See also:mistake or defect . In geology, the
See also:term is given to a
See also:plane of dislocation in a portion of the
See also:earth's crust; synonyms used in
See also:mining are " trouble," " throw " and " heave "; the German
See also:equivalent is Verwerfung, and the French faille . Faults on a small scale are sometimes sharply- defined planes,' as if the rocks had been sliced through and fitted together again after being shifted (fig . 1) . In such cases, however, the harder portions of the dislocated rocks will usually be found "slickensided." More frequently some dis- turbance has occurred on one or both sides of the
See also:fault . Sometimes in a series of strata the beds on the side which has been pushed up are bent down against the fault, while those on the opposite side are bent up (fig . 2) . Most commonly the rocks on both sides are considerably broken, jumbled and crumpled, so that the
See also:line of fracture is marked by a
See also:belt or
See also:wall-like mass of fragmentary
See also:rock, fault-rock, which may be several yards in breadth . Faults are to be distinguished from
See also:joints and fissures by the fact that there must have been a
See also:movement of the rock on one side of the fault-plane relatively to that on the other side . The trace of a fault-plane at the
See also:surface of the earth is a line (or belt of fault-rock), which in
See also:geological mapping is often spoken of as a " fault-line " or " line of fault." Fig . 3 a +~ 4 FIG . 3.—Plan of
See also:simple fault .
represents theplan of a simple fault; quite frequently, however, the
See also:main fault subdivides at the extremities into a number of minor faults (fig . 4), or the main fault may be accompanied by lateral subordinate faults (fig . 5), some varieties of which have been termed flaws or Blatts . " Fault- planes "are sometimes perpendicular to the
See also:horizon, but mm: usually they are inclined at a greater or lesser
See also:angle . The angle made by the fault-plane with the vertical is the hade of the The fault-plane is not a plane surface in the mathematical muse; it may
See also:curve icregularly in more than one direction-fault (if the angle of inclination were measured from the horizon, as in determining the " dip " of strata, this would be expressed as the " dip of the fault ") . In
See also:figs. r and 2 the faults are
See also:hading k towards the right of the reader . The amount of dislocation as measured along a fault-plane is the displacement of the fault (for an
See also:illustration of these terms see fig . 18, where they are applied to a thrust fault); the vertical displacement is the throw (Fr. rejet) ; the
See also:horizontal displacement, which even with vertical movement must arise in all cases where the faults are not perpendicular to the horizon and the strata are not horizontal, is known as the heave . In fig . 6 the displacement is equal to the throw in the fault A; in the fault B the displacement is more than twice as
See also:great as in A, while the throw is the same in both; the fault A has no heave, in B it is considerable . The rock on that side of a fault which has dropped relatively to the rock on the other is said to be upon the downthrow side of the fault; conversely, the relatively uplifted portion is the upthrow side . The two fault faces are known as the "
See also:hanging-wall " and the "
See also:foot-wall." The relationship that exists between the bade and the direction of throw has led to the
See also:classification of faults into " normal faults," which hade under the downthrow side, or in other words, those in which the hanging-wall has dropped; and " reversed faults," which hade beneath the upthrow side, that is to say, the foot-wall exhibits a relative sinking .
Normal faults are exemplified in figs . 1, 2, and 6; in the latter the masses A and B are on the downthrow sides, C is upthrown . Fig . 7 represents a small reversed fault . Normal faults are FtG . 7.-Reversed fault,
See also:Liddesdale . so called because they are more generally prevalent than the other type; they are sometimes designated " drop " or " gravity " faults, but these are misleading expressions and should be discountenanced . Normal faults are regarded as the result af stretching of the crust, hence they have been called " tension " faults as distinguished from reversed faults, which are assumed to be due to pressure . It is needful, however, to exercise great caution in accepting this view except in a restricted and localized sense, for there are many instances in which the two forms are intimately associated (see fig . 8), and a whole complex
See also:system of faults may be the result of horizontal (tangential) pressure alone or even of
See also:direct vertical uplift . It is often tacitly assumed Ic d that most normal and reversed faults are due to simple vertical movements of the fractured crust-blocks; but this is by no means the case . What is actually observed in examining a fault is the apparent direction of motion; but the
See also:present position of the dislocated masses is the result of real motion or series of motions, which have taken place along the fault-plane at various angles from horizontal to vertical; frequently it can be shown that these movements have been extremely complicated .
