FINLAND (Finnish, Suomi or Suomenmaa) , a
See also:grand-duchy governed subject to its own constitution by the emperor of Russia as grand-duke of Finland . It is situated between the gulfs of
See also:Bothnia and Finland, and includes, moreover, a large territory in
See also:Lapland . It touches at its south-eastern extremity the
See also:government of St
See also:Petersburg, includes the
See also:half of Lake
See also:Ladoga, and is separated from the
See also:Russian governments of Arkhangelsk and
See also:Olonets by a sinuous
See also:line which follows, roughly speaking, the
See also:water-parting between the
See also:rivers flowing into the Baltic
See also:Sea and the
See also:White Sea . In the
See also:north of the Gulf of Bothnia it is separated from Sweden and Norway by a broken line which takes the course of the valley of the Tornea
See also:river up to its
See also:sources, thus falling only 21 M.
See also:short of reaching the
See also:head of
See also:Norwegian Lynven-
See also:fjord; then it runs south-east and north-east down the
See also:Tana and Pasis-joki, but does not reach the Artic Ocean, and 13 M. from the Varanger-fjord it turns southwards . Finland includes in the south-west the Aland archipelago—its frontier approaching within 8 m. from the
See also:Swedish coast—as well as the islands of the Gulf of Finland, Hogland, Tytars, &c . Its utmost limits are: 590 48'—70° 6' N., and 19° 2'—32° 50' E . The
See also:area of Finland, in square
See also:miles, is as follows (
See also:Alias de Finlande, 1899): Orography.—A line
See also:drawn from the head of the Gulf of Bothnia to the eastern
See also:coast of Lake Ladoga divides Finland into two distinct parts, the lake region and the nearly uninhabited hilly tracts belonging to the Kjolen mountains, to the
See also:plateau of the
See also:Kola peninsula, and to the slopes of the plateau which separates Finland proper from the White Sea . At the head-
See also:waters of the Tornea, Finland penetrates as a narrow
See also:strip into the heart of the
See also:highlands of Kjolen (the
See also:Keel), where the Haldefjall (Lappish, Halditjokko) reaches 4115 ft. above the sea, and is surrounded by other Dellis, or
See also:Hat-topped summits, of from 3300 to 3750 ft. of altitude . Extensive plateaus (1500-1750 ft.), into which Lake Enare, or Inari, and the valleys of its tributaries are deeply sunk, and which take the character of a
See also:mountain region in the Saariselka (highest
See also:summit, 2360 ft.), occupy the
See also:remainder of Lapland . Along the eastern border the dreary plateaus of Olonets reach on Finnish territory altitudes of from 700 to moo ft . Quite different is the character of the pentagonal space comprised between the Gulfs of Bothnia and Finland, Lake Ladoga, and the above-mentioned line traced through the lakes Ule$ and Piellis . The meridional ridges which formerly used to be traced here along the
See also:main water-partings do not exist in reality, and the
See also:country appears on the hypsometrical map in the
See also:Atlas de Finlande as a plateau of 350 ft. of
See also:average altitude, covered with countless lakes, lying at altitudes of from 250 to 300 ft .
The three main lake-basins of
See also:Nasi-jarvi, Pajane and Saima are separated by low and
See also:flat hills only; but one
See also:sees distinctly appearing on the map a line of flat elevations
See also:running south-west to north-east along the north-west border of the lake regions from Lauhanvuori to Kajana, and reaching from 65o to 825 ft. of altitude . A
See also:regular gentle slope leads from these hills to the Gulf of Bothnia (Osterbotten), forming vast
See also:prairie tracts in its
See also:lower parts . A notable feature of Finland are the (Isar or narrow ridges of morainic deposits, more or less reassorted on their surfaces . Some of them are
See also:relics of the
See also:longitudinal moraines of the ice-
See also:sheet, and they run north-west to south-east, parallel to the striation of the rocks and to the countless parallel troughs excavated by the ice in the hard rocks in the same direction; while the Lojo as, which runs from Hangoudd to Vesi-jarvi, and is continued farther east under the name of Salpausellia, parallel to the
See also:shore of the Gulf of Finland, are remainders of the frontal moraines, formed at a
See also:period when the ice-sheet remained for some
See also:time stationary during its retreat . As a
See also:rule these
See also:forest-clothed (Isar rise from 30 to 6o and occasionally 120 ft. above the level of the surrounding country, largely adding to the already
See also:great picturesqueness of the lake region;
See also:railways are traced in preference along them . Lakes and Rivers.—A labyrinth of lakes, covering ii°o of the aggregate territory, and connected by short and rapid streams (ijdrdrn), covers the
See also:surface of South Finland, offering great facilitiesfor
See also:internal navigation, while the connecting streams supply an enormous amount of
See also:motive-power . The chief lakes are: Lake Ladoga, of which the northern half belongs to Finland; Saima (three and a half times larger than Lake Leman), whose outlet, the Vuoksen, flows into Lake Ladoga, forming the mighty Imatra rapids, while the lake itself is connected by means of a sluiced canal with the Gulf of Finland; the basins of Pyha-selka, Ori-vesi and Piellis-jarvi; Pajane, surrounded by hundreds of smaller lakes, and the waters of which are discharged into the lower gulf through the Kymmene river ; Nasi-jarvi and Pyha-jarvi, whose outflow is the Kumo-elf, flowing into the Gulf of Bothnia; Ulea-trask, discharged by the Ulea into the same gulf ; and Enare, belonging to the
See also:basin of the Arctic Ocean . Two large rivers, Kemi and Tornea, enter the head of the Gulf of Bothnia, while the Ulea is now navigable throughout, owing to improvements in its channel . Geology.—Cambrian,
See also:Silurian, Devonian and Carboniferous deposits are found on the coasts of the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga, and also along the coasts of the Arctic Ocean (probably Devonian), and in the Kjolen . Eruptive rocks of Palaeozoic age are met with in the Kola peninsula (
See also:nepheline-syenites) and at Kuusamo (
See also:syenite) . The remainder of Finland is built up of the
See also:oldest known crystalline rocks belonging to the Archaeozoic or Algonkian period . The most
See also:ancient of these seem to be the granites of East Finland .
