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Originally appearing in Volume V05, Page 609 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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FODDER CROPS Stems and Foliage Per cent of Per cent of Per cent of of Root Crops. Fibre. Fodder Crops. Fibre.1 Cereal Straws. Fibre. White Turnip 3.9 Grasses 32.0 Oats 60.68 Meadow 2 25`8 Wheat 75'77 Hay S Barley . . 71'74 Swedish „ 4.2 Clover and j 23'S Carrot 3.1 Trefoil s Mangel . . . 2.6 Vetches . . . 25.9 Parsnip . 2.6 Lucerne . 26.7 Sainfoin 28.7 Leguminous. Oil Seeds. Stems and Fodder Cereal Foliage of Crops. Straws. Root Crops Average % of water 14 7 87 7o-8o 15 'This percentage is calculated on airdry-produce containing 15% of water. The above figures have a purely empirical value, since they represent a complicated mixture of various residues derived from the celluloses and compound celluloses. This mixture may be further resolved, and by special quantitative methods the pro-portions of actual cellulose, ligno-cellulose and cuto-celluloses estimated (J. Konig, Ber., 1906, 39, p. 3564). The figures are taken as an inverse measure of digestibility; at the same time it has been established that this group of relatively indigestible food constituents are more or less digestible and assimilable as flesh and fat producers. The percentage or coefficient of digestibility of the celluloses of the more important food-stuffsgreen fodder, hay, straw and grains—varies from 20 to 75%. It has also been established that their physiological efficiency is, under certain conditions, quite equal to that of starch. It must also be borne in mind that the indigestible food residues, as finally voided by the animal, have played an important mechanical part as an aid to digestion of those constituents more readily attacked in the digestive tract of animals. They are further an important factor of the agricultural cycle. Re-turned `;to the soil as " farm-yard manure," mixed with other cellulosic matter which has served as litter, they add " fibre " to the soil and, as a mechanical diluent of the mineral soil components, maintain this in a more open condition, penetrable by the atmospheric gases, and promoting distribution of moisture. Further by breaking down, with production of " humus," a complex of colloidal " unsaturated " bodies of acid function, they fulfil important chemical functions by interaction with the mineral soil constituents. Chemistry of Cellulose.—Purified cotton cellulose, which is the definitive prototype of the cellulose group or series, is a complex of monoses or their " residues." It is resolved by solution in sulphuric acid and subsequent hydrolysis of the esters thus produced into dextrose. This fundamental fact with its elementary composition, most simply expressed by the formula C6H1005, has caused it to be regarded as a polyanhydride of dextrose. Forming, as it does, simple esters in the ratio of the reacting hydroxyls 30H: C6H1„05, and taking into account its direct converson into w-brom-methyl furfural (Fenton) a constitutional formula has been proposed by A. G. Green (Zeit. Farb. Textil Chem. 3, pp. 97 and 309 (1904)), which is a useful generalization of its reactions, and its ultimate relations to the CH (OH) .CH .CH (OH) simpler carbohydrates, viz., II >0 >0 . Green con- CH(OH)•CH.CH2 siders, moreover, that a group thus formulated may consistently represent the actual dimensions of the reacting unit, but that unit of larger dimensions, if postulated, is easily derived from the above by oxygen linkings. , From another point of view the unit group has been formu-,CH (OH) •CH(OH) fated as CO > CH2 , the main linking of such units in the `CH (OH) .CH (OH) complex taking place as between their respective CO and CH2 groups in the alternative enolic form CH—C(OH). This view gives expression to the genetic relations of the celluloses to the lignocelluloses, to the tendency to carbon condensation as in the formation of coals, and pseudo-carbons, to the relative resistance of cellulose to hydrolysis, and its other points of differentiation from starch, and more particularly to the ketonic character of its carbonyl (CO) groups, which is also more in harmony with the experimental facts established by Fenton as to the production of methyl furfural. The probability, however, is that no simple molecular formula adequately represents the constitution of cellulose as it actually exists or indeed reacts. On the other hand, it has been suggested that cellulose is to be regarded as representing a condition of matter analogous to that of a saline electrolyte in solution, i.e. as a complex of molecular aggregates, and of residues (of monose groups) having distinct and opposite polarities; such a complex is essentially labile and its configuration will change progressively under reaction. The exposition of this view is the subject of a publication by Cross and Bevan (Researches on Cellulose, ii. 1906). The main purpose is to give full effect to the colloidalcharacteristics of cellulose and its derivatives, with reference to the modern theory of the colloidal state as involving a particular internal equilibrium of amphoteric electrolytes. The typical cellulose is a white fibrous substance familiar to us in the various forms of bleached cotton. Other fibrous celluloses are equally characteristic as to form and