THE EXODUS , the name given to the
See also:journey (Gr. lobos) of the Israelites from
See also:Egypt into
See also:Palestine, under the leadership of Moses and
See also:Aaron, as described in the books of the Bible from Exodus to
See also:Joshua . These books contain the
See also:national epic of Judaism
See also:relating the deliverance of the
See also:people from bondage in Egypt, the overthrow of the pursuing
See also:Pharaoh and his army, the divinely guided wanderings through the
See also:wilderness and the final entry into the promised
See also:land . Careful
See also:criticism of the narratives3 has resulted in the separation of later accretions from the earliest records, and the tracing of the elaboration of older traditions under the influence of developing religious and social institutions . In the
See also:story of the Exodus there have been incorporated codes of
See also:laws and institutions which were to be observed by the descendants of the Israelites in their future To the same
See also:hand are to be ascribed also
See also:xxvii . 6, 20, 21;
See also:xxviii . 41;
See also:xxix . 21, 38-41 . ' See the articles on the books in question . home, and these, really of later origin, have thus been thrown back to the earlier
See also:period in
See also:order to give them the
See also:stamp of authority . So, although a certain amount of the narrative could date from the days of Moses, the Exodus story has been made the vehicle for the aims and ideals of subsequent ages, and has been adapted from
See also:time to time to the requirements of later stages of thought . The
See also:work of criticism has brought to
See also:light important examples of fluctuating tradition, singular lacunae in some places and unusual
See also:wealth of tradition in others, and has demonstrated that much of that which had long been
See also:felt to be impossible. and incredible was due to writers of the
See also:post-exilic age many centuries after the presumed date of the events . The
See also:book of
See also:Genesis closes with the
See also:migration of Jacob's
See also:family into Egypt to
See also:escape the
See also:famine in
See also:Canaan .
Jacob died and was buried in Canaan by his sons, who, however, returned again to the pastures which the
See also:king had granted them in
See also:Goshen . Their
See also:Joseph on his
See also:bed promised that
See also:God would bring them to the land promised to their fore-fathers and solemnly adjured them to carry up his bones (Gen . 1.) . In the book of Exodus the family has become a people.' The Pharaoh is hostile, and Yahweh, the Israelite deity, is moved to send a deliverer; on the events that followed see ExoDUS, BooK OF; MOSES . It has been thought that dynastic changes occasioned the
See also:change in Egyptian policy (e.g. the expulsion of the
See also:Hyksos), but if the Israelites built Rameses and
See also:Pithom (Ex. i . 1r), cities which, as excavation has shown, belong to the time of Rameses II . (13th century B.C.), earlier
See also:dates are in-admissible . On these grounds the Exodus may have taken place under one of his successors, and since Mineptah or Merneptah (son of Rameses), in relating his successes in Palestine, boasts that Ysiraal is desolated, it would seem that the Israelites had already returned . On the other hand, it has been suggested that when Jacob and his family entered Egypt, some Israelite tribes had remained behind and that it is to these that Mineptah's inscription refers . The problem is complicated by the fact that, from the Egyptian evidence, not only was there at this time no remarkable emigration of oppressed
See also:Hebrews, but Bedouin tribes were then receiving permission to enter Egypt and to feed their flocks upon Egyptian
See also:soil . It might be assumed that the Israelites (or at least those who had not remained behind in Palestine) effected their departure at a somewhat later date, and in the time of Mineptah's successor, Seti II., there is an Egyptian
See also:report of the pursuit of some fugitive slaves over the eastern frontier . The value of all such evidence will naturally depend largely upon the estimate formed of the biblical narratives, but it is necessary to observe that these have not yet found Egyptian testimony to support them .
Although theinformation which has been brought to bear upon Egyptian
See also:life and customs substantiates the general accuracy of the
See also:local colouring in some of the biblical narratives, the latter contain several inherent improbabilities, and whatever future
See also:research may yield, no definite trace of Egyptian influence has so far been found in Israelite institutions . No allusions to Israelites in Egypt have yet been found on the monuments; against fhe view that the Aperiu (or Apury) of the inscriptions were Hebrews, see S . R .
