissertations—1st, Stewart's, 289 pages; 2nd, " Ethics " (136 pages), by Sir James Mackintosh, whose death prevented the addition of " Political Philosophy "; 3rd, Playfair's, 139 pages; 4th, its continuation by Sir John Leslie, loo pages—and their index of 30 pages, fill vol. i . As they did not include Greek philosophy, " Aristotle," "
See also:Plato " and "
See also:Socrates " were supplied by Dr
See also:Hampden, afterwards bishop of
See also:Hereford .
Among the numerous contributors of
See also:eminence, mention may be made of Sir David Brewster, Prof .
See also:Phillips, Prof . Spalding, John Hill
See also:Burton, Thomas De Quincey, Patrick
See also:Fraser Tytler, Capt .
See also:Hall, Sir Thomas Dick Lauder, Antonio
See also:Panizzi, John Scott
See also:Russell and Robert Stephenson . Zoology was divided into 11 chief articles, " Mammalia," "
See also:Ornithology," " Reptilia," " Ichthyology," "
See also:Mollusca," "
See also:Crustacea," " Arachnides," "Entomology," Helminthology," " Zoophytes," and " Animalcule "—all by James
See also:Wilson . The eighth edition, 1853-186o, 4to, 21 vols . (and index of 239 pages, 1861), containing 17,957 pages and 402 plates, with many woodcuts, was edited by Dr Thomas Stewart
See also:Traill, professor of medical jurisprudence in Edinburgh University . The dissertations were reprinted, with one on the " Rise, Progress and Corruptions of Christianity " (97 pages), by Archbishop
See also:Whately, and a continuation of Leslie's to 185o, by Professor James David
See also:Forbes, 198 pages, the work of nearly three years, called by himself his " magnum
See also:opus " (Life, pp . 361, 366) . Lord Macaulay, Charles
See also:Kingsley, Isaac
See also:Taylor, Hepworth
See also:Dixon, Robert Chambers, Rev . Charles Merivale, Rev . F .
See also:Farrar, Sir John
See also:Richardson, Dr
See also:Scoresby, Dr
See also:Layard, Edw . B . Eastwick, John
See also:Augustus Petermann, Baron
See also:Bunsen, Sir John
See also:Herschel, Dr Lankester, Professors
See also:Owen, Rankine, William Thomson, Aytoun,
See also:Blackie, Daniel Wilson and
See also:Jukes, were some of the many eminent new contributors found among the 344 authors, of whom an alphabetical list is given, with a
See also:key to the signatures . In the preface a list of 279 articles by 189 writers, classed under 15 heads, is given . This edition was not wholly reset like the seventh, but many long articles were retained almost or entirely intact . The publication of the ninth edition (A . & C . Black) was commenced in January 1875, under the editorship of Thomas
See also:Baynes until 188o, and subsequently of W .
See also:Robertson Smith, and completed in 1889, 24 vols., with index, This great edition retained a certain amount of the valuable material in the eighth, but was substantially a new work; and it was universally acknowledged to stand in the forefront of the scholarship of its time . Its contributors included the most distinguished men of letters and of science . In 1898 a reprint, sold at about half the original price, and on the plan of payment by instalments, was issued by The Times of London; and in 1902, under the joint editorship of Sir Donald
See also:Mackenzie Wallace,
See also:President Arthur T .
Hadley of Yale University, and Hugh Chisholm, eleven supplementary volumes were published, forming, with the 24 vols. of the ninth edition, a tenth edition of 35 volumes . These included a volume of maps, and an elaborate index (vol . 35) to the whole edition, comprising some 600,00o entries . In May 1903 a start was made with the preparation of the 11th edition, under the general editorship of Hugh Chisholm, with W .
