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Originally appearing in Volume V10, Page 574 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHANN GOTTFRIED FLUGEL (1788-1855), German lexicographer, was born at Barby near Magdeburg, on the 22nd of November 1788. He was originally a merchant's clerk, but emigrating to the United States in 1810, he made a special study of the English language, and returning to Germany in 1819, was in 1824 appointed lector of the English language in the university of Leipzig. In 1838 he became American consul, and subsequently representative and correspondent of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington and several other leading American literary and scientific institutions. He died at Leipzig on the 24th of June 1855. The fame of Flugel rests chiefly on the Vollstdndige englischdeutsche and deutsch-englische Worterbuch, first published in 2 vols. (Leipzig) in 1830, which has had an extensive circulation not only in Germany but in England and America. In this work he was assisted by J. Sporschil, and a new and enlarged edition, edited by his son Felix Flugel (1820–1904), was published at Brunswick (189o-1892). Another edition, in two volumes, edited by Prof. Immanuel Schmidt and S. Tanger appeared (Brunswick, London & New York) in 1906. Among his other works are—Vollstandige engl. Sprachlehre (1824–1826); Triglotte, oder kaufmannisches Worterbuch in drei Sprachen, Deutsch, Englisch and Franzosisch (1836–1840) ; Kleines Kaufmannisches Handworterbuch in drei Sprachen (1840); and Praktisches Handbuch der engl. Handelscorrespondenz (1827, 9th ed. 1873). All these have passed through several editions. In addition, Flugel also published in the English language: A series of Commercial Letters (Leipzig, 1822), a 9th edition of which appeared in 1874 under the title Practical Mercantile Correspondence and a Practical Dictionary of the English and German Languages (2 vols., Hamburg and Leipzig, 1847–1852; 15th ed., Leipzig, 1891). The last was continued and re-edited by his son Felix.
End of Article: JOHANN GOTTFRIED FLUGEL (1788-1855)
FLUKE (probably connected with the Ger. flack, flat...

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