See also:part or branch of the science of linguistics which deals with the origin or derivation of words . The Greek word Ervµos, in so far as it was applied to words, referred to the real underlying meaning rather than to the origin . It was the
See also:Stoics who asserted that the
See also:discovery of re Ervµov would explain the essence of the things and ideas represented by words .
See also:Plato in the Cratylus makes a nearer approach to the
See also:modern view when he connects, e.g. yvvi7, woman, with yovn, seed, while he jests at such etymological feats as the derivation of oupavos,
See also:heaven, barb roil op&v ra avw, from looking at things above, or avOpwiros, man, from 6 avaOp%ov d . 6irwnrev, he who Iooks up at what he
See also:sees . Until the
See also:comparative study of
See also:philology and the development of the
See also:laws underlying phonetic changes, the derivation of words was a
See also:matter mostly of guess-
See also:work, sometimes right but more often wrong, based on superficial resemblances of
See also:form and the like . This popular etymology, to which the Germans have given the name Volksetymologie or folk-etymology, has had much influence in the form which words take (e.g . " crawfish " or
See also:crayfish," from the French crevis, modern ecrevisse, or " sand-
See also:blind," from samblind, i.e. semi-,
See also:half-blind), and has frequently been the occasion of homonyms . W . W .
See also:Skeat has embodied in certain canons or rules some well-known principles which should be observed in giving the etymology of a word; these may be usefully given here: " (1) Before attempting an etymology, ascertain the earliest form and use of the word, and observe chronology . (2) Observe
See also:history and geography; borrowings are due to actual contact .
(3) Observe phonetic laws, especially those which regulate the mutual relation of consonants in the various
See also:languages, at the same
See also:time comparing the vowel sounds . (4) In comparing two words, A and B, belonging to the same language, of which A contains the lesser number of syllables, A must be taken to be the more
See also:original word, unless we have evidence of contraction or other corruption . (5) In comparing two words, A and B, belonging to the same language and consisting of the same number of syllables, the older form can usually be distinguished by observing the sound of the
See also:principal vowel . (6) Strong verbs, in the Teutonic languages, and the so-called " irregular verbs " in Latin, are commonly to be considered as
See also:primary, other related forms being taken from them . (q) The whole of a word, and not a portion only, ought to be reasonably accounted for; and, in tracing changes of form, any infringement of phonetic laws is to be regarded with suspicion . (8) Mere resemblances of form and apparent connexion in sense between languages which have different phonetic laws or no necessary connexion are commonly a delusion, and are not to be regarded . (9) When words in two different languages are more nearly alike than the ordinary phonetic laws would allow, there is a strong probability that one language has borrowed the word from the other . Truly cognate words ought not to be too much alike . (1o) It is useless to offer an explanation of an
See also:English word which will not also explain all the cognate forms " (Introduction to Etymological
See also:Dictionary of the English Language, 1898) . An English word is either " the extant formal representative or
See also:direct phonetic descendant of an earlier (Teutonic) word; or it has been adopted or adapted from some
See also:foreign language," adoption being a popular, and adaptation being a
See also:literary or learned
See also:process; finally, there is formation, i.e. the " combination of existing words (foreign or native) or parts of words with each other or with living formatives, i.e. syllables which no longer exist as
See also:separate words, but yet have an appreciable signification which they impart to the new product " (see Introduction to the
See also:Oxford New English Dictionary, p. xx) . A further
See also:classification of words according to their origin is that into (I) naturals, i.e. purely native words, like "
See also:mother," "
See also:father," "
See also:house "; (2) those which become perfectly naturalized, though of foreign origin, like " cat," " mutton," "
See also:beef "; (3) denizens, words naturalized in usage but keeping the foreign pronunciation, spelling and inflections, e.g . " focus," " camera "; (4) aliens, words for foreign things, institutions, offices, &c., for which there is no English
See also:equivalent, e.g., menu, table d'hote, impi, lakh, mollah,
See also:tarbush; (5) casuals, e.g., bloc, Ausgleich, sabotage, differing only from " aliens " in their temporary use .