See also:Alison Phillips as chief assistant-editor, and a
See also:staff of editorial assistants, the whole work of organization being conducted up to December 1909 from The Times office . Arrangements were then made by which the copyright and
See also:control of the Encyclopaedia Britennica passed to Cambridge University, for the publication at the University Press in 1910-1911 of the 29 volumes (one being Index) of the I1th edition, a distinctive feature of this issue being the appearance of the whole series of volumes practically at the same time . A new and enlarged edition of the Encyclopedia arranged as a system of separate dictionaries, and entitled Encyclopedia methodique ou
See also:par ordre de matieres, was undertaken by Charles Joseph Panckoucke, a publisher of Paris (born at
See also:Lille on the 26th of November 1736, died on the 19th of December 1798) . His privilege was dated the 20th of June 1780 . The articles belonging to different subjects would readily form distinct dictionaries, although, having been constructed for an alphabetical plan, they seemed unsuited for any system wholly methodical, Two copies of the book and its supplement were cut up into articles, which were sorted into subjects . The division adopted was: 1, mathematics; 2 physics; 3, medicine; 4, anatomy and physiology; 5, surgery; 6, chemistry,
See also:metal- lurgy and pharmacy; 7, agriculture; 8, natural history of animals, in six parts; 9, botany; so, minerals; II, physical geography; 12, ancient and modern geography; 13, antiquities; 14, history; 15, theology; 16, philosophy; 17, metaphysics, logic and morality; 18, grammar and literature; 19, law; 2o,
See also:finance; 21, political economy; 22, commerce; 23, marine; 24, art militaire; 25, beaux arts; 26, arts et metiers—all forming distinct dictionaries entrusted to different editors . The first object of each editor was to exclude all articles belonging to other subjects, and to take care that those of a doubtful nature should not be omitted by all . In some words (such as air, which belonged equally to chemistry, physics and medicine) the methodical arrangement has the unexpected effect of breaking up the single article into several widely separated .
Each dictionary was to have an introduction and a classified table of the principal articles . History and its minor parts, asinscriptions, fables, medals, were to be included . Theology, which was neither complete, exact nor orthodox, was to be by the abbe Bergier, confessor to Monsieur, The whole work was to be completed and connected together by a Vocabulaire Universel, I vol . 4to, with references to all the places where each word occurred, and a very exact history of the Encyclopedie and its editions by Panckoucke . The prospectus, issued early in 1782, proposed three editions—84 vols . 8vo, 43 vols . 4to with 3 columns to a page, and 53 vols . 4to of about loo sheets with 2 columns to a page, each edition having 7 vols . 4to of 250 to 300 plates each . The subscription was to be 672 livres from the 15th of March to July 1782, then 751, and 888 after April 1783 . It was to be issued in livraisons of 2 vols. each, the first (jurisprudence, vol. i., literature, vol. i,) to appear in July 1782, and the whole to be finished in 1787 . The number of subscribers, 4072, was so great that the subscription list of 672 livres was closed on the 3oth of April .
Twenty-five printing offices were employed, and in November 1782 the 1st livraison (jurisprudence, vol. i., and half vol. each of arts et metiers and histoire naturelle) was issued . A Spanish prospectus was sent out, and obtained 330 Spanish subscribers, with the inquisitor-general at their
See also:head . The complaints of the subscribers and his awn heavy advances, over 150,000 livres, induced Panckoucke, in November 1788, to
See also:appeal to the authors to finish the work . Those en retard made new contracts, giving their word of honour to put their parts to press in 1788, and to continue them without interruption, so that Panckoucke hoped to finish the whole, including the vocabulary (4 or 5 vols.), in 1792 . Whole sciences, as architecture,
See also:engineering, hunting, police, games, &c., had been over-looked in the prospectus; a new division was made in 44 parts, to contain 51 dictionaries and about 124 vols . Permission was obtained on the 27th of February 1789, to receive subscriptions for the separate dictionaries . Two thousand subscribers were lost by the Revolution . The 50th livraison appeared on the 23rd of July 1792, when all the dictionaries eventually published had been begun except seven—jeux familiers and mathematiques, physics, art oratoire, physical geography, chasses and peches; and 18 were finished,—mathematics, games, surgery, ancient and modern geography, history, theology, logic, grammar, jurisprudence, finance, political economy, commerce, marine, arts militaires, arts academiques, arts et metiers, encyclopediana . Supplements were added to military art in 1797, and to history in 1807, but not to any of the other 16, though required for most long before 1832 . The publication was continued by
See also:Henri Agasse, Panckoucke's son-in-law, from 1794 to 1813, and then by Mme Agasse, his widow, to 1832, when it was completed in 102 livraisons or 337 parts, forming 1662 vols. of text, and 51 parts containing 6439 plates . The letterpress issued with the plates amounts to 5458 pages, making with the text 124,210 pages . To save expense the plates belonging to architecture were not published .
