See also:EARL OF (1632-1683),
See also:English statesman, son of Arthur, 1st Baron Capel of Hadham (c . 1641), executed in 1649, and of
See also:Elizabeth, daughter and
See also:heir of
See also:Charles Morrison of Cashiobury in
See also:Hertfordshire, was baptized on the 2-8th of
See also:January 1632 . In
See also:June 1648, then a sickly boy of sixteen, he was taken by'
See also:Fairfax's soldiers from Hadham to Colchester, which his
See also:father was defending, and carried every
See also:round the
See also:works with the hope of inducing
See also:Lord Capel to surrender the place . At the restoration he was created
See also:Malden and earl of
See also:Essex (2othof
See also:April 1661), with
See also:remainder to the male issue of his father, and was made lord-
See also:lieutenant of Hertfordshire and a few years later of
See also:Wiltshire.' He early showed himself antagonistic to the
See also:court, to
See also:Roman Catholicism, and to the extension of the royal
See also:prerogative, and was coupled by Charles II. with Holles as " stiff and sullen men," who would not yield against their convictions to his solicitations . In 1669 he was sent as
See also:ambassador to
See also:King Christian V. of Den-mark, in which capacity he gained
See also:credit by refusing to strike his
See also:flag to the
See also:governor of Kronborg . In 1672 he was made a privy councillor and lord-lieutenant of
See also:Ireland . He remained in
See also:office till 1697, and his administration was greatly commended by Burnet and
See also:Ormonde,' the former describing it "as a
See also:pattern to all that come after him." He identified himself with Irish interests, and took immense pains to understand the constitution and the
See also:political necessities of the
See also:country, appointing men of real merit to office, and maintaining an exceptional independence from solicitation and influence . He held a just
See also:balance between the Roman Catholics, the English
See also:Church and the Presbyterians, protecting the former as far as public opinion in England would permit, and governing the native Irish with firmness and moderation . The purity and patriotism of his administration were in strong contrast to the hopeless corruption prevalent in that at home and naturally aroused bitter opposition, as an obstacle to the unscrupulous employment of Irish revenues for the satisfaction of the court and the king's expenses . In particular he came into conflict with Lord
See also:Ranelagh, to whom had been assigned the Irish revenues on
See also:condition of his supplying the requirements of the
See also:crown, and whose accounts Essex refused to pass . He opposed strongly the lavish gifts of forfeited estates to court'favourites and mistresses, prevented the
See also:grant of Phoenix
See also:Park to the duchess of
See also:Cleveland, and refused to encumber the administration by granting reversions . Finally the intrigues of his enemies at home, and Charles's continual demands for
See also:money, which Ranelagh undertook to satisfy, brought about his recall in April 1677 .
He immediately joined the country party and the opposition to
See also:government, and on the latter's fall in 1679 was appointed a
See also:commissioner of the
See also:treasury, and the same
See also:year a member of Sir
See also:Temple's new-modelled council, He followed the lead of
See also:Halifax, who advocated not the exclusion of
See also:James, but the
See also:limitation of his
See also:powers, and looked to the
See also:prince of Orange rather than to
See also:Monmouth as the
See also:leader of Protestantism, incurring thereby the hostility of
See also:Shaftesbury, but at the same
See also:time gaining the confidence of Charles . He was appointed by Charles together with Halifax to hear the charges against Lauderdale . In
See also:July he wrote a wise and statesmanlike
See also:letter to the king, advising him to renounce his project of raising a new
See also:company of
See also:guards . Together with Halifax he urged Charles to summon the parliament, and after his refusal resigned the treasury in
See also:November, the real cause being, according to one account,' a demand upon the treasury by the duchess of Cleveland for £25,000, according to another " the niceness of touching French money," " that makes my Lord Essex's squeasy stomach that it can no longer
See also:digest his employment." 5 ' i.e. in the Capel
See also:line . 'Hist .
See also:MSS .
See also:ser.; Duke of
See also:Beaufort's MSS . 45 . '
See also:Life of Ormonde, by T .
See also:Carte, viii . 468 (1851), vol. iv. p . 529 .
' Hist . MSS . Comm . 7th
See also:Rep. app . 477b . 5 lb . 6th Rep. app . 74113 . Subsequently his political attitude underwent a
See also:change, the exact cause of which is not clear—probably a growing conviction of the dangers threatened by a Roman Catholic sovereign of the character of James . He now, in 168o, joined Shaftesbury's party and supported the Exclusion
See also:Bill, and on its rejection by the Lords carried a motion for an association to execute the
See also:scheme of expedients promoted by Halifax . On the 25th of January 1681 at the
See also:head of fifteen peers he presented a petition to the king, couched in exaggerated language, requesting the
See also:abandonment of the session of parliament at
See also:Oxford . He was a jealous prosecutor of the Roman Catholics in the popish plot, and voted for Stafford's
See also:attainder, on the other
See also:hand interceding for Archbishop Plunket, implicated in the pretended Irish plot .
He, however, refused to follow Shaftesbury in his extreme courses, declined participation in the latter'sdesign to seize the Tower in 1682, and on Shaftesbury's consequent departure from England became the leader of Monmouth's
See also:faction, in which were now included Lord
See also:Russell, Algernon
See also:Sidney, and Lord
See also:Howard of Escrick . Essex took no
See also:part in the wilder schemes of the party, but after the
See also:discovery of the
See also:House Plot in June 1683, and the capture of the leaders, he was arrested at Cashiobury and imprisoned in the Tower . His
See also:spirits and fortitude appear immediately to have abandoned him, and on the 13th of July he was discovered in his chamber with his
See also:throat cut . His
See also:death was attributed, quite groundlessly, to Charles and James, and the evidence points clearly if not conclusively to suicide, his
See also:motive being possibly to prevent an attainder and preserve his
See also:estate for his
See also:family . He, was, however, undoubtedlya victim of the
See also:Stuart administration, and theantagonism and tragic end of men like Essex, deserving men, naturally devoted to the
See also:throne, constitutes a severe
See also:indictment of the Stuart
See also:rule . He was a statesman of strong and sincere patriotism, just and unselfish, conscientious and laborious in the fulfilment of public duties, blameless in his official and private life .
See also:Evelyn describes him as " a sober, wise, judicious and pondering
See also:person, not illiterate beyond the rule of most noblemen in this age, very well versed in English
See also:history and affairs, industrious, frugal, methodical and every way accomplished "; and declares he was much deplored, few believing he had ever harboured any seditious designs.' He married
See also:Lady Elizabeth Percy, daughter of Algernon, loth earl of
See also:Northumberland, by whom, besides a daughter, he had an only son Algernon (167o-1710), who succeeded him as 2nd earl of Essex .
EARLS OF ESSEX
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