The denudation and destruction of the granites gave rise to the Ladoga
See also:schists and various deposits of the same period, which were subsequently strongly folded . Then the country came once more under the sea, and the debris of the previous formations, mixed with fragments from the volcanoes then situated in West Finland, formed the so-called Bothnian series . New masses of granites protruded next from underneath, and the Bothnian deposits underwent foldings in their turn, while denudation was again at
See also:work on a grand scale . A new series of Jalulian deposits was formed and a new
See also:system of foldings followed; but these were the last in this
See also:part of the globe . The Jotnian series, which were formed next, remain still undisturbed . It is to this series that the well-known Rapakivi granite of Aland, Nystad and Viborg belongs . No marine deposits younger than those just mentioned—all belonging to a pre-
See also:Cambrian epoch—are found in the central portion of Finland; and the greater part of the country has probably been dry
See also:land since Palaeozoic times . The whole of Finland is covered with Glacial and
See also:post-Glacial deposits . The former of these, representing the bottom-
See also:moraine of the ice-sheet, are covered with Glacial and post-Glacial
See also:clays (partly of lacustrine and partly of marine origin) only in the peripheral coast-region—or in
See also:separate areas in the interior depressions . Some Finnish geologists—Sederholm for one—consider it probable that during the Glacial period an Arctic sea (Yoldia sea) covered allrsouthern Finland and also Scania (Skhne) in Sweden, thus connecting the
See also:Atlantic Ocean with the Baltic and the White Sea by a broad channel; but no fossils from that sea have been found anywhere in Finland . Conclusive proofs, however, of a later submergence under a post-Glacial Littorina sea (containing shells now living in the Baltic) are found up to 150 ft. along the Gulf of Finland, and up to 26o, or perhaps 330 ft., in Osterbotten . Traces of a large inner post-Glacial lake, similar to Lake Agassiz of North
See also:America, have been discovered .
The country is still continuing to rise, but at an unequal
See also:rate; of nearly 3.3 ft. in a century in the Gulf of Bothnia (Kvarken), from 1.4 to 2 ft. in the south, and nearly zero ,in the Baltic provinces .
See also:Climate.—Owing to the prevalence of moist west and south-west winds the climate of Finland is less severe than it is farther east in corresponding latitudes . The country lies thus between the
See also:annual isotherms of 41° and 28° Fahr., which run in a W.N.W.-E.S.E. direction . In
See also:January the average monthly temperature varies from 9° Fahr. about Lake Enare to 30° along the south coast; while in
See also:July the difference between the monthly averages is only eight degrees, being 53° in the north and 61° in the south-east . Everywhere, and especially in the interior, the winter lasts very long, and early frosts (
See also:June 12-14 in 1892) often destroy the crops . The amount of
See also:rain and
See also:snow is from 25a in. along the south coast to 13.8 in. in the interior of
See also:southern Finland .
See also:Flora, Forests,
See also:Fauna.—The flora of Finland has been most minutely explored, especially in the south, and the Finnish botanists were enabled to
See also:divide the country into twenty-eight different provinces, giving the numbers of phanerogam
See also:species for each province . These numbers vary from 318 to 400 species in Lapland, from 508 to 651 in Karelia, and attain 752 species for Finland proper; while the
See also:total for all Finland attains 1132 species . Alpine
See also:plants are not met with in Finland proper, but are represented by from 32 to 64 species in the Kola peninsula . The chief forest trees of Finland are the Scotch
See also:fir (Pinus sylvestris, L.), the fir (Picea excelsa,
See also:Link.); two species of birch (B. verrucosa, Ehrh., and B. odorata, Bechst.), as well as the birch-
See also:bush (B. nana); two species of Alnus (glutinosa and incana); the
See also:oak (Q. pedunculata, Ehrh.), which grows only on the south coast; the poplar (Populus tremula); and the Siberian larch, introduced in culture in the 18th century . Over 6,00o,000 trees are cut every
See also:year to he floated to
See also:thirty large saw-mills, and IO Government . Continent .