Pharmacy (separated from chemistry), minerals, education, ponts et chaussees had been announced but were not published, neither was the Vocabulaire Universel, the key and index to the whole work, so that it is difficult to carry out any
See also:research or to find all the articles on any subject . The original parts have been so often subdivided, and have been so added to by other dictionaries, supplements and appendices, that, without going into great detail, an exact account cannot be given of the work, which contains 88 alphabets, with 83 indexes, and 166 introductions, discourses, prefaces, &c . Many dictionaries have a classed index of articles; that of economie politique is very excellent, giving the contents of each article, so that, any passage can be found easily . The largest dictionaries are medicine, 13 vols., 10,330 pages; zoology, 7 dictionaries, 13,645 pages, 1206 plates; botany, 12,002 pages, 1000 plates (34 only of cryptogamic plants); geography, 3 dictionaries and 2 atlases, 9090 pages, 193 maps and plates; jurisprudence (with police and municipalities), so vols., 7607 pages . Anatomy, 4 vols., 2866 pages, is not a dictionary but a series of systematic treatises . Assemblee Nationale was to be in three parts,—(t) the history of the Revolution, (2) debates, and (3) laws and decrees . Only vol. ii., debates, appeared, 1792, 804 pages, Absens to
See also:Aurillac . Ten volumes of a Spanish translation with a vol. of plates were published at
See also:Madrid to 18o6—viz. historia natural, i. ii.; grammatica, i.; arte militar, i., ii.; geografia, fabricas, i., ii., plates, vol. i . A French edition was printed at Padua, with the plates, says Peignot, very carefully engraved . Probably no more unmanageable body of dictionaries has ever been published except
See also:Migne's Encyclopedie theologique, Paris, 1844–1875, 4to, 168 vols., for dictionaries, 119,059 pages . No work of reference has been more useful and successful, or more frequently copied, imitated and translated, than that known as the Conversations Lexikon of Brockhaus . It was begun as Conversations Lexikon mit vorziiglicher Riicksicht auf die gegenwartigen Zeiten, Leipzig, 1796 to 18o8, 8vo, 6 vols., 2762 pages, by Dr Gotthelf Renatus Lobel (born on the 1st of April 1767 at Thalwitz near
See also:Wurzen in Saxony, died on the 14th of February 1799), who intended to supersede Hubner, and included geography, ' history, and in part biography, besides mythology, philosophy, natural history, &c .
Vols. i.-iv . (A to R) appeared 1796 to 1800, vol. v. in 18o6 .
See also:Arnold Brockhaus (q.v.) bought the work with its copyright on the 25th of October 18o8, for 1800 thalers from the printer, who seems to have got it in payment of his bill . The editor, Christian Wilhelm Franke, by contract dated the 16th of November, was to finish vol. vi. by the 5th of December, and the already projected supplement, 2 vols., by Michaelmas 18o9, for 8 thalers a printed sheet . No
See also:penalty was specified, but, says his
See also:grandson, Brockhaus was to learn that such contracts, whether under penalty or not, are not kept, for the supplement was finished only in 1811 . Brockhaus issued a new impression as Conversations Lexikon
See also:oder kurzgefasstes Handworterbuch, &c., 1809–1811, and on removing to
See also:Altenburg in 1811 began himself to edit the 2nd edition (1812–1819, 10 vols.), and, when vol. iv. was published, the 3rd (1814–1819) . He carried on both editions together until 1817, when he removed to Leipzig, and began the 4th edition as Allgemeine deutsche Realencyclopadie fur die gebildeten Stande . Conversations Lexikon . This title was, in the 14th edition, changed to that of Brockhaus' Konversations Lexicon . The 5th edition was at once begun, and was finished in eighteen months . Dr Ludwig Hain assisted in editing the 4th and 5th editions until he left Leipzig in April 182o, when Professor F . C .
See also:Hasse took his place . The 12,000 copies of the 5th edition being exhausted while vol. x. was at press, a 2nd unaltered impression of 1o,00o was required in 182o and a 3rd of ro,000 in 1822 . The 6th edition, to vols., was begun in September 1822 . Brockhaus died in 1823, and his two eldest sons, Friedrich and Heinrich, who carried on the business for the heirs and became sole possessors in 1829, finished the edition with Hasse's assistance in September 1823 . The 7th edition (1827–1829, 12 vols., 10,489 pages, 13,000 copies, 2nd impression 14,000) was edited by Hasse . The 8th edition (1833–1836, 12 vols., Io,689 pages, 31,000 copies to 1842), begun in the autumn of 1832, ended May 1837, was edited by Dr Karl August Espe (born February 1804, died in the Irrenanstalt at Stotteritz near Leipzig on the 24th of November t85o) with the aid of many learned and distinguished writers . A general index, Universal Register, 242 pages, was added in 1839 . The 9th edition (1843–1847, 15 vols., 11,470 pages, over 30,000 copies) was edited by Dr Espe . The loth edition (1851–1855, 12,564 pages) was also in 15 vols., for convenience in reference, and was edited by Dr August Kurtzel aided by Oskar Pilz . Friedrich Brockhaus had retired in 1849; Dr Heinrich Edward, the elder son of Heinrich, made partner in 1854, assisted in this edition, and Heinrich Rudolf, the younger son, partner since 1863, in the 11th (1864–1868, 15 vols. of 6o sheets, 13,366 pages) . Kurtzel died on the 24th of April 1871, and Pilz was sole editor until March 1872, when Dr Gustav Stockmann joined, who was alone from April until joined by Dr Karl Wippermann in October . Besides the Universal Register of 136 pages and about 50,000 articles, each volume has an index .
