See also:term for certain structural components of animal and
See also:vegetable tissue utilized in manufactures, and in respect of such uses, divided for the
See also:sake of
See also:classification into textile, paper-making,
See also:brush and
See also:fibres . I . Textile Fibres are mostly products of the organic
See also:world, elaborated in their elongated
See also:form to subserve protective functions in animal
See also:life (as wool and epidermal hairs, &c.) or as structural components of vegetable tissues (
See also:hemp and
See also:wood cells) . It may be noted that the inorganic world provides an exception to this general statement in the fibrous
See also:asbestos (q.v.), which is spun or
See also:twisted into coarse textiles . Other silicates are also transformed by artificial processes into fibrous forms, such as "
See also:glass," which is fused and
See also:drawn or spun to a continuous fibre, and various " slags " which, in the fused state, are trans-formed into " slag wool." Lastly, we note that a number of metals are drawn down to the finest dimensions, in continuous lengths, and these are
See also:woven into
See also:cloth or
See also:gauze, such metallic cloths finding valuable applications in the arts . Certain metals in the form of
See also:wire are woven into textile fabrics used as
See also:dress materials . Such exceptional applications are of insignificant importance, and will not be further considered in this article . The
See also:common characteristics of the various forms of
See also:matter comprised in the widely diversified groups of textile fibres are those of the colloids . Colloidal matter is intrinsically devoid of structure, and in the mass may be regarded as homogeneous; whereas crystalline matter in its proximate forms assumes definite and specific shapes which
See also:express a complex of
See also:internal stresses . The properties of matter which
See also:condition its adaptation to structural functions, first as a constituent of a living individual, and afterwards as a textile fibre, are homogeneous continuity of substance, with a high degree of interior cohesion, and associated with an irreducible minimum of
See also:elasticity or extensibility . The colloids show an infinite diversity of variations in these essential properties: certain of them, and notably
See also:cellulose (q.v.), maintain these characteristics throughout a cycle of transformations such as permit of their being brought into a soluble plastic form, in which condition they may be drawn into filaments in continuous length . The artificial silks or lustra-celluloses are produced in this way, and have already taken an established position as
See also:staple textiles .
For a more detailedaccount of these products see CELLULOSE . The animal fibres are composed of nitrogenous colloids of which the typical representatives are the albumens, fibrines and gelatines . They are of highly complex constitution and their characteristics have only been generally investigated . The vegetable fibre substances are celluloses and derivatives of celluloses, also typically colloidal bodies . The broad distinction between the two groups is chiefly evident in their relationship to alkalis . The former
See also:group are attacked, resolved and finally dissolved, under conditions of
See also:action by no means severe . The celluloses, on the other
See also:hand, and therefore the vegetable fibres, are extraordinarily resistant to the action of alkalis . The animal fibres are relatively few in number but of
See also:industrial importance, They occur as detached units and are of varying dimensions;
See also:sheep's wool having lengths up to 36 in., the fleeces being shorn for textile uses at lengths of 2 to 16 in.;
See also:horse hair is used in lengths of 4 to 24 in., whereas the silks may be considered as being produced in continuous length, " reeled silks " having lengths measured in hundreds of yards, but " spun silks " are composed of
See also:silk fibres purposely broken up into
See also:short lengths . The vegetable fibres are extremely numerous and of very diversified characteristics . They are individualized units only in the case of seed hairs, of which
See also:cotton is by far the most important; with this exception they are elaborated as more or less complex aggregates . The bast tissues of dicotyledonous annuals furnish such staple materials as flax, hemp,
See also:rhea or
See also:ramie and jute . The bast occurs in a peripheral zone,
See also:external to the wood and beneath the cortex, and is mechanically separated from the
See also:stem, usually after steeping, followed by drying .