Islands Islands Lakes . Total . in Lakes. in Seas . Nyland 4,062 24 210 286 4,582
See also:Bjorneborg 7.594 8 1331 400 9,333
See also:Tavastehus 6,837 97 .. 1,400 8,334 Viborg 11,63o 362 130 4,502 16,624 St Michel . 5,652 ioi8 .. 2,149 8,819
See also:Kuopio 13,160 643 .. 2,696 16,499
See also:Vasa . 14,527 62 203 1,313 16,105
See also:Uleaborg . 60,348 171 94 3,344 63,957 Total 123,810 2385 1968 16,090 144,253 about I,000,000 to be transformed into paper pulp . The total export of
See also:timber was valued in 1897 at 82,16o,Ooo marks . It is estimated, however, that the domestic use of
See also:wood (especially for fuel) represents nearly five times as many cubic feet as the wood used for export in different shapes .
The total area under forests is estimated at 63,050,000 acres, of which 34,662,000 acres belong to thestate . The fauna has been explored in great detail both as regards the vertebrates and the invertebrates, and specialists will find the necessary
See also:bibliographical indications in Travaux geographiques en Finlande, published for the
See also:Geographical Congress of 1895 . Population.---The population of Finland, which was 4.29,912 in 1751, 832,659 in 1800, 1,636,915 in 1850, and 2,520,437 in 1895, was 2,712,562 in 1904, of whom 1,370,480 were
See also:women and 1,342,082 men . Of these only 341,602 lived in towns, the remainder in the country districts . The distribution of population in various provinces was as follows: 1904 . Population .
See also:Density per sq. kilometre .
See also:lobo-Bjbrneborg . 447,098 20.3 Kuopio . . 313,951 8.9 Nyland 297,813 29'3 St Michel 189,360 11.1 Tavastehus . 301,272 17.7 Uleaborg . 28o,899 1.9 Viborg 421,610 14.6 Vasa 460,460 12.5 Total 2,712,562 8.6 The number. of births in 1904 was 90,253 and the deaths 50,227, showing an excess of births over deaths of 40,026 .
Emigration was estimated at about three thousand every year before 1898, but it largely increased then owing to Russian encroachments on Finnish autonomy . In 1899 the emigrants numbered 12,357; 10,642 in 1900; 12,659 in 1901; and 10,952 in 1904 . The bulk of the population are Finns (2,352,990 in 1904) and Swedes (349,733) . Of Russians there were only 5939, chiefly in the provinces of Viborg and Nyland . Both Finns and Swedes belong to the Lutheran faith, there being only 46,466 members of the Greek Orthodox
See also:Church and 755
See also:Roman Catholics . The leading cities of Finland are :
See also:Helsingfors, capital of the grand-duchy and of the province (lan) of Nyland,
See also:principal seaport (111,654 inhabitants); lobo, capital of the Abo-Bjorneborg province and ancient capital of Finland (42,639) ; Tammerfors, the leading manufacturing
See also:town of the grand-duchy (40,261); Viborg, chief town of province of same name, important seaport (34,672) ; Uleaborg, capital of province (17,737) ; Vasa, or Nikolaistad, capital of Vasa lan (18,028); Bjorneborg (16,053); Kuopio, capital of province (13,519) ; and Tavastehus, capital of province of the same name (5545) .
See also:Industries.—Agriculture gives occupation to the large majority of the population, but of
See also:late the increase of manufactures has been marked .
See also:Dairy-farming is also on the increase, and the
See also:foreign exports of
See also:rose from 1930 cwt. in 1900 to 3130 cwt. in 1905 .
See also:Measures have been taken since 1892 for the improvement of
See also:agriculture, and the state keeps twenty-six agronomists and instructors for that purpose . There are two high
See also:schools, one experimental station, twenty-two
See also:middle schools and
See also:forty-eight lower schools of agriculture, besides ten horticultural schools . Agricultural
See also:societies exist in each province . Fishing is an important item of income .
The value of exports of
See also:fish, &c., was £140,000 in 1904, but fish was also imported to the value of £61,300 . The manufacturing industries (wood-products, metallurgy, machinery, textiles, paper and
See also:leather) are of
See also:modern development, but the aggregate production approaches one and a half millions sterling in value . Some gold is obtained in Lapland on the Ivalajoki, but the output, which amounted in 1871 to 56,692 grammes, had fallen in 1904 to 1951 grammes . There is also a small output of
See also:silver, copper and iron . The last is obtained partly from mines, but chiefly from the lakes . In 1904 22,050 tons of
See also:cast iron were obtained . The textile industries are making rapid progress, and their produce, notwithstanding the high duties, is exported to Russia . The fabrication of paper out of wood is also rapidly growing . As to the timber
See also:trade, there are upwards of 500 saw-mills, employing 21,000 men, and with an output valued at over £3,000,000 annually . Communications.---The roads, attaining an aggregate length of 27,500 in., are kept as a rule in very
See also:order . The first railway was opened in 1862, and the next, from Helsingfors to St Petersburg, in 187o (cost only £4520 per mile) . Railways of a lighter type began to be built since 1877, and now Finland has about 21o0 m. of railway, mostly belonging to the state .