The supplement, 2 vols, 1764 pages, was begun in February 1871, and finished in April 1873 . The 12th edition, begun in 1875, was completed in 1879 in 15 vols., the 13thedition (1882–1887), in 16 vols., and the 14th (1901–1903) in 16 vols. with a supplementary volume in 1904 . The Conversations Lexicon is intended, not for scientific use, but to promote general mental improvement by giving the results of research and discovery in a simple and popular form without extended details . The articles, often too brief, are very excellent and trustworthy, especially on German subjects, give references to the best books, and include biographies of living men . One of the best German encyclopaedias is that of
See also:Meyer, Neues Konversations-Lexicon . The first edition, in 37 vols., was published in 1839-1852 . The later editions, following closely the arrangement of Brockhaus, are the 4th (1885–189o, 17 vols.), the 5th (1894–1898, 18 vols.), and the 6th (begun in 1902) . The most copious German encyclopaedia is
See also:Ersch and
See also:Gruber's Allgemeine Encyklopddie der Wissenschaften and Kunste, Leipzig . It was designed and begun in 1813 by Professor Johann
See also:Samuel Ersch (born at
See also:Glogau on the 23rd of June 1766, chief librarian at Halle, died on the 16th of January 1828) to satisfy the wants of Germans, only in part supplied by foreign works . It was stopped by the war until 1816, when Professor Hufeland (born at Danzig on the 19th of October 176o) joined, but he died on the 25th of November 1817 while the specimen part was at press . The editors of the different sections at various times have been some of the best-known men of learning in Germany, including J . G .
Gruber, M . H . E . Meier,Hermann Brockhaus, W .
See also:Muller and A . G .
See also:Hoffmann of Jena . The work is divided into three sections (r) A-G, of which 99 vols. had appeared by 1905, (2) H-N, 43 vols., (3) O-Z, 25 vols . All articles bear the authors' names, and those not ready in time were placed at the end of their letter . The longest in the work is Griechenland, vols . 8o-87, 3668 pages, with a table of contents . It began to appear after vol .
73 (Gotze to Gondouin), and hence does not come in its proper place, which is in vol . 91 . Gross Britannien contains 700 pages, and Indien by
See also:Benfey 356 . The Encyclopaedia Metropolitana (London, 1845, 4to, 28 vols., issued in 59 parts in 1817-1845, 22,426 pages, 565 plates) professed to give sciences and systematic arts entire and in their natural sequence, as shown in the introductory treatise on method by S . T .
See also:Coleridge . " The plan was the proposal of the poet Coleridge, and it had at least enough of a poetical character to be eminently unpractical " (Quarterly Review, cxiii., 379) . However defective the plan, the excellence of many of the treatises by Archbishop Whately, Sir John Herschel, Professors Barlow,
See also:Peacock, de
See also:Morgan, &c., is undoubted . It is in four divisions, the last only being alphabetical: I . Pure Sciences, 2 vols., 1813 pages, 16 plates, 28 treatises, includes grammar, law and theology; II . Mixed and Applied Sciences, 8 vols., 5391 pages, 437 plates, 42 treatises, including fine arts, useful arts, natural history and its " application," the medical sciences; III . History and Biography, 5 vols., 4458 pages, 7 maps, containing biography (135 essays) chronologically arranged (to Thomas Aquinas in vol .
3), and interspersed with (210) chapters on history (to 1815), as the most philosophical, interesting and natural form (but modern lives were so many that the planbroke down, and a division of biography, to be in 2 vols., was announced but not published); IV . Miscellaneous, 12 vols., 10,338 pages, 105 plates, including geography, a dictionary of English (the first form of Richardson's) and descriptive natural history . The index, 364 pages, contains about g000 articles . A re-issue in 38 vols . 4to, was announced in 1849 . Of a second edition 42 vols . 8vo, 14,744 pages, belonging to divisions i. to iii., were published in 1849–1858 . The very excellent and useful English Cyclopaedia '(London, 1854–1862, 4to, -23 vols., 12,117 pages; supplements, 1869–1873, 4 vols., 2858 pages), conducted by Charles Knight, based on the
See also:Penny Cyclopaedia (London, 1833-1846, 4to, 29 vols., 15,625 pages), of which he had the copyright, is in four divisions all alphabetical, and evidently very unequal as classes:—t, geography; 2, natural history; 3, biography (with 703 lives of living persons); 4, arts and sciences . The synoptical index, 168 pages, has four columns on a page, one for each division, so that the order is alphabetical and yet the words are classed . Chambers's Encyclopaedia (Edinburgh, W . & R . Chambers), 186o-1868, 8vo, to vols., 8283 pages, edited in part by the publishers, but under the charge of Dr Andrew
See also:Findlater as " acting editor " throughout,was founded on the loth edition of Brockhaus .