The striations and " slickensides " on the faces of a fault indicate only the direction of the last movement . A broad monoclinal
See also:fold is sometimes observed to pass into a fault of gradually increasing throw; such a fault is occasionally regarded as pivoted at one end . Again, a faulted mass may be on the downthrow side towards one end, and on the upthrow side towards the other, the movement having taken place about Q A b ~^o`.- a s f an
See also:axis approximately normal to the fault-plane, the "
See also:pivot " in this case being near the centre . From an example of this kind it is evident that the same fault may at the same
See also:time be both " normal " and " reversed " (see fig . 8) . When the
See also:principal movement along a highly inclined fault-plane has been approxi-
See also:North ! I I z 7 South mately horizontal, the fault has been variously styled a lateral-shift, transcurrent fault, transverse thrust or a heave fault . The horizontal component in faulting. movements is more
See also:common than is often supposed . A single normal fault of large throw is sometimes replaced by a series of close parallel faults, each throwing a small amount in the same direction; if these subordinate faults occur within a narrow width of ground they are known as distribution faults; if they are more widely separated they are called step faults (fig . 9) .. Occasionally two nrmal faults hade towards one another and intersect, and the rock mass between them has been let down; this is described as a trough fault (fig. ro) . A fault
See also:running parallel to the strike of bedded rocks is a strike fault; one which runs along the direction of the FIG .
I2.-Section across the plan, fig. i i. dip is a dip fault; a so-called diagonal fault takes a direction intermediate between these two directions . Although the effects of these types of fault upon the outcrops of strata differ, there are no,
See also:intrinsic differences between the faults themselves . The effect of normal faults upon the outcrop may he thus briefly summarized:—a strike fault that hades with the direction of the dip may cause beds to be cut out at the surface on the b upthrow side; if it hades against the dip direction it may repeat some of the beds on the upthrow side (figs. is and 12) . With dip faults the
See also:crop is carried forward (down the dip) on the upthrow side . The perpendicular distance between the crop of the
See also:bed (
See also:dike or vein) on opposite sides of the fault is the " offset." The offset decreases with increasing angle of dip and increases with increase in the throw of the fault (fig . 13) . Faults which run obliquely across the direction of dip, if they hade with the dip of the strata, will produce offset with "
See also:gap " between the outcrops; if they bade in the opposite direction to the dip, offset with " overlap " is caused: in the latter case the crop moves forward (down dip) on the denuded upthrow side, in the former it moves backward . The effect of a strike fault of diminishing throw is seen in fig . 14, Faults
See also:crossing folded strata cause the outcrops to approach on the upthrow side of a syncline and tend to
See also:separate the outcrops of an
See also:anti- cline (figs . 15, i6, 17) . In the majority of cases the upthrown side of a fault has been so reduced by denudation as to leave no
See also:sharp upstanding
See also:ridge; but examples are known where the upthrown side still d11111NIIl1AI1NI1N11111N11IIt5IiI0111111141111111UIC~NU1111 a Iia, ~IIWWflIIIIIIAI~ s -- 6 'S. a w exists as a prominent cliff-like
See also:face of rock, a "fault-scarp";
See also:familiar instances occur in the
See also:Basin ranges of
See also:Nevada, &c., and many smaller examples have been observed in the areas affected by
See also:recent earthquakes in
See also:San Francisco and other places . But although there may be no sharp cliff, the effect of faulting upon topographic forms is abundantly evident wherever a harder .
F series of strata has been d bht i jti rougnuxapostion to softer rocks . By certain French writers, the upstanding side of a faulted piece . of ground is said to ' have a regard, thus the faults of theJura Mountains have a ai
See also:loo . ____ regard
See also:francais," and _ 601 a in the same region it has been observed that : n F in curved faults the convexity is directed the same way as the syncline (S), dislocated by a fault. regard . Occasionally one or more parallel faults have let down an intervening
See also:strip of rock, thereby forming " fault valleys " or Graben (Grabensenken); the Great Rift Valley is a striking example . On the other
See also:hand, a large
See also:area of rock is sometimes lifted up, or surrounded by a system of faults, which have let down the encircling ground; such a fault-
See also:block is known also as a
See also:horst; a considerable area of
See also:land stands up in this manner . Faults have often an important influence upon of the fault in fig . 15. impervious beds up against pervious ones or
See also:vice versa, thus forming underground dams or reservoirs, or allowing
See also:water to flow away that would otherwise be conserved . Springs often rise along the outcrop of a fault . In
See also:coal and
See also:metal N.W . Kyle of
See also:Dumas*1 and, like a reversed mining it is evident from what has already been said that faults must
See also:act sometimes beneficially, sometimes the
See also:reverse . It is a common occurrence for fault-fissures and fault-rock to appear as valuable
See also:mineral lodes through the infilling or impregnation of the spaces and broken ground with mineral ores . In certain regions which have been subjected to very great. crustal disturbance a type of fault is found which possesses a very low hade—sometimes only a few degrees from the horizontal fault, hades beneath the upthrown mass; these are termed thrusts, overthrusts, or overthrust faults (Fr. recouvremenls, failles de chevauchement, charriages; Ger .
