Online Encyclopedia

ENGLISH

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V22, Page 192 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
Spread the word: del.icio.us del.icio.us it!
ENGLISH ISSUES (i.) Line-engraved Stamps. Halfpenny Stamp.—First issue, October 1, 187o: size 18 mm. by 14 MM.; lake-red varying to rose-red. One Penny Stamp.—First issue, 1st (for 6th) May 1840: the head executed by Frederick Heath, from a drawing by Henry Corbould of William Wyon's medal struck to commemorate her majesty's visit to the City of London on the 9th of November 1837: size 2211 mm. by 18; mm.; black, watermarked with a small crown; a few sheets in 1841 struck in red, two essays were made in April' and October 184o in blue and blue-back; imperforate. The second issue, January 20, 1841, differed only from the first issue as to colour—red instead of black. It is stated 1 that the colour, " though always officially referred to as ' red,' was really a red-brown, and this may be regarded as the normal colour; but considerable variations in tone and shade (brick-red, orange-red, lake-red) occurred from time to time, often accentuated by the blueing of the paper, though primarily due to a want of uniformity in the method employed for preparing the ink." The change of colour from black was made in order to render the obliteration (now in black instead of red ink) more distinct; imperforate. Third issue, February 1854: small crown watermark; perforated 16 (i.e. 16 holes to 2 centimetres). The fourth issue, January 1855, differed only from the third issue in being perforated 14. Fifth issue, February 1855: from a new die, with minute variations of engraving. In the second die the eyelid is more distinctly shaded, the nostril more curved, and the band round the hair has a thick dark line forming its lower edge. Small crown watermark; perforated 16 and 14. Sixth issue, July 1855: large crown watermark; perforated 14; a certain number 16. Seventh issue, January 1858: carmine-rose varying from pale to very deep. Large crown watermark; perforated, chiefly 14. Eighth issue, April 1, 1864: 1 Wright and Creeke, History of the Adhesive Stamp of the British Isles available for Postal and Telegraph Purposes (London, 1899).check-letters in all four corners instead of two only; large crown watermark; perforated 14. In 1880 the line-engraved one penny stamps were superseded by the surface-printed one of similar value in venetian red, designed and printed by Messrs De la Rue & Co. Three-halfpenny Stamp.—October 1, 1870: large crown water-mark; lake-red; perforated 14. Superseded in October 188o by De la Rue's surface-printed stamp. Twopenny Stamp.—First issue, 1st (for 6th) May 184o: 'small crown watermark; light blue, dark blue; imperforate. Second issue, March 1841: small crown watermark; white line below " Postage " and above " Twopence "; dull to dark blue; imperforate. Third issue, February (?) 1854: small crown watermark; blue, dark blue; perforated 16. Fourth issue, March 1855: small crown watermark; blue, dark blue; perforated 14. Fifth issue, July 1855: large crown watermark; blue; perforated 16; blue, dark blue; perforated 14. Sixth issue, May (?) 1857: large crown watermark; white lines thinner, blue, dark blue; perforated 14; dark blue; perforated 16. Seventh issue, July 1858: large crown watermark; white lines as in fifth issue; deep to very deep blue; perforated i6. Eighth issue, April (?) 1869: large crown water-mark; white lines thinner; dull blue, deep to very deep blue, violet blue; perforated 14. Superseded in December 188o by De la Rue's surface-printed stamp. (ii.) Embossed Stamps. Produced by Dryden Brothers, of Lambeth, from designs submitted by Mr Ormond Hill of Somerset House, engraved after Wyon's medal. Sixpence.—March r, 1854: violet, reddish lilac, dark violet; imperforate. Superseded in October 1856 by De la Rue's surface-printed stamp. Tenpence.—November 6, 1848: pale to very deep chestnut-brown; imperforate. Superseded by De la Rue's surface-printed stamp in 1867. One Shilling.—September II, 1847: emerald green, pure deep green, yellow-green; imperforate. Superseded in November 1856 by De la Rue's surface-printed stamp. (iii.) Surface-printed Stamps before z880. Twopence-half-penny.—First issue, July 1, 1875: small anchor watermark; lilac-rose; perforated 14. Second issue, May 1876: orb watermark; lilac-rose, perforated 14. Third issue, February 5, 188o: orb watermark; cobalt, and some ultramarine; perforated 14. Fourth issue, March 23, 1881: large crown watermark; bright blue; perforated 14. Threepence. All perforated 14. First issue, May 1, 1862: heraldic emblems watermark; carmine (pale to deep). Second issue, March 1, 1865: same watermark as above; carmine-pink. Third issue, July 1867: watermarked with a spray of rose; carmine-pink, carmine-rose. Fourth issue, July r873. watermark as third issue; carmine-rose. Fifth issue, January 1, 1881: watermark large crown; carmine-rose. Sixth issue, January 1, 1883; watermark as fifth issue; purple shades overprinted with value in deep pink. Fourpence.