The full etymology of a word should include the phonetic descent, the source of the word, whether from a native or from a foreign origin, and, if the latter, whether by adoption or adaptation, or, if a formed word, the origin of the parts which go to make it up . In the
See also:present edition of the
See also:Encyclopaedia Britannica such full etymologies, which would be necessary and in place in an etymological dictionary, have not been given in every instance, but brief etymological notes are appended, showing in outline the
See also:sources and history, and in many cases the development in meaning . (See also DICTIONARY.) EU, a
See also:town of
See also:north-western France, in the department of
See also:Seine-Inferieure, on the
See also:river Bresle, 64 m . N.N.E. of
See also:Rouen on the Western railway, and 2 m . E.S.E. of Le Treport, at the mouth of the Bresle, which is canalized between the two towns . Pop . (1906) 4865 . The extensive
See also:forest of Eu lies to the south-east of the town . Eu has three buildings of importance—the beautiful
See also:church of St
See also:Laurent (12th and 13th centuries) of which the exterior of the
See also:choir with its three tiers of ornamented buttressing and the
See also:arches between the pillars of the
See also:nave are architecturally notable; the
See also:chapel of the Jesuit
See also:college (built about 1625), in which are the tombs of
See also:Henry, third duke of Guise, and his wife, Katherine of
See also:Cleves; and the chateau . The latter was begun by Henry of Guise in 1578, in place of an older chateau burnt by
See also:Louis XI. in 1475 to prevent its capture by the English . It was continued by Mademoiselle de Montpensier in the latter half of the 17th century, and restored by Louis Philippe who, in 1843 and 1845, received
See also:Victoria within its walls . In 1902 the greater part of the
See also:building was destroyed by
See also:fire .
The town has a tribunal ofcommerce and a communal college,
See also:flour-mills, manufactories of earthenware, biscuits, furniture, casks, and
See also:glass and
See also:works; the
See also:port has
See also:trade in
See also:flax, &c . Eu (
See also:Augusta) was in existence under the Romans . The first
See also:line of its
See also:counts, supposed to be descended from the dukes of
See also:Normandy, had as heiress Alix (died 1227), who married Raoul (
See also:Ralph) de
See also:Lusignan, known as the Sire d'
See also:Issoudun from his lordship of that name . Through their
See also:Marie, the countship of Eu passed by
See also:marriage to the house of Brienne, two members of which, both named Raoul, were constables of France .
See also:John confiscated the countship in 1350, and gave it to John of
See also:Artois (1352) . His
See also:Charles, son of
See also:Philip of Artois, count of Eu, and Marie of
See also:Berry, played a conspicuous part in the
See also:Hundred Years' War . He was taken prisoner at the
See also:battle of
See also:Agincourt (1415), and remained in England twenty-three years, in accordance with the dying injunctions of Henry V. that he was not to be let go until his son, Henry VI., was of age to govern his dominions . He accompanied Charles VII. on his
See also:campaigns in Normandy and Guyenne, and was made
See also:lieutenant-general of these two provinces . It was he who effected a reconciliation between the king and the dauphin after the revolt of the latter . He was created a peer of France in 1458, and made
See also:governor of
See also:Paris during the war of the
See also:League of the Public Weal (1465) . He died on the 15th of
See also:July 1472 at the age of about seventy-eight, leaving no
See also:children . His
See also:sister's son, John of
See also:Burgundy, count of
See also:Nevers, now received the countship, which passed through heiresses, in the 15th century, to the house of Cleves, and to that of
See also:Lorraine-Guise .
In 166o Henry II. of Lorraine, duke of Guise, sold it to " Mademoiselle,"Anne Marie Louise d'
See also:Orleans, duchesse de Montpensier (q.v.), who made it over (1682) to the duke of Maine,
See also:bastard son of Louis XIV., as part of the price of the
See also:release of her
See also:lover Lauzun . The second son of the duke of Maine, Louis Charles de Bourbon (17o1-1775),
See also:bore the title of count of Eu . In 1755 he inherited from his elder
See also:brother, Louis Auguste de Bourbon (1700-1755),
See also:prince de
See also:Dombes, great estates, part of which he sold to the king . The
See also:remainder, which was still considerable, passed to his
See also:cousin the duke of Penthievre . These estates were confiscated at the Revolution; but at the Restoration they were bestowed by Louis XVII. on the duchess-dowager of Orleans who, in 1821, bequeathed them to her son, afterwards King Louis Philippe . They were again confiscated in 1852, but were restored to the Orleans
See also:family by the
See also:Assembly after the Franco-German War . The title of count of Eu was revived in the 19th century in favour of the eldest son of the duke of Nemours, second son of King Louis Philippe .
WILLIAM ETTY (1787-1849)
EUBOEA (pronounced Evvia in the modern language)
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