A revised edition appeared in 1874, 8320 pages . In the list of 126 contributors were J.H . Burton,
See also:Emmanuel Deutsch, Professor
See also:Goldstucker, &c . The index of matters not having special articles contained about 1500 headings . The articles were generally excellent, more especially on Jewish literature, folk-lore and practical science; but, as in Brockhaus, the
See also:scope of the work did not allow extended treatment . A further revision took place, and in 1888-1892 an entirely new edition was published, in 10 vols., still further new editions being issued in 1895 and in Igor . An excellent brief compilation, the Harmsworth Encyclopaedia (1905), was published in 40 fortnightly parts (sevenpence each) in England, and as Nelson's Encyclopaedia (revised) in 12 vols . (1906) in America . It was originally prepared for Messrs Nelson of Edinburgh and for the Carmelite Press, London . In the United States various encyclopaedias have been published, but without rivalling there the Encyclopcedia Britannica, the 9th edition of which was extensively pirated . Several
See also:American Supplements were also issued . The New American Cyclopaedia, New
See also:York (Appleton & Co.), 1858-1863, 16 vols., 12,752 pages, was the work of the editors, George Ripley and Charles
See also:Anderson Dana, and 364 contributors, chiefly American .
A supplementary work, the American
See also:Annual Cyclopaedia, a yearly 8vo vol. of about Boo pages and 250 articles, was started in 1861, but ceased in 1902 . In a new edition, the American Cyclopaedia, 1873-1876, 8vo, 16 vols., 13,484 pages, by the same editors, 4 associate editors, 31 revisers and a librarian, each article passed through the hands of 6 or 8 revisers . Other American encyclopaedias are Alvin J .
See also:Johnson's New Universal Cyclopaedia, 1875-1877, in 4 vols., a new edition of which (excellently planned) was published in 8 vols., 1893-1895, under the name of Johnson's Universal Cyclopaedia; the Encyclopaedia Americana, edited by Francis
See also:Lieber, which appeared in 1839-1847 in 14 vols.; a new work under the same title, published in 1903-1904 in r6 vols.; the
See also:International Cyclopaedia, first published in 1884 (revised in 1891, 1894 and 1898), and superseded in 1902 (revised, 1906) by the New International Encyclopaedia in 17 vols . In Europe a great impetus was given to the compilation of encyclopaedias by the appearance of Brockhaus' Conversations-Lexicon (see above), which, as a begetter of these works, must rank, in the 19th century, with the Cyclopaedia of Ephraim Chambers in the 18th . The following, although in no sense an exhaustive list, may be here mentioned . In France, Le Grand Dictionnaire universel du XIX' siPcle, of Pierre Larousse (15 vols., 1866-1876), with supplementary volumes in 1877, 1887 and 189o; the Nouveau Larousse illus.re, dictionnaire universel encyclopedique (7 vols., 1901-1904), (this is in no way a re-issue or an abridgment of Le Grand Dictionnaire of Pierre Larousse) ; La Grande Encyclopedie, inventaire raisonne des sciences, des lettres, et des arts, in 31 vols . (1886-1903) . In Italy, the Nuova Enciclopedia Italiana (14 vols., 1841-1851, and in 25 vols., 1875-1888) . In Spain, the Diccionario enciclopedico Hispano-Americano de litteratura, ciencias y artes, published at
See also:Barcelona (25 vols., 1877-1899) . The
See also:Russian encyclopaedia, Russkiy Entsiklopedicheskiy Slovar (41 vols., 1905, 2 supplementary vols., 1908) was begun in 1890 as a Russian version of Brockhaus' Conversations-Lexicon, but has become a monumental encyclopaedia, to which all the best Russian men of science and letters have contributed . Elaborate encyclopaedias have also appeared in the
See also:Polish, Hungarian, Bohemian and Rumanian languages .
Of Scandinavian encyclopaedias there have been re-issues of the Nordesk Conversations-Lexicon, first published in 1858-1863, and of the Svenskt Conversations-Lexicon, first published in 1845-1851 .
JOHN ENDECOTT (c. 1588-1665)
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