—All perforated 14. First issue, July 31, 1855 watermark small garter; deep and dull carmine. Second issue, February 1856: watermark medium garter; pale carmine. Third issue, November 1, 1856: watermark medium garter; dull rose. Fourth issue, January 1857: watermark large garter; dull and pale to deep rose, pink. Fifth issue, January 15, 1862: water-mark large garter; carmine-vermilion, vermilion-red. Sixth issue, July 1865: watermark large garter; pale to dark vermilion. Seventh issue, March 1, 1876: watermark large garter; pale vermilion. Eighth issue, February 27, 1877: watermark large garter; pale sage-green. Ninth issue, July 188o: watermark large garter; mouse-brown. Tenth issue, January 1, 1881: watermark large crown; mouse-brown. Sixpence.—All perforated 14. First issue, October 21, 1856: no letters in angles; watermark heraldic emblems; dull lilac. Second issue, December r, 1862: small white letters in angles; otherwise as first issue. Third issue, April 1, 1865: large white letters in angles; otherwise as first issue. Fourth issue, June 1867: water-mark spray of rose; otherwise as third issue; some in bright lilac. Fifth issue, March 1869: as fourth issue; lilac, deep lilac, purple-lilac. Sixth issue, April 1, 1872: as fourth issue; bright chestnut-brown. Seventh issue, October 1872: as fourth issue; buff. Eighth issue, April 1873: as fourth issue; greenish grey. Ninth issue, April 1, 1874: watermarked as fourth issue; large coloured letters in angles; greenish grey. Tenth issue, January 1, 1881: large crown watermark; otherwise as ninth issue. Eleventh issue, January 1, 1883: as tenth issue; purple, overprinted with value in deep pink. Eightpence.—September II, 1876: watermark large garter; chrome-yellow, pale yellow; perforated 14. Ninepence.—All perforated 14. First issue, January 15, 1862: watermark heraldic emblems; ochre-brown, bright bistre. Second issue, December 1, 1865: watermark as above; bistre-brown, straw. Third issue, October 1867: watermark spray of rose; straw. Tenpence.—July 1, 1867: watermark spray of rose; red-brown; perforated 14. One Shilling.—All perforated 14. First issue, November 1, 1856: watermark heraldic emblems; no letters in angles; dull green, pale to dark green. Second issue, December 1, 1862: as above; small white letters in angles; pale to dark green. Third issue, February 1865: as above; large white letters in angles; pale to dark green, bluish green. Fourth issue, August 1867: water-mark spray of rose; otherwise as third issue; pale to dark green, bluish green. Fifth issue, September 1873: large coloured letters in angles; otherwise as fourth issue; light to dark green, bluish green. Sixth issue, October 14, 188o: as fifth issue; pale red-brown. Seventh issue, June 15, 1881: watermark large crown; otherwise as sixth issue; pale red-brown. Two Shillings.—Watermark spray of rose; perforated 14. First issue, July 1, 1867: pale to full blue, very deep blue. Second issue, February 1880: light brown. Five Shillings.—First issue, July 1, 1867: watermarked with a cross pate; pink, pale rose; perforated 151 by 15. Second issue, November 1882: watermark large anchor; carmine-pink; perforated 14. Ten Shillings.—First issue, September 26, 1878: watermark cross pate; green-grey; perforated 151 by 15. Second issue, February 1883: watermark large anchor; green-grey; perforated 14. One Pound.—First issue, September 26, 1878: watermark cross pate; brown-violet; perforated 152 by 15. Second issue, December 1882: watermark large anchor; brown-violet; perforated 14. (iv.) After 1880. In 1880-1881 the halfpenny, penny, three-halfpenny and two-penny surface-printed stamps superseded the line-engraved stamps of the same value, and a new surface-printed stamp of fivepence was introduced. These stamps are distinguished from the stamps already described by the absence of plate-numbers and (except in the penny stamp) of check-letters in the corners; also by the coarser style of engraving necessary for printing by machines driven by steam-power. One Halfpenny.—First issue, October 14, 188o: 'large crown watermark; pale green, bluish green, dark green; perforated 14. Second issue, April 1, 1884: slate-blue. One Penny.—January 1, 188o: large crown watermark; venetian red; perforated 14. Three-halfpence.--October 14, 188o: large crown watermark; venetian red; perforated 14. Twopence.—December 8, 1880: large crown watermark; pale to very deep carmine red; perforated 14. Fivepence.