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FARS (the name Farsistan is not used)

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Originally appearing in Volume V10, Page 191 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FARS (the name Farsistan is not used), one of the five mamlikats (great provinces) of Persia, extending along the northern shore of the Persian Gulf and bounded on the west by Arabistan, on the north by Isfahan and on the east by Kerman. It lies between 490 30' and 56° 10' E. and 26° 20' and 31° 45' N. and has an area of nearly 6o,000 sq. m. Fars is the same word as the Greek Persis, and, originally the name of only a part of the Persian empire (Iran), has become the name which Europeans have applied to the whole (see PERSIS). The province is popularly, but not for administrative purposes, divided according to climate into germsir and sardsir, or the warm and cold regions. The former extends from the sea to the central chain of hills and contains all the lowlands and many mountainous districts, some of the latter rising to an elevation of between 3000 and 4000 ft. and the sardsir comprises the remaining and northern districts of the province. In Arrian's relation of the voyage of Nearchus (Indica, 40), these two regions are well described. " The first part of Persis which lies along the Persian Gulf is hot, sandy and barren and only the date palm thrives there. The other part comprehends inner Persis lying northwards; it enjoys a pleasant climate and has fertile and well-watered plains, gardens with trees of all kinds, rich pasturages and forests abounding with game; with the exception of the olive all fruits are produced in profusion, particularly the vine. Horses and other draught animals are reared in the province, and there are several lakes frequented by water-fowl, and streams of clear water flow through it, as for instance the Kyros (Kur) formed by the junction of the Medos and Araxes." The mountains of Fars may be considered as a continuation of the Zagros and run parallel to the shores of the Persian Gulf. They comprise several ranges which the roads from the sea to the interior have to cross at right angles, thereby rendering communication and transport very difficult. The highest of the mountains of Fars (14,000 ft.) is the Kuh Dina in the north-western part of the province. Of the rivers of Fars only three important ones flow into the sea: (1) the Mand (Arrian's Sitakos), Karaaghach in its upper course; (2) the Shapur or Khisht river (Granis); (3) the Tab (Oroatis). Some rivers, notably the Kur (Kyros, Araxes) which flows into the Bakhtegan lake east of Shiraz, drain into inland depressions or lakes. The capital of the province is Shiraz, and the subdivision in districts, the chief places of the districts and their estimated population, and the number of inhabited villages in each as they appear in lists dated 1884 and 19c,5 are shown on the following page. Name of District. Chief Place or Seat of Number of Government. inhabited Villages in District. Name. Popula- tion. t Abadeh Iklid . Abadeh 4,000 33 2 Abadeh-Tashk Tashk 600 8 3 Abarj Dashtek 2,000 6 4 Abbasi (1) Bander Abbasi 1 Bander Abbasi 10,000 14 and villages . (2) Issin and Tazian Issin 6 (3) Shamil . . Shamil 1,000 t8 (4) Moghistan . Ziarat to (5) Minab . Minab 4,000 23 5 Afzar . . . . Nimdeh 12 6 `Alemrud . . Sabzpushan 1,000 16 7 Arb'ah (the four) (1) Deh Rud Deh Ram 1,500 19 (2) Deh Ram 8 (3) Hengam Ardakan 5,000 to (4) Rudbal Ardakan 9 Arsinjan Arsinjan 5,000 25 to Asir Asir 500 10 t i Baiza Baiza 2,000 55 12 Bidshahr and Juvim . Bidshahr 3,000 23 13 Bovanat Surian 500 23 14 Darab Darab 5,000 62 15 Dashti (I) Bardistan . Bander Dair 1,000 28 (2) Buluk Bushgan 18 (3) Mandistan . Kaki 1,500 40 (4) Tassuj Tang Bagh 500 1i (5) Shumbeh. . Shumbeh 15 t6 Dashtistan (1) Angali . . Haftjush to (2) Ahrom . . Ahrom 1,500 5 (3) Borazjan. . Borazjan 4,000 19 (4) Bushirel. . Bushire 25,000 20 (5) Daliki Daliki 1,500 7 (6) Gonavah. Gonavah 1,000 12 (7) Hayat Daud Bander Rig 1,000 6 (8) Khurmuj Khurmuj 1,000 5 (9) Rud Hillah . Kelat Sukhteh to (to) Shaban Kareh. Deh Kohneh 27 (t1) Tangistan . Tangistan 1,000 31 (12) Zengeneh . Salnal 750 4 (13) Zirah Zirah 6 17 Dizkurd . . . Cherkes 500 6 18 Famur Pagah 300 3 19 Ferrashband Ferrashband 