appearance, e.g. bleached flax, hemp, ramie. It is hygroscopic, absorbing 6 to 7% its weight of moisture from the air. When dry, it is an electrical insulator, and has a specific inductive capacity of about 7: when wetted it is a conductor, and manifests electrolytic phenomenal It is insoluble in water and in the ordinary solvents; it dissolves, however, in a 40-50% solution of zinc chloride, and in ammoniacal solutions of copper oxide (3% CuO, 15% NH3): from these solutions it is obtained as a highly hydrated, gelatinous precipitate, from the former by dilution or addition of alcohol, from the latter by acidification; these solutions have important industrial application. Projected or drawn into a precipitating solution they may be solidified continuously to threads of vatious, but controlled dimensions: the regenerated cellulose, now amorphous, in its finer dimensions is known as artificial silk or lustra-cellulose. These forms of cellulose retain the general characters of the original fibrous and " natural " celluloses. In composition they differ somewhat by combination with water (of hydration), which they retain in the air-dry condition. They also further combine with an increased proportion of atmospheric moisture, viz. up to ro-rr % of their weight. Derivatives.—Important derivatives are the esters or ethereal salts of both inorganic and organic acids, cellulose behaving as an alcohol, the highest esters indicating that it reacts as a trihydric alcohol of the formula n[C6H702(OH)3]. The nitrates result by the action of concentrated nitric acid, either alone or in the presence of sulphuric acid: the normal dinitrate represents a definite stage in the series of nitrates, and the ester at this point manifests the important property of solubility in various alcoholic solvents, notably ether-alcohol. Such nitrates are the basis of collodion, of artificial silk by the processes of Chardonnet and Lehner, and of celluloid or xylonite. Higher nitrates are also obtainable-up to the limit of the trinitrate, which is insoluble in ether or alcohol, but is soluble in nitroglycerin, nitrobenzene and other solvents. These higher nitrates are the basis of the most important modern explosives. Cellulose reacts directly with acetic anhydride to form low esters; in the presence of sulphuric acid the reaction proceeds to higher limits; the triacetate is soluble in chloroform. The acid sulphuric ester, C6H803(SO4H)2, is obtained by the action of sulphuric acid, but its relation to the original cellulose is doubtful. The monobenzoate and dibenzoate are formed by benzoyl chloride reacting on alkali-cellulose (see below). Cellulose xanthates are obtained from carbon bisulphide and alkali-cellulose; these are water soluble derivatives and the basis of " viscose," and of important industries. Mixed esters—acetosulphate, aceto-benzoate, nitrobenzoyl nitrates, aceto-nitrosulphates—have also been investigated. Cellulose (cotton), when treated with a 15-20% caustic soda solution, gives the compound C6H605•H20.2NaOH, alkali-cellulose, the original riband-like form with reticulated walls of the .cellulose being transformed into a smooth-walled cylinder. The structural changes in the ultimate fibre deter-mine very considerable changes in the dimensions of fabrics so treated. The reactions and structural changes were investigated by J. Mercer, and are known generally as " mercerization." In recent years a very large industry in " mercerized " fabrics (cotton) has resulted from the observation that if the shrinkages of the yarns and fabrics be antagonized by mechanical means, a very high lustre is developed. Similar, but less definite compounds, are formed with the oxides of lead, manganese, barium, iron, aluminium and chromium. These derivatives, which also find industrial applications in the dyeing and printing of fabrics, differ but little in 1 C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan, Jour. Chem. Soc., 1895, 67, p. 449; C. R. Darling, Jour. Faraday Soc. 1904; A. Campbell, Trans. Roy. Soc. 1906. appearance from the original cellulose, and are without influence on its essential characteristics. Decompositions.—Hydrolysis:—By solution in sulphuric acid followed by dilution and boiling the diluted solution cellulose hydrolyses to fermentable sugars; this reaction is utilized industrially in the manufacture of glucose from rags. Hydrochloric acid produces a friable mass of " hydrocellulose," probably C12H22011, insoluble in water, but readily attacked by alkalis, with the production of soluble derivatives; some dextrose is formed in the original reaction. Hydrobromic acid in ethereal solution gives furfurane derivatives. Cold dilute acids have no perceptible action on cellulose. The actions of such acids are an important auxiliary to bleaching, dyeing and printing processes, but they require careful limitation in respect of concentration and temperature. Cellulose is extremely resistant to the action of dilute alkalis: a 1-2% solution of sodium hydrate having little action at temperatures up to 15o°; hence the use of caustic soda, soda ash and sodium silicate in bleaching processes, i.e. for the elimination of the non-cellulose components of the raw fibres. Oxidation in acid solutions gives compounds classed as " oxycelluloses," insoluble in water, but more or less soluble in alkalis; continued oxidation gives formic, acetic