See also:Sahara, forming a " kaimakamlik " of the
See also:Ottoman vilayet of
See also:Tripoli (q.v.) . Its frontiers,
See also:ill-defined, run from Bonjem, within 5o m. of the Mediterranean on the
See also:north, south-westward to the Akakus range of hills, which separates Fezzan from
See also:Ghat, thence eastward for over 400 in., and then turn north and west to Bonjem again, embracing an
See also:area of about 156,000 sq. m .
See also:Physical Features.—The general
See also:form of the
See also:country is determined by the ranges of hills, including the
See also:Jebel-es-Suda (highest
See also:peak about 4000 ft.), the Haruj-el-Aswad and the Haruj-el-Abiad, which between 14° and 19° E. and 27° and 29° N. form the
See also:northern edge of a broad
See also:plateau, and shut off the northern region draining to the Mediterranean from the depressions in which lie the oases of Fezzan proper in the south . The central depression of Hofra (" ditch "), as it is called, lies in about 26° N . It does not form a continuous fertile
See also:tract, but consists of a monotonous sandy expanse somewhat more thickly studded with oases than the surrounding wastes . The Hofra at its lowest
See also:part is not more than 600 ft. above the
See also:sea-level, and in this hollow is situated the capital Murzuk . It has a general east to west direction . North-west of the Hofra is a long narrow valley, the
See also:Wadi-el-Gharbi, which trends north-east and is the most fertile
See also:district of Fezzan . It contains several perennial springs and lake-like basins . One of these basins, the saline
See also:Bahr-el-Dud (" Sea of
See also:Worms "), has an extent of 600 sq. m., and is in places 26 ft. deep . Southwards the Hofra rises to a height of 2000 ft., and in this direction lies the
See also:oasis of Gatron, followed by Tejerri on the
See also:verge of the desert, which marks the
See also:southern limit of the date and the northern of the dum palm . Beyond Tejerri the Saharan plateau rises continuously to the
See also:highlands .
(See further TRIPOLI.) Clvmate.—The
See also:average temperature of Murzuk was found by Rohlfs to be 70° F .
See also:Frost is not uncommon in the winter months . The
See also:climate is a very
See also:regular one, and is in general healthy, the dryness of the air in summer making the
See also:heat more bearable than on the sea
See also:coast . An almost perpetual blue
See also:sky overhangs the desert, and the
See also:people of Fezzan are so unaccustomed to and so ill-prepared for wet
See also:weather that, as in
See also:Tuat and Tidikelt, they pray to be spared from
See also:rain .
See also:Water is found almost everywhere at small depths .
See also:Flora and
See also:Fauna.—The date-palm is the characteristic
See also:tree of Fezzan, and constitutes the chief
See also:wealth of the
See also:land . Many different kinds of date-palms are found in the oases: in that of Murzuk alone more than 30 varieties are counted, the most esteemed being named the Tillis, Tuati and Auregh . In all Fezzan the date is the
See also:food, not only for men, but for camels, horses and
See also:dogs . Even the stones of the fruit are softened and given to the
See also:cattle . The huts of the poorer classes are entirely made of date-palm leaves, and the more substantial habitations consist chiefly of the same material . The produce of the tree is small,
See also:roc, full-grown trees yielding only about 40 cwt. of
See also:dates . Besides the date there are numerous
See also:olive, fig and
See also:almond trees .
Various grains are cultivated .Wheat and
See also:barley are sown in winter, and in
See also:spring, summer and autumn several kinds of durra, especially ksob and gafoli .
See also:Cotton flourishes, is perennial for six or seven years, and gives large pods of moderate length of staple . There are no large
See also:carnivora in Fezzan . In the uninhabited oases gazelles and antelopes are occasionally found . The most important animal is the camel, of which there are two varieties, the Tebu or Sudan camel and the Arabian, differing very much in
See also:size, form and capabilities . Horses and cattle are not numerous . Among birds are ostriches, falcons, vultures, swallows and ravens; in summer
See also:wild pigeons and ducks are numerous, but in winter they seek a warmer climate . There are no remarkable
See also:insects or
See also:snakes . A
See also:species of Artemia or brine
See also:shrimp, about a quarter of an inch in length, of a
See also:colour resembling the bright
See also:hue of the gold
See also:fish, is fished for with cotton nets in the " Sea of Worms," and mixed with dates and kneaded into a
See also:paste, which has the taste and smell of
See also:salt herring, is considered a luxury by the people of Fezzan; Inhabitants.—The
See also:total population is estimated at between 50,000 and 8o,000 . The inhabitants are a mixed people, derived from the surrounding Teda and
See also:Bornu on the south,
See also:Tuareg of the plateaus on the west,
See also:Berbers and
See also:Arabs from the north . The
See also:primitive inhabitants, called by their Arab conquerors Berauna, are believed to have been of
See also:Negro origin .