See also:gross income from the state railways is 26,607,622, and the
See also:net income 4,684,856 marks . Finland has an extensive and well-kept system of canals, of which the sluiced canal connecting Lake Saima with the Gulf of Finland is the chief one . It permits
See also:ships navigating the Baltic to penetrate 270 M. inland, and is passed every year by from 4980 to 5200 Vessels . Considerable
See also:works have also been made to connect the differentlakes and lake-basins for inland navigation, a sum of £i,000,000 having been spent for that purpose . The telegraphs chiefly belong to Russia . Telephones have an enormous extension both in the towns and between the different towns of southern Finland; the cost of the yearly subscription varies from 4o to 6o marks,' and is only Io marks in the smaller towns . Commerce.—The foreign trade of Finland increases steadily, and reached in 1904 the fallowing values: From or to From or to Totals . Russia. other Countries . Imports • £4,036,000 £6,488,000 £10,524,000 Exports 2,332,000 6,292,000 8,624,000 The chief trade of Finland is with Russia, and next with Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, France and Sweden . The main imports are: cereals and
See also:flour (to an annual value exceeding £31000,000), metals, machinery, textile materials and textile products . The chief articles of export are; timber and wood articles (£5,250,000), paper and paper pulp, some tissues, metallic goods, leather, &c . The chief ports are Helsingfors, lobo, Viborg,
See also:Hango and Vasa,
See also:Education.—Great strides have been made since 1866, when a new education
See also:law was passed .
Rudimentary teaching in
See also:reading, occasionally writing, and the first principles of Lutheran faith are given in the maternal
See also:house, or in " maternal schools," or by ambulatory schools under the
See also:control of the
See also:clergy, who make the necessary examination in the houses of every
See also:parish . All education above that level is in the hands of the educational department and school boards elected in each parish, each rural parish being bound (since 1898) to be divided into a proper number of school districts and to have a school in each of them, the state contributing to these ex penses 80o marks a year for each male and 600 marks for each
See also:female teacher, or 25 % of the total cost in urban communes . Secondary education, formerly instituted on two separate lines, classical and scientific, has been reformed so as to give more prominence to scientific education, even in the classical (linguistic) lyceums or gymnasia . For higher education there is the university of Helsingfors (formerly the Abo Academy), which in 1906 had 1921 students (328 women) and 141 professors and docents . Besides the Helsingfors polytechnic there are a number of higher and lower technical, commercial and navigation schools . Finland has several scientific societies enjoying a
See also:world-wide reputation, as the Finnish Scientific Society, the Society for the Flora and Fauna of Finland, several medical societies, two societies of literature, the Finno-Ugrian Society, the
See also:Historical and Archaeological Societies, one juridical, one technical and two geographical societies . All of these, as also the Finnish
See also:Geological Survey, the Forestry Administration, &c., issue publications well known to the scientific world . The numerous
See also:local branches of the Friends of the Folk-School and the Society for Popular Education display great activity, the former by aiding the smaller communes in establishing schools, and the latter in
See also:publishing popular works, starting their own schools as well as
See also:libraries (in nearly every commune), and organizing lectures for the
See also:people . The university students take a lively part in this work . Government and Administration.—From the time of its union with Russia at the
See also:Diet of Borg& in 1809 till the events of 1899 (see
See also:History) Finland was practically a separate state, the emperor of Russia as grand-duke governing by means of a nominated
See also:senate and a diet elected on a very narrow franchise, and
See also:meeting at distant and irregular intervals . This diet was on the old Swedish
See also:model, consisting of representatives of the four estates—nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants—sitting and voting in separate " Houses." The government of the country was practically carried on by the senate, which communicated with St Petersburg through a Finnish secretary attached to the Russian government . War and foreign affairs were entirely in the hands of Russia, and a Russian
See also:governor had his residence in Helsingfors .