—March 15, 1881: large crown watermark; dark dull indigo, indigo-black; perforated 14. The Customs and Inland Revenue Act which came into force on June 1, 1881, made it unnecessary to provide separate penny stamps for postal and fiscal purposes. By an act of 1882 (45 & 46 Viet. c. 72) it became unnecessary to provide separate stamps for postal and fiscal purposes up to and including stamps of the value of 2s. 6d. A new series was therefore issued: One Penny.—All perforated 14. First issue, July 12, 1881: large crown watermark; 14 pearls in each angle; purple-lilac, purple. Second issue, December 12, 1881: as first issue; 16 pearls in each angle; purple. Three-halfpence.—April 1884: large crown watermark; purple; perforated 14. Twopence.—Ditto. Twopence-half penny.—Ditto. Threepence.—Ditto. Fourpence.—Ditto, except in colour (sea-green). Fivepence.—As fourpence. Sixpence.—Ditto. Ninepence.—Ditto. One Shilling.—Ditto. Two Shillings and Sixpence.—July 22, 1883: watermark large anchor; purple, dull lilac, dark purple; perforated 14. Five Shillings.—April 1, 1884: ditto; pale to very deep carmine. Ten Shillings.—Ditto; pale blue, cobalt, light to dull blue. One Pound.—First issue, April 1, 1884: large crown watermark, 3 appearing in each stamp; brown-violet; perforated.14. Second issue, January 27, 1891: same watermark; bright green; perforated 14 Five Pounds.—March 21, 1882: large anchor watermark; orange-vermilion, vermilion, bright vermilion; perforated 14. Following upon the report of a committee of officials of the General Post Office and Somerset House, a series of new stamps, commonly known as the " Jubilee " issue, was introduced on January i, 1887, all of which between one halfpenny and one shilling exclusive were printed either in two colours or on a coloured paper, so that each stamp was printed in part in one or other of the doubly fugitive inks—green and purple. One Halfpenny.—January I, 1887: large crown watermark; orange-vermilion to bright vermilion; perforated 14. Three-halfpence.—January I, 1887: as the halfpenny; green and purple. Twopence.—Ditto: green and scarlet to carmine. Twopence-halfpenny.--January 1, 1887: blue paper; watermark large crown; dark purple; perforated 14. Threepence.-.-January 1,1887: yellow paper; watermarked with a large crown; urple;perforated 14. Fourpence.=January t, 1887: watermark and perforation as in threepence; green and' brown. Fourpence-halfpenny.—September 15, 1892: as the fourpence; green and carmine. Fivepence.—January 1, 1887: as the fourpence; purple and blue. Sixpence.—January 1, 1887: pale red paper; watermarked with a large crown; purple; perforated 14. Ninepence.—January 1, 1887: large crown watermark; purple and blue; perforated 14. Tenpence.—February 24, 1890: as the ninepence; purple and carmine-red. One Shilling.—January 1, 1887: as the ninepence; green. • The various fiscal stamps admitted to postage uses, the over-printed official; stamps for use by government departments, and the stamps specially surcharged for use in the Ottoman Empire, do not call for detailed notice in this article. The distinctive telegraph stamps are as follows: One Halfpenny.—April 1, 188o: shamrock watermark; orange vermilion; perforated 14. One Penny.—February I, 1876: as the halfpenny; reddish brown. Threepence.—Perforated 14. First issue, February 1, 1876: watermark spray of rose ; carmine. Second issue, August 1881: watermark large crown; carmine. Fourpence.—March I, 1877: watermark large garter; pale sage-green; perforated 14. Sixpence.---Perforated 14. First issue, March 1, 1877: water-mark spray of rose; greenish-grey. Second issue, July 1881: as first issue; watermark large crown. One Shilling.—Perforated 14. First issue, February I, 1876: watermark spray of rose; green. Second issue, October 188o: watermark spray of rose; pale red-brown. Third issue, February 1881 : watermark large crown ; pale red brown. Three Shillings.—Perforated 14; slate blue. First issue, March 1, 1877: watermark spray of rose. Second issue, August 1881: watermark large crown. Five Shillings.—First issue, February I, 1876: watermark cross pate; dark to light rose; perforated 15 by 152. Second issue, August 1881: watermark large anchor; carmine-rose; perforated 14. Ten Shillings.—March 1, 1877; watermark cross pate; green-grey; perforated 15 by 152. One Pound.—March 1, 1877: watermark shamrock; brown-purple ; perforated 14. Five Pounds.—March 1, 1877: watermark shamrock; orange-vermilion: perforated 152 by 15. In addition to these, there were stamps specially prepared for the army telegraphs.
End of Article: ENGLISH
[back]
ENGLEWOOD
[next]
ENGLISH CHANNEL (commonly called " The Channel "; F...

Additional information and Comments

There are no comments yet for this article.
» Add information or comments to this article.
Please link directly to this article:
Highlight the code below, right click and select "copy." Paste it into a website, email, or other HTML document.