and carbonic acids. Oxidation in alkaline solution is more easily controlled and limited; solutions of bleaching powder, or more generally of alkaline hydrochlorites, receive industrial application in oxidizing the coloured impurities of the fibre, or residues left after more or less severe alkali treatments, leaving the cellulose practically unaffected. This, however, is obviously a question of conditions: this group of oxidants also oxidize to oxycellulose, and under more severe conditions to acid products, e.g. oxalic and carbonic acids. Certain bacteria also induce decompositions which are resolutions into ultimate products of the lowest molecular dimensions, as hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, acetic acid and butyric acid (Omeliansky) (Handb. Techn. Mykologie [F. Lafar] pp. 245-268), but generally the cellulose complex- is extremely resistant to the organic ferments. Cellulose burns with a luminous flame to carbon dioxide and water; dry distillation gives a complicated mixture of gaseous and liquid products and a residue of charcoal or pseudo-carbon. Chromic acid in sulphuric acid solutions effects a complete oxidation, i.e. combustion to water and carbonic acid. Ligno-celluloses.—These compounds have many of the characteristics of the cellulose esters; they are in effect ethereal compounds of cellulose and the quinonoid lignone complex, and the combination resists hydrolysis by weak alkalis or acids. The cellulose varies in amount from 8o to 50%, and the lignone varies inversely as the degree of lignification, that is, from the lignified bast fibre of annuals, of which jute is a type, to the dense tissues of the perennial dicotyledonous woods, typified by the beech. The empirical formula of the lignone complex varies from C19H22O9 (jute) to C261130010 (pine wood). In certain reactions the non-cellulose or lignone constituents are selectively converted into soluble derivatives, and may be separated as such from the cellulose which is left; for example, chlorination gives products soluble in sodium sulphite solution, by the combination of unsaturated groups of the lignone with the halogen, while digestion with bisulphite solutions at elevated temperatures (14o°-16o°) gives soluble sulphonated derivatives. This last reaction is employed industrially in the preparation of cellulose for paper-making from coniferous woods. These reactions are " quantitative " since they depend upon well-defined constitutional features of the lignone complex, and the resolution of the ligno-cellulose takes place with no further change in the lignone than the synthetical combination with the substituting groups. The constituent groups of the lignone specifically HC reacting are of benzenoid type of the probable form HC CO H2C~C0 CO deduced from the similarity of the chlorinated derivatives to mairogallol, the product of the action of chlorine on pyrogallol in acetic acid solution (A. Hantzsch, Ber. 20, p. 2033) The complex contains methoxy (OCH3) groups. There is also present a residue which is readily broken down by oxidizing agents, and indeed by simple hydrolysis, to acetic acid. Another important group of actual constituents are pentosanes —partially isolated as " wood gum " by solution in alkalis —and furfural derivatives (hydroxy furfurals) derived from these. 'The actual constitutional relationships of these main groups, as well as the localization of the methoxy groups, are still problematical. Certain colour reactions are characteristic, though they are in some cases reactions of certain constituents invariably present in the natural forms of the ligno-cellulose; which may be re-moved without affecting the essential character of the lignone complex. Aniline salts generally give a yellow coloration, dimethyl-para-phenylenediamine gives a deep red coloration, phloroglucin in hydrochloric acid gives a crimson coloration. Reactions more definitely characteristic of the lignone are:—ferric ferrocyanide, which is taken up and transformed into Prussian blue throughout the fibre, without affecting its structure, although there may be as much as a 50% gain in weight; iodine in potassium iodide solution gives a deep brown colour due to absorption of the halogen, a reaction which admits of quantitative application, i.e. as a measure of the proportion of ligno-cellulose in a fibrous mixture; nitric acid gives a deep orange yellow coloration; digested with the dilute acid (5-10% HNO3) at 50° the ligno-celluloses are entirely resolved, the lignone complex being attacked and dissolved in the form of nitroso-ketonic acids, which, on continued heating, are finally resolved to oxalic, acetic, formic and carbonic acids. Derivatives of Ligno-cellulose.—By reaction with chlorine jute yields the derivative C19H18C14O9, soluble in alcohol, and in acetic acid; this derivative has the reactions of a quinone chloride. By reaction with sodium sulphite it is converted into a hydroquinone sulphonate of deep purple colour. The reaction of the ligno-celluloses (pine wood) with the bisulphites yields the soluble derivatives of the general formula C28H29O9•SO3H (containing two O•CH3 groups). Jute reacts with nitric acid in presence of sulphuric acid to form nitrates; and with acetic anhydride to form low acetates. It reacts with alkaline hydrates with structural changes similar to those obtained with cotton; and by the further action of benzoyl chloride and of carbon bisulphide upon the resulting compounds there result the corresponding benzoates and xanthates respectively. But these synthetical derivatives are mixtures of cellulose and lignone derivatives, and so far of merely theoretical interest. Decompositions of Ligno-cellulose.