They no longer persist as a distinct people . In colour the
See also:present inhabitants vary from black to
See also:white, but the prevailing hue of skin is a
See also:Malay-like yellow, the features and woolly hair being Negro . The chief
See also:languages are the
See also:Kanuri or Bornu language and Arabic . Many understand Targish, the Teda and the
See also:Hausa tongues . If among such a mixed people there can be said to be any
See also:national language, it is that of Bornu, which is most widely understood and spoken . The people of Sokna, north of the Jebeles-Suda, have a
See also:Berber dialect which Rohlfs found to be very closely allied to that of
See also:Ghadames . The men
See also:wear a haik or barakan like those of Tripoli, and a
See also:hose, and a large loose
See also:shirt called mansaria, with red or yellow slippers,
See also:complete their
See also:toilet . Yet one often
See also:sees the large blue or white
See also:Lobe of Bornu, and the litham or
See also:shawl-muffler of the Tuareg,
See also:round the mouth to keep out the blown sand of the desert . The
See also:women, who so long as they are
See also:young have very plump forms, and who are generally small, are more simply dressed, as a
See also:rule, in the barakan, wound round their bodies; they seldom wear shoes, but generally have sandals made of palm
See also:leaf . Like the Arab women they load arms and legs with heavy
See also:metal rings, which are of
See also:silver among the more wealthy . The hair, thickly greased with
See also:butter, soon catching the dust which forms a crust over it, is done up in numberless little plaits round the
See also:head, in the same fashion as in Bornu and the Hausa countries .
See also:Children run about naked until they attain the age of puberty, which comes very early, for mothers of ten or twelve years of age are not uncommon .
The Fezzani are of agay disposition, much given to
See also:music and dancing . Towns and
See also:Trade.—Murzuk, the present capital, which is in telegraphic communication with the
See also:town of Tripoli, lies in the western corner of the Hofra depression, in 25° 55' N. and 14° 10' E . It was founded about 1310, about which
See also:time the kasbah or citadel was built . The
See also:Turks repaired it, as well as the town-
See also:wall, which has, however, again fallen into a ruinous
See also:condition . Murzuk, which had in 1906 some 3000 inhabitants, is cut in two by a wide street, the dendal . The citadel and most of the houses are built of salt-saturated dried mud . Sokna, about midway between Tripoli and Murzuk, situated on a
See also:gravel plain north of the Suda range, has a population of about 2500 . Garama-(
See also:Derma-el-Kedima), the capital under the Garamantes and the Romans, was in the Wadi-el-Gharbi . It was a flourishing town at the time of the Arab
See also:conquest but is now deserted . Among the ruins is a well-preserved
See also:monument markikg the southern limit of the
See also:Roman dominions in this part of Africa . The
See also:modern Jerma is a small place a little north of the site of Garama . Zuila, the capital under the Arabs, lies in a depression called the Sherguia east of Murzuk on the most
See also:caravan route to
See also:Barca and
See also:Egypt .
Of Traghen, the capital under the Nesur
See also:dynasty, which was on the same caravan route and between Zuila and Murzuk, little besides the ruined kasbah remains . Placed roughly midway between the countries of the central Sudan and Tripoli, Fezzan serves as a
See also:depot for caravans
See also:crossing the Sahara; its commerce is unimportant . Its most important export is that of dates . Slave dealing, formerly the most lucrative occupation of the people, is moribund owing to the stoppage of slave raiding by the
See also:European governments in their Sudan territories .
