See also:Aether of
See also:pharmacy, a colourless, volatile, highly inflammable liquid, of specific gravity o.736 at o°, boiling-point 350 C., and freezing-point-r17°.4 C . (K . Olszewski) . It has a strong and characteristic odour, and a hot sweetish taste, is soluble in ten parts of
See also:water, and in all proportions in
See also:alcohol, and dissolves bromine,- iodine, and, in small quantities,
See also:sulphur and phosphorus, also the volatile oils, most fatty and resinous substances,
See also:guncotton, caoutchouc and certain of the
See also:vegetable alkaloids . The vapour mixed with
See also:oxygen or air is violently explosive . The making of
See also:ether by the
See also:action of sulphuric acid on alcohol was known in about the 13th century; and later
See also:Valentine and
See also:Cordus described its preparation and properties . The name ether appears to have been applied to the
See also:drug only since the times of Frobenius, who in 1730 termed it spiritus aethereus or vini vitriolatus . It - was considered to be a sulphur compound, hence its name sulphur ether; this idea was proved to be erroneous by Valentine
See also:Rose in about 1800 . Ether is manufactured by the
See also:distillation of 5 parts of 90 % alcohol with g parts of concentrated sulphuric acid at a temperature of 14o°-145° C., a
See also:constant stream of alcohol being caused to flow into the mixture during the operation . The distillate is purified by treatment with lime and calcium chloride, and subsequent distillation . The mechanism of this reaction was explained by A .
See also:Williamson in 185o .
For other methods of preparation see
See also:ETHERS.' ' See also J. v . Liebig,
See also:Ann . Chem . Pharm., 1837, 23, p . 39; 1839, 30, p . 129; E .
See also:Mitscherlich, Pogg . Ann., 1836, 31, p . 273;1841, 53, p . 95; A . W . Williamson, Phil .
Mag., 185o (3), 37, p . 350 . The presence of so small a quantity as 1% of alcohol may be detected in ether by the
See also:colour imparted to it by aniline
See also:violet; if water or acetic acid be
See also:present, the ether must be shaken with anhydrous potassium carbonate before the application of the test . When heated with
See also:zinc dust, it yields
See also:ethylene and water . Chromic acid oxidizes it to acetic acid and
See also:ozone oxidizes it to
See also:ethyl peroxide . In contact with hydriodic acid
See also:gas at o° C., it forms ethyl iodide (R . D .
See also:Silva, Ber., 1875, 8, p . 903), and with water and a little sulphuric acid at 18o° C., it yields alcohol (E . Erlenmeyer, Zeit. f. chemie, 1868,'p . 343)• It forms crystalline compounds with bromine and with many metallic salts .
See also:Medicine.—For the anaesthetic properties of ether see
See also:ANAESTHESIA .
Applied externally, ether evaporates very rapidly, producing such intense
See also:cold as to cause marked
See also:local anaesthesia . For this purpose it is best applied as a
See also:fine spray, but ethyl chloride is generally found more efficient and produces less subsequent discomfort . It
See also:aids the absorption of fats and may be used with
See also:liver oil when the latter is administered by the skin . If it be rubbed in or evaporation be prevented, it acts, like alcohol and
See also:chloroform, as an irritant . Ten to twenty minims of ether, subcutaneously injected, constitute perhaps the most rapid and powerful cardiac stimulant known, and are often employed for this purpose in cases of syncope under anaesthesia . Taken internally, ether acts in many respects similarly to alcohol and chloroform, but its stimulant action on the heart is much more marked, being exerted both reflexly from the stomach and directly after its rapid absorption . Ether is thus the type of a rapidly diffusible stimulant . It is also useful in relieving the paroxysms of asthma . The dose for repeated administration is from 10 to 30 minims and for a single administration up to a drachm . Chronic Poisoning.—A dose of a little more than a drachm (a teaspoonful) will produce a
See also:condition of inebriation lasting for one-
See also:half to one
See also:hour, but the dose must soon be greatly in-creased . The after-effects are, if anything, rather pleasant, and the
See also:habit of ether drinking is certainly not so injurious as alcohol-ism . The
See also:principal symptons of chronic ether-drinking are a weakening of the activity of the
See also:special senses, and notably sight and
See also:hearing, a lowering of the intelligence and a degree of general paresis (partial
See also:paralysis) of motion .
SIR GEORGE ETHEREDGE [or ETHEREGE] (c. 1635-1691)
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