ENGINEERING , a
See also:term for the
See also:action of the verb " to engineer," which in its early uses referred specially to the operations of those who constructed engines of war and executed
See also:works intended to serve military purposes . Such military
See also:engineers were long the only ones to whom the title was applied . But about the
See also:middle of the 18th century there began to arise a new class of engineers who concerned themselves with works which, though they might be in some cases, as in the making of roads, of the same character as those undertaken by military engineers, were neither exclusively military in purpose nor executed by soldiers, and those men by way of distinction came to be known as
See also:civil engineers . No better definition of their aims and functions can be given than that which is contained in the
See also:charter (dated 1828) of the Institution of Civil Engineers (
See also:London), where civil engineering is described as the "
See also:art of directing the
See also:sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of
See also:traffic in states, both for
See also:external and
See also:trade, as applied in the construction of roads, bridges, aqueducts, canals,
See also:river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and
See also:exchange, and in the construction of ports, harbours, moles, breakwaters and lighthouses, and in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, and in the construction and adaptation of machinery, and in the drainage of cities and towns." Wide as is this enumeration, the practice of a civil engineer in the earlier
See also:part of the r 9th century might cover many or even most of the subjects it contains . But gradually specialization set in . Perhaps the first branch to be recognized as
See also:separate was
See also:mechanical engineering, which is concerned with steam-engines, machine tools,
See also:work and moving machinery in general, and it was soon followed by
See also:mining engineering, which deals with the location and working of
See also:coal, ore and other minerals . Subsequently numerous other more or less strictly defined groups and subdivisions came into existence, such as
See also:naval architecture dealing with the design of
See also:ships, marine engineering with the engines for propelling steamers, sanitary engineering with
See also:water-supply and disposal of sewage and other refuse,
See also:gas engineering with the manufacture and distribution of
See also:illuminating gas, and chemical engineering with the design and erection of the plant required for the manufacture of such chemical products as
See also:alkali, acids and dyes, and for the working of a wide range of
See also:industrial processes . The last great new branch is electrical engineering, which touches on the older branches at so many points that it has been said that all engineers must be electricians .
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