The senate also controlled the administration of the law . The constitutional conflict of 1899–1905 brought about something like a revolution in Finland . For some years the country was subject to a practically arbitrary
See also:form of government, but the disasters of the Russo-
See also:Japanese War and the growing anarchy in Russia resulted in 1905 in a
See also:complete and peaceful victory for the defenders of the Finnish constitution . As a Finnish writer puts it: just as the calamities which had befallen Finland came from Russia, so was her deliverance to came from Russia," The status quo ante was restored, the diet met in extraordinary session, and proceeded to the entire re-casting of the Finnish government . Freedom of the
See also:press was voted, and the diet next proceeded to reform its own constitution . i The Finnish mark, markka, of too pcnni, equals about Sid . Far-reaching changes were voted . The new diet, instead of being composed of four estates sitting separately, consists of a single chamber of 200 members elected directly by universal
See also:suffrage, women being eligible . By the new constitution the grand-duchy was to be divided into not less than twelve and not more than eighteen constituencies, electing members in proportion to population . A
See also:scheme of " proportional
See also:representation," the votes being counted in accordance with the system invented by G . M. d'Hondt, a Belgian, was also adopted . The executive was to consist of a
See also:minister-secretary of state and of the membert of the senate, who were entitled to attend and address the diet and who might be the subject of interpellations .
The members of the senate were made responsible to the diet as well as to the emperor-grand-duke for their acts . The diet has power to consider and decide upon measures proposed by the government . After a measure has been approved by the diet it is the
See also:duty of the senate to
See also:report upon it to the
See also:sovereign . But the senate is not obliged to accept the decision of themajority of the diet, nor, apparently, is the sovereign bound to accept the advice of the senate.- The first elections,
See also:April 1907, resulted in the election to the diet of about 40 % representatives of the Social Democratic party, and nineteen women members . The
See also:budget of Finland in 1905 was L4,273,970 of " ordinary " revenue . The "ordinary "
See also:expenditure was £3,595,300 . The public
See also:debt amounted at the end of 1905 to £5,611,170 . History.—It was probably at the end of the 7th or the beginning, of the 8th century that the Finns took possession of what is now Finland, though it was only when
See also:Christianity was introduced, about 1157, that they were brought into contact with civilized
See also:Europe . They probably found the Lapps in possession of the country . The early Finlanders do not seem to have had any governmental organization, but to have lived in separate communities and villages
See also:independent of each other . Their
See also:mythology consisted in the deification of the forces of nature, as " Ukko," the
See also:god of the air, " Tapio," god of the forests, " Ahti," the god of water, &c . These early Finlanders seem to have been both brave and troublesome to their neighbours, and their repeated attacks on the coast of Sweden drew the
See also:attention of the
See also:kings of that country .
See also:Eric IX . (St Eric), accompanied by the
See also:bishop of
See also:Henry (an Englishman, it is said), and at the head of a considerable army, invaded the country in 1157, when the people were conquered and baptized . King Eric
See also:left Bishop Henry with his priests and some soldiers behind to confirm the
See also:conquest and complete the conversion . After a time he was killed, canonized, and as St Henry became the
See also:saint of Finland . As Sweden had to attend to her own affairs, Finland was gradually reverting to independence and paganism, when in 1209 another bishop and missionary,
See also:Thomas (also an Englishman), arrived and recommenced the work of St Henry . Bishop Thomas nearly succeeded in detaching Finland from Sweden, and forming it into a province subject only to the
See also:pope . The famous
See also:Birger Jarl undertook a crusade in Finland in 1249, compelling the Tavastians, one of the sub-divisions of the Finlanders proper, to accept Christianity, and
See also:building a
See also:castle at Tavestehus . It was Terkel Knutson who conquered and connected the Karelian Finlanders in 1293, and built the strong castle of Viborg . Almost continuous
See also:wars between Russia and Sweden were the result of the conquest of Finland by the latter . In 1323 it was settled that the river Rajajoki should be the boundary between Russia and the Swedish province . After the final conquest of the country by the Swedes, they spread among the Finlanders their
See also:civilization, gave them
See also:laws, accorded them the same
See also:civil rights as belonged to themselves, and introduced agriculture and other beneficial arts . The Reformed religion was introduced into Finland by Gustavus Vasa about 1528, and King
See also:John III. raised the country to the dignity of a grand-duchy .
It continued to suffer, sometimes deplorably, in most of the wars waged by Sweden, especially with Russia and Denmark . His predecessor having created an order of
See also:counts, barons and nobles, Gustavus
See also:Adolphus in the beginning,of the t 7th century established the diet of Finland, composed of the four orders of . X . 13385 the nobility, clergy, burghers and peasants . Gustavus and his successor did much for Finland by founding schools and gymnasia, building churches, encouraging learning and introducing printing . 'During the reign of '
See also:Charles XI, (1692–1696) the country suffered terribly from
See also:famine and pestilence; in the
See also:diocese of Abo alone 60,000 persons died in less than nine months . Finland+ has been visited at different periods since by these scourges; so late as 1848 whole villages were starved during a -dreadful famine .
See also:Peter the Great cast an envious
See also:eye on Finland and tried to wrest it from Sweden; in 1710 he managed to obtain possession of the towns of Kexholm and Villmanstrand; and by 1716 all the country was in his power . Meantime the sufferings of the people had been great; thousands perished in the wars of Charles XII . By the peace of Nystad in 1721 the province of Viborg, the eastern division of Finland, was finally ceded to Russia . But the country had been laid very low by war, pestilence and famine, though it recovered itself with wonderful rapidity . In 1741 the Swedes made an effort to recover the ceded province, but through wretched management suffered disaster, and were compelled to capitulate' in
See also:August 1742, ceding by the peace of Abo, next year, the towns of Villmanstrand and Fredrikshamn .
