FIFE (Fr. fifre; Med. Ger. Schweizerpfeiff, Feldpfeiff; Ital. ottavino) , originally the small
See also:primitive cylindrical transverse
See also:flute, now the small Bb military flute, usually conoidal in
See also:bore, used in a
See also:drum and fife
See also:band . The pitch of the fife lies between that of the concert flute and piccolo . The fife, like the flute, is an open
See also:pipe, for although the upper end is stopped by means of a
See also:cork, an outlet is provided by the embouchure which is never entirely closed by the lips . The six
See also:finger-holes of the primitive flute, with the open end of the
See also:tube for a
See also:key-note, gave the diatonic scale of the fundamental octave; the second octave was produced by overblowing the notes of the fundamental scale an octave higher;
See also:part of a third octave was obtained by means of the higher harmonics produced by using certain of the finger-holes as vent-holes . The
See also:modern fife has, in addition to the six finger-holes, 4, 5 or 6 keys .
See also:Mersenne describes and figures the fife, which had in his
See also:day the compass of a fifteenth.' The fife, which, he states, differed from the Harmonie universelle (
See also:Paris, 1636), bk. v. prop . 9, pp . 241-244.German flute only in having a louder and more brilliant
See also:tone and a shorter and narrower bore, was the instrument used by the Swiss with the drum . The
See also:sackbut, or serpent, was used as its
See also:bass, for, as Mersenne explains, the bass instrument could not be made long enough, nor could the. hands reach the holes, although some flutes were actually made with keys and had the tube doubled back as in the bassoon.' The words fife and the Fr. fifre were undoubtedly derived from the Ger . Pfeiff, the fife being called by
See also:Praetorius 3 Schweizerpfeiff and Feldpfeiff, while
See also:Agricola,' writing a century earlier (1529), mentions the transverse flute by the names of Querchpfeiff or Schweizerpfeiff, which Sebastian Virdung' writes Zwerchpfeiff . The Old
See also:English spelling was phife, phiphe or ffyffe . The fife was in use in England in the
See also:middle of the 16th century, for at a muster of the citizens of
See also:London in 1540, droumes and ffyffes are mentioned .
See also:battle of St Quentin (1557) the
See also:list of the English army° employed states that one
See also:trumpet was allowed to each
See also:troop of 10o men, and a drum and fife to each
See also:hundred of
See also:foot . A drumme and phife were also employed at one
See also:shilling per diem for the " Trayne of
See also:Artillery."' This was the nucleus of the modern military band, and may be regarded as the first step in its formation . In England the adoption of the fife as a military instrument was due to the initiative of
See also:Henry VIII., who sent to Vienna for ten
See also:good drums and as many fifers.'
See also:Ralph Smiths gives rules for drummers and fifers who, in addition to the
See also:duty of giving signals in peace and war to the
See also:company, were expected to be brave, secret and ingenious, and masters of several
See also:languages, for they were oft sent to parley with the enemy and were entrusted with honourable but dangerous
See also:missions . In 1585 the drum and fife formed part of the furniture for war among the companies of the city of London.1'
See also:Elizabeth (according to
See also:Michaud, Biogr. universelle, tome xiii. p . 6o) had a
See also:peculiar taste for noisy
See also:music, and during meals had a concert of twelve trumpets, two kettledrums, with fifes and drums . The fife became such a favourite military instrument during the 16th and 17th centuries in England that it displaced the bagpipe; it was, however, in turn superseded early in the 18th century by the hautboy (see OBOE), introduced from France . In the middle of the 18th century the fife was reintroduced into the
See also:British army band by the duke of
See also:Cumberland " in the
See also:Guards in 1745, commemorated by
See also:Hogarth's picture of the "
See also:March of the Guards towards Scotland in 1745," in which are seen a drummer and fifer; and by Colonel
See also:Bedford into the royal regiment of artillery in 1748, at the end of the war, when a Hanoverian fifer,
See also:Ulrich, was brought over from
See also:Flanders as instructor." In 1747 the 19th regiment, known as
See also:Green Howards, also had the
See also:advantage of a Hanoverian fifer as teacher, a youth presented by his colonel to
See also:Lieutenant Colonel
See also:Williams commanding the regiment at Bois-le-Duc . Drum and fife bands in a
See also:time became
See also:common in all
See also:infantry regiments, while among the cavalry the trumpet prevailed . For the acoustics, construction and origin of the fife see FLUTE . Illustrations of the fife may be seen in Cowdray's picture of an encampment at Portsmouth in 1548; in
See also:Sandford's "
See also:Coronation Procession of
See also:James II.," and in C . R . Day's Descriptive
See also:Catalogue, pl. i .
(F) (description No . 42, p . 27) . (K .
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