See also:Driver in D . G .
See also:Hogarth, Authority and Archaeology, pp . 56 sqq . ; H . W . Hogg, Ency . Bib. col . 1310 .
.The plagues of Egypt have been shown to be those to which the land is naturally subject (R .
See also:Thomson, Plagues of Egypt), but the description of the relations of Moses and Aaron to the
See also:court raises many difficult questions (H . P .
See also:Smith, O.T . Ilist. pp . 57-6o) . Those who reject Ex. i. i i and hold that 48o years elapsed between the Exodus and the foundation of the
See also:temple (i
See also:Kings vi. i, see BIBLE: Chronology) place the former about the time of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III., and suppose that the hostile IJabiri (Khabiri) who ' There is a lacuna between the
See also:oldest traditions in Genesis and those in Exodus: the latter beginning simply " and there arose a new king over Egypt which knew not Joseph." The
See also:interval between Jacob's arrival in Egypt and the Exodus is given varyingly as 400 or 430 years (Gen. xv . 13, Ex. xii . 40 seq., Acts vii . 6) ; but the Samaritan and Septuagint versions allow only 215 years (Ex.loc. cit.), and a period of only four generations is presupposed in Gen. xv . 16 (cf. the length of the genealogies between the contemporaries of Joseph and those of Muses in Ex. vi . 16-20).troubled Palestine in the 15th century are no other than Hebrews (the equation is philologically sound), i.e. the invading Israelites ?
But although the evidence of the Amarna tablets might thus support the biblical tradition in its barest outlines, the view in question, if correct, would necessitate the rejection of a greatmass of the biblical narratives as a whole . In the
See also:absence of
See also:external evidence the study of the Exodus of the Israelites must be based upon the Israelite records, and divergent or contradictory views must be carefully noticed . Regarded simply as a journey from Egypt into Palestine it is the most probable of occurrences: the difficulty arises from the actual narratives . The first stage is the escape from the land of Goshen (q.v.), the
See also:district allotted to the family of Jacob (Gen. xlvi . 28-34, xxvii . 1, 4, 6).3 As to the route taken across the Red
See also:Sea (
See also:Yarn Suph) scholars are not agreed (see W . M .
See also:Muller, Ency . Bib. col . 1436 sqq.); it depends upon the view held regarding the second stage of the journey, the road to the
See also:mountain of
See also:Sinai or
See also:Horeb and thence to Kadesh . The last-mentioned place is identified with
See also:Ain Kadis, about 50 M. south of
See also:Beersheba; but the
See also:identification of the mountain is uncertain, and it is possible that tradition confused two distinct places . According to one favourite view, the journey was taken across the Sinaitic peninsula to
See also:Midian, the home of
See also:Jethro .
Others plead strongly for the traditional site
See also:Jebel Musa or Serbal in the south of the peninsula (see J . R .
See also:Harris, Dict . Bible, iv. pp . 536 sqq.; H . Winckler, Ency . Bib. col . 4641) . The latter view implies that the oppressed Israelites
See also:left Egypt for one of its dtpendencies, and both theories find only conjectural identifications in the various stations recorded in Num. xxxiii . But this
See also:list of
See also:forty names, corresponding to the years of wandering, is from a post-exilic source, and may be based merely upon a knowledge of
See also:caravan-routes; even if it be of older origin, it is of secondary value since it represents a tradition differing notably from that in the earlier narratives themselves, and these on inspection confirm Judg. xi . 16 seq., where the Israelites proceed immediately to Kadesh . Ex. xvi.-xviii. presuppose a settled encampment and a
See also:law-giving, and thus belong to a stage after Sinai had been reached (Ex. xix. sqq.) .
They are closely related, as regards subject
See also:matter, &c., to the narratives in Num. x . 29–xi., XX . 1-13 (Sinai to Kadesh), and the initial step is the recognition that the latter is their
See also:original context (see G . F .
See also:Moore, Ency . Bib. col . 1443 [v.]) . Further,
See also:internal peculiarities associating events now at Sinai-Horeb with those at Kadesh support the view that Kadesh was their true scene, and it is to he noticed that in Ex. xv . 22 seq. the Israelites already reach the wilderness of Shur and accomplish the three days' journey which had been their original aim (cf . Ex. iii. i8, v . 3, viii . 27) .