See also:History.—The country formed part of the territory of the Garamantes, described by
See also:Herodotus as a very powerful people . Attempts have been made to identify the Garamantes with the Berauna of the Arabs of the 7th century, and to the
See also:period of the Garamantes
See also:Duveyrier assigns the remains of remarkable
See also:works, and certain tombs and
See also:rock sculptures—indications, it is held, of a Negro
See also:civilization of
See also:ancient date which existed in the northern Sahara . The Garamantes, whether of Libyan or Negro origin, had certainly a considerable degree of civilization when in the
See also:year 19 l.c. they were conquered by the proconsul L . Cornelius
See also:Balbus Minor and their country added to the Roman
See also:empire . By the Romans it was called Phazania, whence the present name Fezzan . After the Vandal invasion Phazania appears to have regained independence and to have been ruled by a Berauna dynasty . At this time the people were Christians, but in 666 the Arabs conquered the country and all traces of
See also:Christianity seem speedily to have disappeared . Subject at first to the caliphs,.an
See also:independent Arab dynasty, that of the Beni Khattab, obtained power early in the loth century .
In the 13th century the country came under the rule of the
See also:king of Kanem (Bornu), but soon afterwards the Nesur, said to have been a native or Berauna dynasty, were in power . More probably the Nesur were hereditary
See also:governors originally appointed by the rulers of Kanem . In the 14th century the Nesur were conquered and dethroned by an Arab tribe, that of Khorman, who reduced the people of Fezzan to a state of
See also:slavery, a position from which they were rescued about the
See also:middle of the 16th century by a sherif of
See also:Morocco, Montasir-b.-Mahommed, who founded the dynasty of Beni Mahommed . This dynasty, which came into frequent conflict with the Turks, who had about the same time that Montasir secured Fezzan established themselves in Tripoli, gradually extended its
See also:borders as far as Sokna in the north . It was the Beni Mahommed who
See also:chose Murzuk as their capital . They became intermittently tributary to the
See also:pasha of Tripoli, but within Fezzan the power of the sultans was absolute . They maintained a bodyguard of mamelukes, mostly Europeans—Greeks, Genoese, or their immediate descendants . The
See also:annual tribute was paid to the pasha either in
See also:money or in gold,
See also:senna or slaves . The last of the Beni Mahommed sultans was killed in the vicinity of Traghen in 1811 by El-Mukkeni, one of the lieutenants of Yusef Pasha, the last
See also:sovereign but one of the independent Karamanli dynasty of Tripoli . El-Mukkeni now made himself sultan of Fezzan, and became notorious by his slaving expeditions into the central Sudan, in which he advanced as far as
See also:Bagirmi . In 1831, Abd-el-Jelil, a chief of the Walid-Sliman Arabs, usurped the sovereign authority . After a troublous reign of ten years he was slain in
See also:battle by a
See also:Turkish force under Bakir Bey, and Fezzan was added to the Turkish empire .
Towards the end of the 19th century the Turks, alarmed at the increase ofFrench influence in the neighbouring countries, reinforced their garrison in Fezzan . The kaimakamlik is said to yield an annual revenue of f6000 only to the Tripolitan
See also:treasury .
See also:AUTH0RITIEs.—The most notable of the European travellers who
See also:nave visited Fezzan, and to whose works reference should be made for more detailed information regarding it, are, taking them in the
See also:order of date, as follows: F .
See also:Hornemann, 1798; G . F . Lyon, 1819; D . Denham, H .
See also:Clapperton and W . Oudney, 1822; J .
See also:Richardson, 1845; H . Barth, 1850–1855; E . Vogel, 1854; H .
Duveyrier, 1859–1861; M. von Beurmann, 1862; G . Rohlfs, 1865; G .
See also:Nachtigal, 1869; P . L .
See also:Monteil, 1892; H . Vischer, 1906 . Nachtigal's Sahara and Sudan, vol. i . (Berlin, 1879), gathers up much of the information in earlier works, and a
See also:list of the Beni Mahommed sovereigns is given in A . M . H . J . Stokvis,
See also:Manuel d'histoire, vol. i .
See also:Leiden, 1888), p . 471 .
See also:Miss Tinne (q.v.), who travelled with Nachtigal as far as Murzuk, was shortly afterwards murdered at the Sharaba
See also:wells on the road to Ghat .
SAINT FIACRE (Celt. Fiachra)
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