Online Encyclopedia

FIRMAN (an adaptation of the Per. fer...

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V10, Page 423 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FIRMAN (an adaptation of the Per. ferman, a mandate or patent, cognate with the Sanskrit pramdna, a measure, authority), an edict of an oriental sovereign, used specially to designate decrees, grants, passports, &c., issued by the sultan of Turkey and signed by one of his ministers. A decree bearing the sultan's sign-manual and drawn up with special formalities is termed a hatti-sherif, Arabic words meaning a line, writing or command, and lofty, noble. A written decree of an Ottoman sultan is also termed an irade, the word being taken from the Arab. iradd, will, volition, order.
End of Article: FIRMAN (an adaptation of the Per. ferman, a mandate or patent, cognate with the Sanskrit pramdna, a measure, authority)
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