The wilderness of Shur (Gen. xvi . 7, xx . I; I Sam. xv . 7, xxvii . 8) is the natural scene of conflicts with
See also:Amalekites (Ex. xvii . 8 sqq.), and its sanctuary of Kadesh or En Mishpat (" well of
See also:judgment," Gen. xiv . 7) was doubtless associated with traditions of the giving of statutes and ordinances . The detour to Sinai-Horeb appears to belong to a later stage of the tradition, and is connected with the introduction of laws and institutions of relatively later
See also:form . It is foreshadowed by the
See also:injunction to avoid the
See also:direct way into Palestine (see Ex. xiii . 17-19), since on reaching Kadesh the Israelites would be within reach of hostile tribes, and the conflicts which it was
See also:pro-posed to avoid actually ensued.' The forty years of wandering in the wilderness is characteristic of the Deuteronomic and post-exilic narratives; in the earlier
See also:sources the fruitful
See also:oasis of Kadesh is the centre, and even after the tradition of a detour to Sinai-Horeb was
See also:developed, only a brief period is spent at the
See also:holy mountain . From Kadesh spies were sent into Palestine, and when the people were dismayed at their tidings and incurred the wrath of Yahweh, the
See also:penalty of the forty years' delay was pronounced 2 See, e.g., J . Orr, Problem of the O.T. pp .
422 sqq.; Ed .
See also:Meyer, Die Israeliten, pp . 222 sqq . Some, too, find in the Amarna tablets the
See also:historical background for Joseph's high position at the Egyptian court (see
See also:Cheyne, Ency . Bib.
See also:art . " Joseph ') . For the varying traditions regarding the number of the people and their residence (whether settled apart, cf., e.g., Gen. xlvi . 34, Ex. viii . 22, ix . 26, X . 23, or in the midst of the Egyptians) see the
See also:recent commentaries . ' See further J .
See also:Wellhausen, Prolegomena, pp . 342 sqq.; G . F . Moore, Ency . Bib. col . 1443; S . A .
See also:Jew . Quart . Rev . (1906), pp . 741 sqq .
(1907), p . 122, and art . MosES . Ex. xiii . 17-19 forbids thecompromise which would place Sinai-Horeb in the neighbour-
See also:hood of Kadcsh (A . E . Haynes,
See also:Pal . Explor . Fund, Quart . Staten, . (1896), pp . 175 sqq.; C .
F .Kent [see Lit. below], p . 381) . (Num. xiii. seq.) . Originally
See also:Caleb alone was exempt and for his faith received a blessing; later tradition adds Joshua and in Dent. i . 37 seq. alludes to some unknown offence of Moses . According to Num. xxi . 1-3 the Israelites (a generalizing amplification) captured Hormah, on the way to Beersheba, and subsequently the
See also:clan Caleb and the
See also:Kenites (the clan of Moses'
See also:father-in-law) are found in
See also:Judah (Judg. i . 16) . Although the traditions regard their efforts as
See also:part of a
See also:movement (from Gilgal, see below), it is more probable that these (notably Caleb) escaped the punishment which befell the
See also:rest of the Israelites, and made their way direct from Kadesh into the south of Palestine.' On the other hand, according to the prevailing tradition, the attempt to break northwards was frustrated by a defeat at Hormah (Num. xiv . 40-45), an endeavour to pass
See also:Edom failed, and the people turned back to the
See also:Yam Suph (here at the
See also:head of the Gulf of Akabah) and proceeded up to the east of Edom and
See also:Moab . Conflicting views are represented (on which see MOAB), but at length Shittim was reached and preparations were made to
See also:cross the
See also:Jordan into the promised land .