The commercial forms of these fibres are elongated filaments composed of the elementary bast cells (ultimate fibres) aggregated into bundles . The number of these as any
See also:part of the filament may vary from 3 to 20 (see
See also:figs.) . In the processes of refinement preparatory to the
See also:spinning (hackling, scutching) and in the spinning
See also:process itself, the fibre-bundles are more or less sub-divided, and the divisibility of the bundles is an
See also:element in the textile value of the raw material . But the value of the material is rather determined by the length of the ultimate fibres (for, although not the spinning unit, the tensile strength of the
See also:yarn is ultimately limited by the cohesion of these fibres), qualified by the important factor of uniformity . Thus, the ultimate fibre of flax has a length of 25 to 35 mm.; jute, on the other hand, 2 to 3 mm.; and this disparity is an essential condition of the difference of values of these fibres . Rhea or ramie, to cite another typical instance, has an ultimate fibre of extraordinary length, but of equally conspicuous variability, viz. from 50 to 200 mm . The variability is a serious impediment in the preparation of the material for spinning and this defect, together with low
See also:drawing or spinning quality, limits the applications of this fibre to the
See also:counts or grades of yarn . The monocotyledons yield still more complex fibre aggregates, which are the fibro-vascular bundles of leaves and stems . These complex structures as a class do not yield to the
See also:mechanical treatment by which the bast fibres are subdivided, nor is there any true spinning quality such as is conditioned by bringing the ultimate fibres into
See also:play under the drawing process, which immediately precedes the twisting into yarn . Such materials are therefore only used for the coarsest textiles, such as
See also:string or rope . An exception to be noted in passing is to be found in the
See also:apple (Ananassa Saliva) the fibres of which are worked into yarns and cloth of the finest quality . The more important fibres of this class are
See also:manila, sisal,
See also:phormium .
A heterogeneous mass of still more complex fibre aggregates, in many cases the entire stem (cereal straws,
See also:esparto), in addition to being used in plaited form, e.g. in hats, chairs, mats, constitute the staple raw materialfor paper manufacturers, requiring a severe chemical treatment for the separation of the ultimate fibres . In this class we must include the woods which furnish wood pulps of various classes and grades . Chemical processes of two types, (a) acid and (b) alkaline, are also employed in resolving the wood, and the
See also:resolution not only effects a
See also:isolation of the wood cells, but, by attacking the hydrolysable constituents of the wood substance (lignocellulose), the cells are obtained in the form of cellulose . These cellulose pulps are known in commerce as " sulphite pulps " and " soda pulps " respectively . In addition to these raw materials or "
See also:half stuffs " the paper-maker employs the rejecta of the vegetable and textile
See also:industries, scutching, spinning and cloth wastes of all kinds, which are treated by chemical (boiling) and mechanical means (beating) to
See also:separate the ultimate fibres and reduce them to the suitable dimensions (0.5-2•o mm.) . These papermaking fibres have also to be reckoned with as textile raw materials, in view of a new and growing
See also:industry in " pulp yarns " (Papierstoffgarn), a coarse textile obtained by treating paper as delivered in narrow strips from the paper machine; the strips are reeled, dried to retain 30-40% moisture, and in this condition subjected to the twisting operation, which confers the cylindrical form and adds considerably to the strength of the fibrous
See also:strip . The following are the essential characteristics of the economically important fibres . Animal.—A . Silk . (a) The true silks are produced by the Bombyx Mori, the
See also:worm feeding on the leaves of the mulberry . The fibre is extruded as a viscous liquid from the glands of the worm, and solidifies to a cylindrical
See also:thread . The cohesion of these threads in pairs gives to raw silk the form of a dual cylinder (
See also:Plate I. fig .
2) . For textile purposes the thread is reeled from the cocoon, and several units, five and upwards, are brought together and suitably twisted . (b) The "
See also:Wild " silks are produced by a large variety of
See also:insects, of which the most important are the various
See also:species of Antherea, which yield the Tussore silks . These silks differ in form and composition from the true silks . While they consist of a " dual " thread, each unit of these is complex, being made up of a number of fibrillae . This unit thread is quadrangular in section, and of larger diameter than the true silk, the mean breadth being 0.052 mm., as compared with o•oi8, the mean diameter of the true silks . The variations in structure as well as in dimensions are, however, very considerable . B . Epidermal hairs . Of these (a) wool, the epidermal protective covering of sheep, is the most important . The varying species of the animal produce wools of characteristic qualities, varying considerably in fineness, in length of staple, in composition and in spinning quality . Hence the classing of the fleeces or raw wool followed by the elaborate processes of selection, i.e .