Nothing remarkable seems to have occurred till 1788, under Gustavus III., who began to reign in 1771, and who confirmed to Finland those "fundamental laws " which they have succeeded in maintaining against kings and tsars for over two centuries . The country was divided into six governments, a second
See also:court of
See also:justice was founded at Vasa, many new towns were built, commerce flourished, and science and
See also:art were encouraged . Latin disappeared as the
See also:academic language, and Swedish was adopted . In 1788 war again broke out between Sweden and Russia, and was carried on for two years without much
See also:glory or gain to either party; the main aim of Gustavus being to recover the lost Finnish province . In 1808, under Gustavus IV., peace was again broken between the two countries, and the war ended by the cession in 18o9 of the whole of Finland and the Aland Islands to Russia . Finland, however, did not enter Russia as a conquered province, but, thanks to the bravery of her people after they had been abandoned by an incompetent monarch and treacherous generals, and not less to the wisdom and generosity of the emperor
See also:Alexander I. of Russia, she maintained her free constitution and fundamental laws, and became a semi-independent grand-duchy with the emperor as grand-duke . The estates were summoned to a free diet at
See also:Borga, and accepted Alexander as grand-duke of Finland, he on his part solemnly recognizing the Finnish constitution and undertaking to preserve the religion, laws and liberties of the country . A senate was created and a governor-general named . The province of Viborg was reunited to Finland in 1811, and Abo remained the capital of the country till 1821, when the civil and military authorities were removed to Helsingfors, and the university in 1827 . The diet, which had not met for 56 years, was convoked by Alexander II. at Helsingfors in 1863 . Under Alexander II . Finland was on the whole prosperous and progressive, and his statue in the great square in front of the
See also:cathedral and the senate house in Helsingfors testifies to the regard in which his memory is cherished by his Finnish subjects .
Unfortunately his successor soonfell under the influence of the reactionary party which had begun to assert itself in Russia even before the assassination of Alexander II . One of Alexander
See also:Ill.'s first acts was to confirm " the constitution which was granted to the grand-duchy of Finland by His
See also:Majesty the emperor Alexander Pavlovich of most glorious memory, and
See also:developed with the consent of the estates of Finland by our dearly beloved
See also:father of blessed memory the emperor Alexander Nicolaievich." But the Slavophil
See also:movement, with its
See also:motto, " one law, one church, one
See also:tongue," acquired great influence in official circles, and its aim was, in
See also:defiance of the pledges of successive tsars, to subject Finland to Orthodoxy and autocracy . It is unnecessary to follow in detail the seven years' struggle between the Russian bureaucracy and the defenders of the Finnish constitution . Politics in Finland were complicated by the rivalry between the Swedish party, which II 386 had hitherto been dominant in Finland, and the Finnish " nationalist " party which, during the latter half of the 19th century, had been determinedly asserting itself linguistically and politically . With some exceptions, however, the whole country
See also:united in defence of its constitution; " Fennoman " and " Svecoman," recognizing that their
See also:common liberties were at stake, suspended their
See also:feud for a
See also:season . With the accession of
See also:Nicholas II . (see Russia) the constitutional conflict became acute, and the "
See also:February manifesto " (February 15th, 1899) virtually abrogated the legislative power of the'Finnish diet . A new military law, practically amalgamating the Finnish with the Russian forces, followed in July 1901; Russian officials and the Russian language were forced on Finland wherever possible, and in April 1903 the Russian governor, General Bobrikov, was invested with practically dictatorial
See also:powers . The country was flooded with spies, and a
See also:special Russian
See also:police force was created, the expenses being charged to the Finnish
See also:treasury . The Russian system was now in full
See also:swing; domiciliary visits, illegal arrests and banishments, and the suppression of
See also:newspapers, were the order of the
See also:day . To all this the people of Finland opposed a dogged and determined resistance, which culminated in
See also:November 1905 in a "
See also:national strike." The strike was universal, all classes joining in the movement, and it spread to all the
See also:industrial centres and even to the rural districts . The railway, steamship, telephone and postal services were practically suspended .
Helsingfors was without tramcars, cabs,
See also:gas and
See also:electricity; no shops except
See also:provision shops were open; public departments, schools and restaurants were dosed . After six days the unconstitutional government--already much shaken by events in Russia and Manchuria—capitulated . In an imperial manifesto dated the 7th of November 1905 the demands of Finland were granted, and the status quo ante 1899 was restored . But the reform did not
See also:rest here . The old Finnish constitution, although precious to those whose only
See also:protection it was, was an antiquated and not very efficient instrument of government . Popular feeling had been excited by the
See also:political conflict, advanced tendencies had declared themselves, and when the new diet met it proceeded as explained above to remodel the constitution, on the basis of universal suffrage, with freedom of the press, speech, meeting and association . In 1908-ro
See also:friction with Russia was again renewed . The Imperial government insisted that the decision in all Finnish questions affecting the
See also:Empire must rest with them; and a renewed attempt was made to curtail the powers of the Finnish Diet .
