FEUDALISM .)Side by side with these purely official dukedoms, however, there had continued to exist, or had sprung up, either independently or in more or less of subjection to the
See also:Frank rulers,
See also:national dukedoms, such as those of the Alemanni, the Aquitanians, and, later, of the Bavarians and Thuringians . These were
See also:developed from the early Teutonic
See also:custom by which the herizog was elected by the nation as
See also:leader for a particular
See also:campaign, as in the case of the heretogas who had led the first Saxon invaders into Britain . Tacitus says of the
See also:ancient Germans reges ex nobilitate, duces ex virtute sumunt; i.e. they elected their dukes for their warlike prowess only, and as purely military chiefs, whereas their
See also:kings were chosen from a royal
See also:family of divine descent . Sometimes the dukes so chosen succeeded in making their po' 'er permanent without taking the
See also:style of
See also:king . To this national category belong, besides the
See also:great German dukedoms, the dukes of
See also:Normandy, and the Lombard dukes of
See also:Spoleto and
See also:Benevento, who traced their origin, not to an administrative
See also:office, but to the leadership of Teutonic war bands . With the development of the feudal
See also:system the distinction between the official and the national dukedoms was more and more obliterated . By the 13th and 14th centuries the title had become purely territorial, and implied no necessary over-lordship over
See also:counts and other nobles, who existed side by side with the dukes as tenants-in-chief of the
See also:crown . From this
See also:time the significance of the ducal title varies widely in different countries . Whenever the crown got the better of the feudal spirit of independence, as in France or Naples, it sank from being a
See also:sovereign title to a mere social distinction, implying no
See also:political power, and not necessarily any territorial influence . In
See also:northern Italy and in Germany, on the other
See also:hand, where the crown had proved too weak to combat the forces of disruption, it came ultimately to imply
See also:sovereignty . The abolition of the
See also:Empire in 1806 removed even the
See also:shadow of vassalage from the German reigning dukes, who retain their sovereign status under the new empire . Only one, however, the
See also:grand duke of Luxemburg, is now both sovereign and independent .
Besides the sovereign dukes in Germany there are certain " mediatized " ducal houses, e.g. that of
See also:Ratibor, which
See also:share with the dispossessed families of the
See also:Italian sovereign duchies certain royal privileges, notably that of equality of
See also:blood (Ebenburtigkeit) . In Italy, where titles of
See also:nobility give no precedence at
See also:court, that of duke (duca) has lost nearly all even of its social significance owing to lavish creations by the popes and minor sovereigns, and to the fact that the title often passes by
See also:purchase with a particular
See also:estate . Political significance it has none . Some great Italian nobles are dukes, notably the heads of the great
See also:Roman ducal families, but not all Italian dukes are great nobles . In France the title duke at one time implied vast territorial power, as with the dukes of
See also:Burgundy, Normandy,
See also:Aquitaine and
See also:Brittany, who asserted a
See also:practical independence against the crown, though it was not till the 12th century that the title duke was definitely regarded as
See also:superior to others . At first (in the loth and 11th centuries) it had no defined significance, and even a baron of the higher nobility called himself in charters duke, count or even
See also:marquis, indifferently . In any case the strengthening of the royal power gradually sapped the significance of the title, until on the
See also:eve of the Revolution it implied no more than high
See also:rank and probably territorial
See also:wealth . There were, under the ancien regime, three classes of dukes in France: (1) dukes who were peers (see
See also:PEERAGE) and had a seat in the
See also:parlement of
See also:Paris; (2) hereditary dukes who were not peers; (3) " brevet " dukes, created for
See also:life only . The French duke ranks in Spain with the "
See also:grandee " (q.v.), and
See also:vice versa . In republican France the already existing titles are officially recognized, but they are now no more than the badges of distinguished ancestry . Besides the descendants of the feudal aristocracy there are in France certain ducal families dating from
See also:Napoleon I.'s creation of 18o6 (e.g. dues d'Albufera, de Montebello, de Feltre), from
See also:Louis Philippe (duc d'
See also:Isly, and duc d'Audiff
See also:ret-Pasquier),andfromNapoleon III . (Malakoff,
See also:Morny) .
InEngland the title of duke was unknown till the 14th century, though in Saxon times the title ealdorman, afterwards exchanged for "
See also:earl," was sometimes rendered in Latin as
See also:dux,' and the
See also:English kings till
See also:John's time styled themselves dukes of Normandy, and dukes of Aquitaine even later . In 1337 King
See also:Edward III. erected the
See also:county of
See also:Cornwall into a duchy for his son Edward the Black
See also:Prince, who was thus the first English duke . The second was
See also:Henry, earl of
See also:Lancaster, Derby, Lincoln and
See also:Leicester, who was created duke of Lancaster in 1351 . In
See also:land the title of duke was first bestowed in 1398 by Robert III. on his eldest son
See also:David, who was made duke of
See also:Rothesay, and on his
See also:brother, who became duke of Albany .
See also:British dukes rank next to princes and princesses of the blood royal, the two archbishops of Canterbury and
See also:York, the
See also:lord Chancellor, &c., but beyond this precedence they have no
See also:special privileges which are not shared by peers of
See also:lower rank (see PEERAGE) . Though their full style as proclaimed by the
See also:herald is " most high, potent and
See also:noble prince," and they are included in the Almanach de
See also:Gotha, they are not recognized as the equals in blood of the crowned or mediatized dukes of the continent, and the daughter of an English duke marrying a
See also:foreign royal prince can only take his title by courtesy, or where, under the "
See also:laws " of certain families, a family council sanctions the match . The eldest son of an English duke takes as a
See also:rule by courtesy the second title of his
See also:father, and ranks, with or without the title, as a
See also:marquess . The other sons and daughters bear the titles " Lord " and "
See also:Lady " before their Christian names, also by courtesy . A duke in the British peerage, if not royal, is addressed as "Your
See also:Grace " and is styled " the Most Noble." (See ARCHDUKE, GRAND DUKE, and, for the ducal coronet, CROWN AND_CORONET.) (W . A . P.) ' So Ego Haroldus dux, Ego Tostinus dux, in a
See also:charter of Edward the
See also:Confessor (,o6o), Hist .
See also:MSS .
See also:Comm . 12th
See also:rep. app. pt. ix. p . 581 .
FEUDALISM (from Late Lat. feodum or feudum, a fee o...
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