" sorting " and preparation, which precede the actual spinning or twisting of the yarn . These consist in entirely freeing the fibres and sorting them mechanically (combing, &c.), thereafter forming them into continuous lengths of parallelized units . This is followed by the spinning process which consists in a simultaneous drawing and twisting, and a continuousproduction of the yarn with the structural characteristics of worsted yarns . The shorter staple—from 5 to 25% of
See also:average fleeces—is prepared by the "
See also:carding " process for the spinning operation, in which drawing and twisting are simultaneous, the length spun being then
See also:wound up, and the process being consequently intermittent . This section of the industry is known as " woollen spinning " in contrast to the former or " worsted spinning." (b) An important group of raw material closely allied to the wools are the epidermal hairs of the
See also:goat (
See also:mohair), the
See also:alpaca . Owing to their form and the nature of the substance of which they are composed, they possess more lustre than the wools . They
See also:present structural differences from sheep wools which influence the processes by which they are prepared or spun, and the character of the yarns; but the differences are only of subordinate moment . (c) Various animal hairs, such as those of the cow, camel and
See also:rabbit, are also employed; the latter is largely worked into the class of fabrics known as felts . In these the hairs are compacted together by taking
See also:advantage of the peculiarity of structure which causes the imbrications of the
See also:surface . (d) Horse hair is employed in its natural form as an individual filament or monofil.' Vegetable Fibres.—The subjoined
See also:scheme of classification sets out the morphological structural characteristics of the vegetable fibres: Produced from
See also:Dicotyledons . Monocotyledons . A .
Seed hairs . D . Fibro-vascular bundles . B . Bast fibres . E . Entire leaves and stems . C . Bast aggregates . In the
See also:list of the more important fibrous raw materials subjoined, the capital
See also:letter immediately following the name refers the individual to its position in this classification . In reference to the important question of chemical composition and the actual nature of the fibre substance, it may he premised that the vegetable fibres are composed of cellulose, an important representative of the group of carbohydrates, of which the cotton fibre substance is the chemical prototype, mixed and combined with various derivatives belonging to the subgroups, (a) Carbohydrates . (b) Unsaturated compounds of benzenoid and furfuroid constitutions .
See also:Fat and
See also:wax " derivatives, i.e. groups belonging to the fatty series, and of higher molecular dimensions —of such compound celluloses the following are the prototypes: (a) Cellulose combined and mixed with " pectic " bodies (i.e. pecto-celluloses), flax, rhea . (b) Cellulose combined with unsaturated groups or ligno- celluloses, jute and the woods . (c) Cellulose combined and mixed with higher fatty acids, alcohols,
See also:ethers, cuto-celluloses, protective epidermal covering of leaves . The letters a, b, c in the table below and following the capitals, which have reference to the structural basis of classification, indicate the
See also:main characteristics of the fibre substances . (See also CELLULOSE.) Miscellaneous.—Various species of the
See also:family Palmaceae yield fibrous products of value, of which mention must be made of the following . Raffia, epidermal strips of the leaves of Raphia ruffa (
See also:Madagascar), R. taedigera (
See also:Japan), largely employed as binder twine in horticulture, replacing the " bast " (
See also:linden) formerly employed . Coir, the fibrous envelope of the fruit of the Cocos nucifera, extensively used for
See also:matting and other coarse textiles . Carludovica palmata (Central
See also:America) yields the raw material for
See also:Panama hats, the Corypha australis (
See also:Australia) yields a similar product . The leaves of the date palm, Phoenix dactylif era, are employed locally in making baskets and mats, and the fibro-vascular bundles are isolated for working up into coarse twine and rope; similarly, the leaves of the Elaeis guineensis, the fruit of which yields the " palm oil " of commerce, yield a fibre which finds employment locally (Africa) for
See also:special purposes . Chamaerops humilis, the dwarf palm, yields the well-known " Crin d'Afrique." Locally (Algiers) it is twisted into
See also:ropes, but its more general use, in
See also:Europe, is in upholstery as a stuffing material . The cereal straws are used in the form of plait in the making of hats andmats . Esparto grass is also used in the making of coarse mats .