See also:term Finn has a wider application than Finland, being, with its adjective Finnic or Finno-Ugric (q.v.) or Ugro-Finnic, the collective name of the westernmost branch of the Ural-Altaic
See also:family, dispersed throughout Finland, Lapland, the Baltic provinces (
See also:Esthonia, Livonia, Curland), parts of Russia proper (south of Lake
See also:Onega), both
See also:banks of middle
See also:Vologda, West
See also:Siberia (between the Ural Mountains and the Yenissei) and Hungary . Originally nomads (hunters and fishers), all the Finnic people except the Lapps and Ostyaks have long yielded to the influence of civilization, and now everywhere lead settled lives as herdsmen, agriculturists, traders, &c . Physically the Finns (here to be distinguished from the Swedish-speaking population, who retain their Scandinavian qualities) are a strong,
See also:race, of low stature, with almost
See also:round head, low forehead, flat features, prominent cheek bones, eyes mostly
See also:grey and oblique (inclining inwards), short and flat
See also:nose, protruding mouth, thick lips,
See also:neck very full and strong, so that the occiput seems flat and almost in a straight line with the nape;
See also:beard weak and sparse, hair no doubt originally black, but, owing to mixture with other races, now
See also:brown, red and even
See also:fair; complexion also somewhat brown . The Finns are morally upright, hospitable, faithful and submissive, with a keen sense of
See also:personal freedom and independence, but also somewhat stolid, revengeful and indolent .
Many of these
See also:physical and moral characteristics they have in common with the so-called " Mongolian "" race, to which they are no doubt ethnically, if not also linguistically, related.[LITERATURE Considerable researches have been accomplished since about 185o in the ethnology and archaeology of Finland, on a scale which has no parallel in any other country . The study of the prehistoric population of Finland—Neolithic (no Palaeolithic finds have yet been made)—of the Age of
See also:Bronze and the Iron Age has been carried on with great zeal . At the same time the
See also:folklore, Finnish and partly Swedish, has been worked out with wonderful completeness (see L'Quvre demi-seculaire de la Societe de Litterature finnoise et le mouvement national finnois, by Dr E . G . Palmen, Helsingfors, 1882, and K . Krohn's report to the London Folklore Congress of 1891) . The work that was begun by Porthan, Z . Topelius, and especially E .
See also:Lonnrot (1802-1884), for
See also:collecting the popular
See also:poetry of the Finns, was continued by Castren (1813-1852), Europaeus (182o-1884), and V . Porkka (1854-1889), who extended their researches to the Finns settled in other parts of the Russian empire, and collected a considerable number of variants of the
See also:Kalewala and other popular poetry and songs . In order to study the different eastern kinsfolk of the Finns, Sjogren (1792-1855) extended his journeys to North Russia, and Castren to West and East Siberia (Nordische Reisen and Forschungen), and collected the materials which permitted himself and
See also:Schiefner to publish grammatical works relative to the Finnish, Lappish, Zyrian, Tcheremiss, Ostiak, Samoyede, Tungus, Buryat, Karagas,
See also:Yenisei-Ostiak and Kott
See also:languages . Ahlqvist (1826-1889), and a phalanx of linguists, continued their work among the Vogules, the Mordves and the Obi-Ugrians .
And finally, the researches of Aspelin (
See also:Foundations of Finno- Ugrian Archaeology, in Finnish, and Atlas of Antiquities) led the Finnish ethnologists to
See also:direct more and more their attention to the basin of the Yenisei and the Upper Selenga . A series of expeditions (of Aspelin, Snellman and Heikel) were consequently directed to those regions, especially since the
See also:discovery by Yadrintseff of the remarkable Orkhon inscriptions (see Turtles, p . 473), which finally enabled the Danish linguist, V . Thomsen, to decipher these inscriptions, and to discover that they belonged to the
See also:Turkish Iron Age . (See Inscriptions de l'Ienissei recueillies et publiees
See also:par la Societe Finl. d'Archeologie, 1889, and Inscriptions de l'Orkhon, 1892.) Finnish Literature . The earliest writer in the Finnish vernacular was Michael
See also:Agricola (1506-155Z), who published an A B C
See also:Book in 1544, and, as bishop of Abo, a number of religious and educational works . A version of the New Testament in Finnish was printed by Agricola in 1548, and some books of the Old Testament in 1552 . A complete Finnish Bible was published at
See also:Stockholm in 1642 . The dominion of the Swedes was very unfavourable to the development of anything like a Finnish literature, the poets of Finland preferring to write in Swedish and so secure a wider
See also:audience . It was not until, in 1835, the national epos of Finland, the Kalewala (q.v.), was introduced to readers by the exertions of
See also:Elias Lonnrot (q.v.), that the Finnish language was used for
See also:literary composition . Lonnrot also collected and edited the works of the
See also:peasant-poets P . Korhonen (1775-1840) and Pentti Lyytinen, with an
See also:anthology containing the improvisa- tions of eighteen other rustic bards .