Uberschiebungen, Uberspriinge, Wechsel, Fallenverwerfungen) . Thrusts should not be confused with reversed faults, which have a strong hade . Thrusts
See also:play a very important u a s tan' A a' A . s Sangamon' side of same fault . • if,
See also:BaY tY Willis and thrusts .
See also:part in the N.W.
See also:highlands of Scotland, the Scandinavian high-lands, the western
See also:Alps, the Appalachians, the Belgian coal region, &c . By the
See also:action of thrusts enormous masses of rock have been pushed almost horizontally over underlying rocks, in some cases for several
See also:miles . One of the largest of the Scandinavian thrust ,soe Sa~~ted down Y 01~
See also:Meal ! Meadhonech F, F •F Loch frfboll after H.M . Gcoloeiyu Survey St 1'Ie..•,- dell yde Arnaboll
See also:Hill 'd .aW~Y \\ts Ar MinorThrusnabourbe h st 'F r4ej pla plane fah Hope S.E . Scale, I inch = I5 miles F=Normal fault
See also:FAURE 209 masses is 1120 M. long, 8o m. broad, and soon ft. thick . In Scotland three grades of thrusts are recognized, maximum, major, and minor thrusts; the last have very generally been truncated by those of greater magnitude . Some of these great thrusts have received distinguishing names, e.g. the Moine thrust (fig .
19) and the
See also:Ben 1Nlore thrust; similarly in the coal basin of
See also:Mons and
See also:Valenciennes we find the faille de Boussu and the Grande faille du midi . Overturned folds are frequently seen passing into thrusts . Bayley Willis has classified thrusts as (1) Shear thrusts, (2) Break thrusts, (3) Stretch thrusts, and (4) Erosion thrusts . Dr J . E . Marr (" Notes on the Geology of the
See also:English Lake
See also:District," Proc . Geol . Assoc., 1900) has described a type of fault which may be regarded as the converse of a thrust fault . If we consider A. series of rock masses A, B, C—of which A is the
See also:oldest and undermost—undergoing thrusting, say from south to north, should the mass C be prevented from moving forward as rapidly as B, a low-hading fault may
See also:form between C and B and the mass C may lag behind; similarly the mass B may lag behind A . Such faults Dr Marr calls "lag faults." A mass of rock suffering thrusting or lagging may yield unequally in its several parts, and those portions tending to travel more rapidly than the adjoining masses in the same
See also:sheet may be cut off by fractures . Thus the faster-moving blocks will be separated from the slower ones by faults approximately normal to the plane of movement: these are described as "
See also:tear faults." Faults may occur in rocks of all ages; small
See also:local dislocations are observable even in glacial deposits,
See also:alluvium and
See also:loess, A region of faulting may continue to be so through more than one geological
See also:period . Little is known of the mechanism of faulting or of the causes that produce it; the majority of the text-
See also:book explanations will not bear
See also:scrutiny, and there is
See also:room for ex-tended observation and
See also:research .
The sudden yielding of the strata along a plane of faulting is a familiar cause of earthquakes . See E. de Margerie and A .Heim,
See also:Les Dislocations de l'ecorce terrestre (Zurich, 1888) ; A . Rothpletz, Geotektonische Probleme (
See also:Stuttgart, 1894); B . Willis, " The
See also:Mechanics of Appalachian Structure," 13th
See also:Ann .
See also:Rep . U.S . Geol . Survey (1891-1892, pub . 1893) . A prolonged discussion of the subject is given in Economic Geology,
See also:Lancaster, Pa., U.S.A., vols. i. and ii . (1906, 1907) .
(A . Ga.; J . A .
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