The processes by which the fibres are transformed into textile fabrics are in the main determined by their structural features . The following are the distinctive types of treatment . A . The fibre is in virtually continuous lengths . The textile yarn is produced by assembling together the unit threads, which are wound together and suitably twisted (silk; artificial silk) . B . The fibres in the form of units of variable short dimensions are treated by more or less elaborate processes of scutching, hackling, combing, with the aim of producing a mass of
See also:free parallelized units of
See also:uniform dimensions; these are then laid together and drawn into continuous bands of sliver and roving, which are finally drawn and twisted into yarns . In this group are comprised the larger number of textile products, such as Botanical Identity .
See also:Country of Origin . Dimensions of Ultimate . Textile Uses . Genus and
See also:Order .
Cotton, A.a . Gossypium — Tropical and subtropical 12-40 mm . 0.019-0.025 . Universal . Also as a raw material
See also:Malvaceae countries Av . 28 mm. in chemical industries, notably
See also:explosives, celluloid . Flax, B.a . . . Linum Temperate (and subtropical) 6-6o mm . 0.011-0.025 . General . Special effects in lustre Linaceae countries, chiefly
See also:European Av .
28 mm. damasks . InIndia and America
See also:plants grown for seed (
See also:linseed) . Hemp, B.a . . Cannabis Temperate countries, chiefly 5-55 mm . 0.016-o.o50 . Coarser textiles,
See also:sail-cloth, rope and Cannabineae Europe Av . 22. mm . Av . 0.022 twine . Ramie, B.a . . Boehmeria Tropical countries (some 60-200 mm . 0.03-o.o8 .
Coarse textiles . Cost of preparation Urticaceae temperate) Av . 120 mm . Av . 0.050 for fine textiles prohibitive . Jute, B.b . Corchorus Tropical countries, chiefly 1.5-5 mm . 0.020-0.025 . Coarse textiles, chiefly " Hessians " Tiliaceae India Av . 2.5 mm . Av . 0.022 and sacking .
See also:Line " spun yarns used in
See also:cretonne and furniture textiles . B.b . . . Crotalaria India 4.0-12.0 . 0.025-0.050 . Twine and rope . Coarse textiles .
See also:Leguminosae Av.7.5 . Av . 0.022 Hibiscus, B.b Hibiscus Tropical, chiefly India 2-6 mm . 0.014-0.033 . Coarse textiles .
H . Elams has been Av . 4 mm . Av . O•o21 extensively used in making mats . Sida, B.b . . Sida Tropical and subtropical 1.5-4 mm . 0.013-0.02 . Coarse textiles . Appears capable of Malvaceae Av . 2 mm . Av .
0.015 substituting jute .Lime or Linden, Tilia European countries, chiefly 1.5 mm . 0.014-0.020 . Matting and binder twine . C.b Tiliaceae Russia Av . 2 mm . Av . 0.016 Mulberry, C . . Broussonetia Far East 5-31 mm . 0.02-0.04 . Paper and paper cloths . Monocotyledons
See also:Moraceae Av .
15 mm . Av . 0.03 Manila, D . Musa Tropical countries, chiefly 3-12 mm . 0.016-0.032 . Twine and ropes . Produces papers Musaceae Philippine Islands Av . 6 mm . Av . 0.024 of special quality . Sisal, D . .
See also:Agave Tropical countries, chiefly 1.5-4 mm .
0.020-0.032 . Twine and ropes . Amaryllideae Central America Av . 2.5 . Av . 0.024
See also:Yucca do . 0.5-6 mm . O•o1-0.02. do .
See also:Liliaceae Sansevieria East Indies,
See also:Ceylon, East 1.5-6 mm . 0.015-0.026. do . Liliaceae Africa Av . 3 mm .