During the lastquarter of the 19th century there was an ever-increasing literary activity in Finland, and it took the form less and less of the publication of Swedish works, but more and more that of examples of the aboriginal vernacular . At the
See also:present time, in spite of the political troubles, books in almost every branch of
See also:research are found in the language, mainly
See also:translations or adaptations . We meet with, during the present century, a considerable number of names of poets and dramatists, no doubt very minor, as also painters, sculptors and musical composers . At the
See also:Exhibition of 1878 several native Finnish painters and sculptors exhibited works which would do
See also:credit to any country; and both in the
See also:fine and applied arts Finland occupied a position thoroughly creditable . An important contribution to a history of Finnish literature is Krohn's Suomenkielinen runollisuns ruotsinvallan aikana (1862) . Finland is wonderfully
See also:rich in
See also:periodicals of all kinds, the publications of the Finnish Societies of Literature and of Sciences and other learned bodies being specially valuable . A great work in the revival of an
See also:interest in the Finnish language was done by the Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura (the Finnish Literary Society), which from the year 1841 has published a valuable annual, Suomi . The Finnish Literary Society has also published a new edition of the works of the father of Finnish history, Henry
See also:Gabriel Porthan (died 1804) . A valuable handbook of Finnish history was published at Helsingfors in 1869-1873, by Yrjo Koskinen, and has been translated into both Swedish and German . The author was a Swede, Georg Forsman, the above form being a Finnish
See also:translation . Other works on Finnish history and some inportant works in Finnish geography have also appeared . In language we have Lonnrot's great Finnish-Swedish
See also:dictionary, published by the Finnish Literary Society .
See also:Otto Donner's
See also:Comparative Dictionary of the Finno-Ugric Languages (Helsingfors and
See also:Leipzig) is in German . In imaginative literature Finland has produced several important writers of the vernacular . Alexis Stenwall ("
See also:Kiwi ") (1834-1872), the son of a
See also:village tailor, was the best poet of his time; he wrote popular dramas and an historical
See also:romance, The Seven
See also:Brothers (187o) . Among
See also:recent playwrights Mrs Minna Canth (1844-1897) has been the most successful . Other dramatists are E . F . Johnsson (1844-1895), P . Cajander (b . 1846), who translated
See also:Shakespeare into Finnish, and Karl Bergbom (b . 1843) . Among lyric poets are J . H .
Erkko (b . 1849), Arwi Jannes (b . 1848) and Yrjo Weijola (b . 1875) . The earliest novelist of Finland, Pietari Paivarinta (b . 1827), was the son of a labourer; he is the author of a grimly realistic
See also:story, His
See also:Life . Many of the popular Finnish authors of our day are peasants . Kauppis Heikki was a wagoner; Alkio
See also:Filander a
See also:farmer; Heikki Mavilainen a
See also:smith; Juhana Kokko (Kyosti) a gamekeeper . The most gifted of the writers of Finland, however, is certainly Juhani Aho (b . 1861), the son of a country clergyman . His earliest writings were studies of modern life, very realistically treated . Aho then went to reside in France, where he made a close study of the methods of the leading French novelists of the newer school .
About the year 1893 he began to publish short stories, some of which, such as Enris, The Fortress ofMatthias, The Old Man of Korpela and Finland's
See also:Flag, are delicate works of art, while they reveal to a very interesting degree the
See also:temper and ambitions of the contemporary Finnish population . It has been well said that in the writings of Juhani Aho can be traced all the idiosyncrasies which have formed the curious and pathetic history of Finland in recent years . A village
See also:priest, Juho Reijonen (b . 1857), in tales of somewhat artless form, has depicted the hardships which poverty too often entails upon the Finn in his country life . Tolstoy has found an imitator in Arwid Jarnefelt (b . 1861) . Santeri Ingman (b . 1866) somewhat naively, but not without skill, has followed in the steps of Aho . It would be an error to exaggerate either the force or the originality of these early developments of a national Finnish literature, which, moreover, are mostly brief and unambitious in character . But they are eminently sincere, and they have the great merit of illustrating the local aspects of landscape and temperament and
See also:manners . F . W .
Pipping, Forteckning ofver backer pd finska sprdket (Helsingfors, 1856-1857) ; E . Brausewetter, Finland
See also:im Bilde seiner Dichtung and seiner Dichter (Berlin, 1899) ; C . J . Pinson, Popular Poetry of the Finns (London, 190o) ; V . Vasenius, Ofversigt of Finlands Litteraturhistoria for skolor (Helsingfors, 1893) . For writers using the Swedish language, see SWEDEN: Literature . (E .
FINISTERE, or FINISTERRE
GEORGE FINLAY (1799-1875)
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