See also:king of
See also:Bactria (c . 175–129 B.C.), came to the
See also:throne by a
See also:rebellion against the
See also:dynasty of
See also:Euthydemus, whose son
See also:Demetrius had conquered western India . His authority was challenged by a
See also:great many other pretenders and Greek dynasts in Sogdiana,
See also:Aria (
See also:Herat), Drangiana (Sijistan), &c., whose names—Pantaleon,
See also:Antalcidas " the victorious " (vtKf06pos),
See also:Plato, whose unique
See also:coin is dated from the
See also:year 147 of the Seleucid era (=166 B.c.), and others—are known only from coins with Greek and
See also:Indian legends . In the west the
See also:Parthian king
See also:Mithradates I. began to enlarge his
See also:kingdom and attacked Eucratides; he succeeded in conquering two province between Bactria and
See also:Parthia, called by
See also:Strabo " the
See also:country of Aspiones and Turiva," two Iranian names . But the
See also:principal opponent of Eucratides was Demetrius (q.v.) of India, who attacked him with a large army " of 300,000 men"; Eucratides fled with 300 men into a fortress and was besieged . But at last he
See also:beat Demetrius, and conquered a great
See also:part of western India . According to
See also:Apollodorus of Artemita, the historian of the Parthians, he ruled over r000 towns (Strabo xv . 686; transferred to
See also:Diodotus of Bactria in
See also:Justin 41, 4 . 6); and the extent of his kingdom over Bactria, Sogdiana (
See also:Bokhara), Drangiana (Sijistan),
See also:Kabul and the western
See also:Punjab is confirmed by numerous coins . On these coins, which bear Greek and Indian legends (in Kharoshti writing, cf . BACTRIA), he is called " the great King Eucratides." On one his portrait and name are associated on the
See also:reverse with those of Heliocles and Laodice; Heliocles was probably his son, and the coin may have been struck to celebrate his
See also:marriage with Laodice, who seems to have been a Seleucid princess . In Bactria Eucratides founded a Greek city, Eucratideia (Strabo xi .
516, Ptolem. vi. r r . 8) . On his return from India Eucratides was (about 150 B.C.) murdered by his son, whom he had made co-
See also:regent (Justin 41, 6) . This son is probably the Heliocles just mentioned, who on his coins calls himself " the Just " ((3asnMws 'HA1oKX ovs &Kalov) . In his
See also:time the Graeco-Bactrian kingdom lost the countries
See also:north of the
See also:Hindu Kush . Mongolian tribes, the Yue-chi of the
See also:Chinese, called by the Greeks Scythians, by the
See also:Saka, among which the Tochari are the most conspicuous, invaded Sogdiana in 159 B.C. and conquered Bactria in 139 . Meanwhile the Parthian
See also:kings Mithradates I. and Phraates II. conquered the provinces in the west of the Hindu Kush (Justin 41, 6 . 8); for a
See also:short time Mithradates I. extended his dominion to the
See also:borders of India (Diod . 33 . 18,
See also:Orosius v . 4 . 16) .
See also:Antiochus VII . Sidetes tried once more to restore the Seleucid dominion in 130, Phraates allied himself with the Scythians (Justin 42, 1 . 1); but after his decisive victory in 129 he was attacked by them and fell in the
See also:battle . The changed state of affairs is shown by the numerous coins of Heliocles; while his predecessors maintained the
See also:Attic standard, which had been dominant throughout the Greek east, he on his later coins passes over to a native
See also:silver standard, and his
See also:bronze coins became quite barbarous . Besides his coins we possess coins of many other Greek kings of these times, most of whom take the epithet of " invincible " (avLic ros) and "saviour" Qwrilp) . They are records of a desperate struggle of the Greeks to maintain their
See also:nationality and independence in the Far East; one usurper after the other
See also:rose to fight for the
See also:rescue of the kingdom . But these
See also:wars only accelerated the destruction; about 120 B.C. almost the whole of eastern
See also:Iran was in the hands either of a Parthian dynasty or of the Mongol invaders, who are now called Indo-Scythians . Only in the Kabul valley and western India the Greeks maintained themselves about two generations longer (see MENANDER) . (ED .
EUDAEMONISM (from Gr. eb&u,uosla, literally the sta...
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