Av . 0.020 Phormium, D Phormium tenax NewZealand 5.0-15 mm . 0.010-0.020 . Twine and ropes . Distinguished by Liliaceae Av . 9 mm . Av. o.o16 high yield of fibre from
See also:leaf . Pine-apple, D . Ananassa Tropical East and West 3.0-9.0 mm.o•o04-0.008 . Textiles of remarkable fineness .
See also:Bromeliaceae Indies Av . 5 .
See also:ooh Exceptional fineness of ultimate fibre .
See also:Sea also ALggcn, F1iI,T, MOHAIR, SHQppY and WQOL, cotton, wool, flax and jute, and it also includes at the other extreme the production of coarse textiles, such as twine and rope . C . The fibres of still shorter dimensions are treated in various ways for the production of a fabric in continuous length . The distinction of type of manufacturing processes in which the relatively short fibres are utilized, either as disintegrated units or comminuted long fibres, follows the lines of division into long and short fibres; the long fibres are worked into yarns by various processes, whereas the shorter fibres are agglomerated by both dry and wet processes to felted tissues or felts . It is obvious, however, that these distinctions do not constitute rigid dividing lines . Thus the principles involved in felting are also applied in the manipulation of long fibre fabrics . For instance, woollen goods are closed or shrunk by milling, the
See also:web being subjected to a beating or hammering treatment in an apparatus known as " the
See also:Stocks," or is continuously run through squeezing rollers, in weak alkaline liquids . Flax goods are " dosed " by the process of beetling, a long-continued process of hammering, under which the ultimate fibres are more or less subdivided, and at the same
See also:time welded or incorporated together . As already indicated, paper, which is a web composed of • units of short dimensions produced by deposition from suspension in
See also:water and agglomerated by the interlacing of the component fibres in all planes within the mass, is a species of textile . Further, whereas the silks are mostly worked up in the extreme lengths of the cocoon, there are various systems of spinning silk wastes of variable short lengths, which are similar to those required for spinning the fibres which occur naturally in the shorter lengths . The fibres thus enumerated as commercially and industrially important have established themselves as the result of a struggle for survival, and each embodies typical features of ultility .
There are innumerable vegetable fibres, many of which are utilized in the locality or region of their production, but are not available for the highly specialized applications of
See also:modern competitive industry to qualify for which a very complex range of requirements has to be met . These include primarily the factors of production and transport summed up in cost of production, together with the question of regularity of supply; structural characteristics, form and dimensions, including uniformity of ultimate unit and adaptability to standard methods of preparing and spinning, together with tenacity and elasticity, lustre . Lastly, composition, which determines the degree of resistance to chemical disintegrating influences as well as subsidiary questions of
See also:colour and relationship to colouring matters . The quest for new fibres, as well as modified methods of production of those already known, require critical investigation from the point of view of established practice . The present perspective outline of the group will be found to contain the elements of a grammar of the subject . But those who wish to pursue the matter will require to amplify this outlined picture by a study of the special
See also:treatises which
See also:deal with general principles, as well as the separate articles on the various fibres . Analysis and
See also:Identification.—For the analysis of textile fabrics and the ;dentification of component fibre, a special
See also:treatise must be consulted . The following general facts are to be noted as of importance . All animal fibres are effectively dissolved by ro% solution of
See also:caustic potash or soda . The fabric or material is boiled in this solution for 10 minutes and exhaustively washed . Any
See also:residue will be vegetable or cellulose fibre . It must not be for-gotten that the chemical properties of the fibre substances are modified more or less by association in combination with colouring matters and mordants .
These may, in many cases, be removed by treatments which do not seriously modify the fibre substances . Wool is distinguished from silk by its relative resistance to the action of sulphuric acid . The
See also:cold concentrated acid rapidly dissolves silk as well as the vegetable fibres . The attack on wool is slow, and the epidermal scales of wool make their appearance . The true silks are distinguished from the wild silks by the action of concentrated hydrochloric acid in the cold, which reagent dissolves the former, but has only a slight effect on Tussoresilk . After preliminary resolution by these group reagents, the fabric is subjected to microscopical analysis for the final identification of its component fibres (see H . Schlichter, Journal
See also:Soc . Chem . Ind., 186o, p . 241) . A scheme for the commercial analysis or assay of vegetable fibres, originally proposed by the author,' and now generally adopted; includes the following operations: a . Determination of moisture .