1,000 14 20 Fessa Fessa 5,000 40 21 Firuzabad . . Firuzabad 4,000 20 22 Gillehdar Gillehdar 1,000 43 23 Humeh of Shiraz .Lerkan 1,000 89 24 Istahbanat Istahbanat .10,000 12 25 Jahrum . . Jahrum 1o,000 33 26 Jireh Ishfayikan 23 27 Kamfiruz . Palangeri 34 28 Kamin Kalilek n 29 Kazerun Kazerun 8,000 46 30 Kavar . Kavar 26 31 Kir and Karzin Kir 1,000 23 32 Khafr Khafr 1,000 41 33 Khajeh Zanjiran 500 15 34 Khisht Khisht 2,500 25 35 Khunj Khunj 1,500 27 36 Kongan . Bander Kongan 12 37 Kuh Gila and Beh- bahan Behbahan I0,000 182 38 Kurbal. . Gavkan 600 67 39 Kuh i Marreh Shikeft Shikeft 41 40 Kunkuri . . . . Kazian 29 41 Laristan (1) Lar . Lar 8,000 34 (2) Bikhah Ihsham. Bairam 1 (3) Bikhah Fal . Ishkenan To (4) Jehangiriyeh Bastak 4,000 30 (5) Shib Kuh . Bander Charak 36 (6) Fumistan or Gav- Gavbandi 13 bandi . . (7) Kauristan . Kauristan 4 (8) Lingah 1 . . Bander Lingah 10,000 II (9) Mazayijan . Mazayijan 6 42 Mahar Milati Jemalgird 5 1 Are forming separate administrative division of " Persian Gulf Ports. Name of District. Chief Place or Seat of Number of Government. inhabited Villages in District. Name. Popula- tion. 43 Maimand . Maimand 5,000 14 44 Maliki . Bander Assalu 1,000 25 45 Mamasenni (Shulistan) (1) Bekesh 8 (2) Javidi or Javi 6 (3) Dushmanziaris i6 (4) Rustami KaPah Sand 26 (5) Fahlian 7 (6) Kakan 5 46 I Mayin . Mayin 8 47 Mervast and Herat • Mervast 14 48 Mervdasht (I) Upper Khafrek 14 (2) Lower Khafrek Fathabad 1,250 16 (3) Mervdasht .22 49 _ Murghab 800 6 MeshhedMaderSuliman 5o Niriz . . . . Niriz 9,000 24 51 Ramjird Jashian 36 52 Rudan and Ahmedi . Dehbariz 21 53 Sabah (the seven) (1) Bivunj (Bivanej) Durz 14 (2) Hasanabad . Hasanabad 7 (3) Tarom . . Tarun 2,000 15 (4) Faraghan Faraghan 1,500 13 (5) Forg . Forg 3,000 18 (6) Fin and Guhrah. Fin 13 54 (7) Gileh Gah (aban- Ziaret 1,000 u doped) Sarchahan 55 ' Sarhad Chahar Dungeh (i) Dasht U'an Kushk Zard 31 (2) Dasht Ktosro va Shirin 56 (3) Dasht Khungasht (4) Dasht KushkZard Sarhad Shesh Nahiyeh (1) Patina (foot of Khur 24 Mount Dina) . Henna (2) Henna . Samiram (3) Samiram. . Felard (4) Felard . . 57 (5) Vardasht. . Germabad 4,500 23 (6) Vank . . . . Vank Sarvistan . . . Sarvistan 58 Shiraz (town) in 1884 53,6072 59 Siyakh . . . . Darinjan t3 6o Simian Duzeh 28 The above sixty districts are grouped into eighteen sub-provinces under governors appointed by the governor-general of Fars, but the towns of Bushire, Lingah and Bander Abbasi, together with the villages in their immediate neighbourhood, form a separate government known as that of the " Persian Gulf Ports " (Benadir i J(halij i Fars), under a governor appointed from Teheran. The population of the province has been estimated at 750,000 and the yearly revenue it pays to the state amounts to about f150,000. Many districts are fertile, but some, particularly those in the south-eastern part of the province, do not produce sufficient grain for the requirements of the sparse population. In consequence of droughts, ravages of locusts and misgovernment by local governors the province has been much impoverished and hundreds of villages are in ruins and deserted. About a third of the population is composed of turbulent and lawless nomads who, when on the march between their winter and summer camping grounds, frequently render the roads insecure and occasionally plunder whole districts, leaving the inhabitants without means of subsistence. The province produces much wheat, barley, rice, millet, cotton, but the authorities every now and then prohibiting the export of cereals, the people generally sow just as much as they think will suffice for their own wants. Much tobacco of excellent quality, principally for consumption in Persia, is also grown (especially in Fessa, Darab and Jahrom) and a considerable quantity of opium, much of it for export to China, is produced. Salt, lime and gypsum are abundant. There are also some oil 2 Persian census in 1884; 25,284 males, 28,323 females. wells at Daliki, near Bushire, but several attempts to tap the oil have been unsuccessful. There are no valuable oyster-banks in Persian waters, and all the Persian Gulf pearls are obtained from banks on the coast of Arabia and near Bahrein. (A. H.-S.)
End of Article: FARS (the name Farsistan is not used)
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