This having been effected, Gilgal became the
See also:base for a series of operations in which the
See also:united tribes took part . But again the representations disagree, and to the overwhelming
See also:campaigns depicted in the book of Joshua most critics prefer the account of the more gradual
See also:process as related in the opening
See also:chapter of the book of
See also:judges (see Jews:
See also:History, § 8) . Thus, whatever evidence may be supplied by archaeological research, the problem of the Exodus must always be studied in the light of the biblical narratives . That the religious life of
See also:Israel as portrayed therein dates from this remote period cannot be maintained against the results of excavation or against the later history, nor can we picture a united people in the
See also:desert when subsequent vicissitudes represent the union as the work of many years, and show that it lasted for a
See also:short time only under
See also:David and Solomon . During the centuries in which the narratives were taking shape many profound changes occurred to affect the traditions . Developments associated with the Deuteronomic reform and the reorganization of Judaism in post-exilic days can be unmistakably recognized, and it would be unsafe to assume that other vicissitudes have not also left their mark .
See also:Allowance must be made for the shifting of boundaries or of
See also:spheres of influence (Egypt, Edom, Moab), for the incorporation of tribes and of their own tribal traditions, and in particular for other movements (e.g. from
See also:Arabia).' If certain clans moved direct from Kadesh into Judah, it is improbable that others made the lengthy detour from Kadesh by the Gulf of Akabah, but this may well be an attempt to fuse the traditions of two distinct migrations . Among the Joseph-tribes (
See also:Ephraim and
See also:Manasseh), the most important of Israelite divisions, the traditions of an ancestor who had lived and died in Egypt would be a cherished possession, but although most writers agree that not all the tribes were in Egypt, it is impossible to determine their number with any certainty . At certain periods, intercourse with Egypt was especially intimate, and there is much in favour of the view that the name
See also:Mizraim (Egypt) extended beyond the
See also:borders of Egypt proper . Reference has already been made to other cases of
See also:geographical vagueness, and one must recognize that in a
See also:body of traditions such as this there was
See also:room for the inclusion of the most diverse elements which it is almost hopeless to
See also:separate, in view of the scantiness of relevant evidence from other sources, and the
See also:literary intricacy of the extant narratives . That many different beliefs have influenced the tradition is apparent from what has been said above, and is especially noticeable from a study of the general features . Thus, although the Israelites possessed
See also:cattle (Ex. xvii .
3, xix . 13,
See also:xxiv . 5, xxxii . 6, xxxiv . 3; Num. xx . 19), allusion is made to their lack of
See also:meat in order to magnify the wonders of the journey, and among divinely sent
See also:aids to
See also:guide ' So B . Stade, Steuernagel, Guthe, G . F . Moore, H . P . Smith, C . F .
Kent, &c . See CALEB;
See also:JERAHMEEL; JUDAH; KENITES;
See also:LEVITES; and JEws: History, §§ 5, 20 (end) . 2 An instructive parallel to the last-mentioned is afforded by Dissard's account of the migration of Arab tribes into Palestine in the 18th century A.D . (Revue biblique,
See also:July 1905).and direct the people upon the
See also:march not only does Moses require the assistance of a human helper (Jethro or Hobab), but the
See also:angel, the
See also:ark, the pillar of
See also:cloud and of
See also:fire and the mysterious hornet are also provided . In addition to the references already given, see J . W . Colenso,
See also:Pentateuch and Book of Joshua (on internal difficulties) ; A . Jeremias, Alte Test.
See also:im Lichte d. alt . Orients' (pp . 402 sqq., on later references in Manetho, &c., with which cf. also R . H .
See also:Jubilees, p .
245 Seq.); art . " Exodus " in Ency . Bib . ; Ed . Meyer, Israeliten (passim); Bonhoff, Theolog .
See also:Stud. u . Krit . (1907), pp . L59-217; the histories of Israel and commentaries on the book of Exodus . Among the numerous
See also:works, mention may be made of G .
See also:Ebers, Durch Gosen zum Sinai; E . H .
See also:Palmer, Desert of the Exodus; O . A . Toffteen, The Historic Exodus;
See also:fuller information is given in L . B . Paton, Hist. of
See also:Syria and Palestine, p . 34 (also ch. viii.) ; and C . F . Kent, Beginnings of Heb . Hist. p . 355 seq . (S . A .
BOOK OF EXODUS
EXOGAMY (Gr. few, outside; and yaµor, marriage)
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