2 . Determination of ash
See also:left after complete ignition . 3 . Hydrolysis: (a) loss of
See also:weight after boiling the raw fibre with a 1% caustic soda solution for five minutes; (b) loss after boiling for one
See also:hour . 4 . Determination of cellulose: the
See also:white residue after (a) boiling for five minutes with 10/0 caustic soda, (b) exposure to chlorine
See also:gas for one hour, (c) boiling with basic sodium sulphite solution . 5 .
See also:Mercerizing: the loss of weight after digestion with a 20 % solution of sodium
See also:hydrate for one hour in the cold . 6 . Nitration: the weight of the product obtained after digestion with a mixture of equal volumes of sulphuric and nitric acids for one hour in the cold . 7 . Acid
See also:purification: treatment of the raw fibre with 2o% acetic acid for one minute, the product being washed with water and
See also:alcohol, and then dried .
8 . Determination of the
See also:carbon by combustion . II . Paperynaking.-The papermaking industry (see PAPER) employs as raw materials a large proportion of the vegetable fibre products already enumerated, and, for the reasons incident-ally mentioned, they may be, and are, employed in a large variety of forms: in fact any fibrous material containing over 30% " cellulose " and yielding ultimate fibres of a length exceeding r mm. can be used in this industry . Most important staples are cotton and flax; these are known to the paper-maker as " rag" fibres, rags, i.e. cuttings of textile fabrics, new and old, being their main source of supply . These are used for writing and drawing papers . In the class of " printings " two of the most important staples are wood pulp, prepared by chemical treatment from both pine and foliage woods, and in England esparto cellulose, the cellulose obtained from esparto grass by
See also:alkali treatment; the cereal straws are also used and are resolved into cellulose by alkaline boiling followed by
See also:bleaching . In the class of " wrappings " and miscellaneous papers a large number of other materials find use, such as various residues of manufacturing and preparing processes, scutching wastes, ends of rovings and yarns, flax, hemp and manila rope waste, adansonia bast, and jute wastes, raw (cuttings) and manufactured (
See also:bagging) . Other materials have been experimentally tried, and would no doubt come into use on their papermaking merits, but as a matter of fact the actually suitable raw materials are comprised in the list above enumerated, and are limited in number, through the influence of a number of factors of value or utility . ' Col . Ind .
See also:Exhibition, 1886, Miscellaneous Reports .
used for dusting brushes, is obtained from various species of the Gramineae; the " Mexican Whisk " from Epicampeas macroura; and "
See also:Italian Whisk " from Andropogon . The
See also:coin fibre mentioned above in connexion with coarse textiles is also extensively used in brush-making .
See also:Aloe and Agave fibres in their softer forms are also used for plasterers's brushes . Many of the whitewashes and cleansing solutions used in
See also:house decoration are alkaline in character, and for such uses advantage is taken of the specially resistant character of the cellulose group of materials . Stuffing and Upholstery.—Another important use for fibrous materials is for filling or stuffing in connexion with the seats and cushions in upholstery . In the large range of effects required, a corresponding number and variety of products find employment . One of the most important is the floss or seed-hair of the Eriodendron anfractuosum, known as Kapok, the use of which in Europe was created by the Dutch merchants who drew their supplies from
See also:Java . The fibre is soft, silky and elastic, and maintains its elasticity in use . Many fibres when used in the mass show, on the ,other hand, a tendency to become matted and compressed in use, and to restore them to their
See also:original state the fibre requires to be removed and subjected to a teasing or carding process . This defect limits the use of other " flosses or seed hairs in competition with Kapok . Horse hair is extensively used in this industry, as are also wool flocks and other short animal hairs and wastes . Hats and Matting.—For these manufactures a large range of the fibrous products above described are employed, chiefly in their natural or raw state .
FIBRIN, or FIBRINE
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