—In addition to the specific resolutions above described which depend upon the distinctive chemical characters of the cellulose and lignone respectively, the following may be noted: to simple hydrolytic agents the two groups are equally resistant, therefore by boiling with dilute acids or alkalis the groups are attacked pari passu. Weak oxidants may also be used as bleaching agents to remove coloured by-products without seriously attacking the ligno-cellulose, which is obtained in its bleached form. Nitric acid of all strengths effects complete resolution. Chromic acid in dilute solutions combines with the lignone complex, but in presence of hydrolysing acids total oxidation of the lignone is determined. The principal products are oxalic, carbonic, formic and acetic acids. This reaction is an index of constitution. Generally, the lignone is attacked under many conditions and by many reagents which are without action upon cellulose, by virtue of its unsaturated constitution, and its acid and aldehydic residues. Cuto-cellulose.—A typical cuto-cellulose is the cuticle (peel) of the apple which, when purified by repeated hydrolytic treatment and finally by alcohol and ether, gives a product of the composition C = 75'66%,' II= 11-37 %, 0 =14.97 %. Hydrolysis by strong alkalis gives stearo-cutic acid, C28H48O4, and oleo-cutic acid, C14H20O4 (Fremy). Cork is a complex mixture containing various compound celluloses: extraction with alcohol removes certain fatty alcohols and acids, and aromatic derivatives related to tannic acid; the residue is probably a mixture of cellulose. ligno-cellulose, cerin, C20H320 and suberin; the latter yields stearic acid, C18H38O2, and the acid C22H42O3. The cutocelluloses have been only superficially investigated, and, with the exception of cork, are of but little direct industrial importance. Industrial Uses of Cellulose.—The applications of cellulose to the necessities of human life, infinitely varied in kind as they are colossal in magnitude, depend upon two groups of qualities or properties, (1) structural, (2) chemical. The manufactures of vegetable textiles and of paper are based upon the fibrous forms of the naturally occurring celluloses, together with such structural qualities as are expressed in the terms strength, elasticity, specific gravity. As regards chemical properties, those which come. into play are chiefly the negative quality of resistance to chemical change; this is obviously a primary factor of value in enabling fabrics to withstand wear and tear, contact with atmospheric oxygen and water, and such chemical treatments as laundrying; positive chemical properties are brought into play in the auxiliary processes of dyeing, printing, and the treatment and preparation in connexion with these. Staple textiles of this group are cotton, flax, hemp and jute; other fibres are used in rope-making and brush-making industries. These subjects are treated in special articles under their own headings and in the article FIBRES. The course of industrial development in the 19th century has been one of enormous expansion in use and considerable refinement in methods of preparation and manufacture. Efforts to introduce new forms of cellulose have had little result. Rhea or ramie has been a favourite subject of investigation; the industry has been introduced into England, and doubtless its development is only a question of time, as on the continent of Europe the production of rhea yarns is well established, though it is still only a relatively small trade—probably two or three tons a day total production. The paper trade has required to seek new sources of cellulose, in consequence of the enormous expansion of the uses of paper. Important phases of development were: (1) in the period of 186o to 1870, the introduction of esparto, which has risen to a consumption of 250,000 tons a year in the United Kingdom, at which figure it remains fairly steady; (2) the decade 187o to 1880, which saw the development of the manufacture of cellulose from coniferous woods, and this industry nbw furnishes a staple of world-wide consumption, though the industry is necessarily localized in countries where the coniferous woods are available in large quantities. As a development of the paper industry we must mention the manufacture of paper textiles, based upon the production of pulp yarns. Paper pulps are worked into flat strips, which are then rolled into cylindrical form, and by a final twisting process a yarn is produced sufficiently strong to be employed in weaving. What we may call the special cellulose industries depend upon specific chemical properties of cellulose, partly intrinsic, partly belonging to the derivatives such as the esters. Thus the cellulose nitrates are the bases of our modern high explosives, as well as those now used for military purposes. Their use has been steadily developed and perfected since the middle of the 19th century. The industries in celluloid, xylonite, &c., also depend upon the nitric esters of cellulose, and the plastic state which they assume when treated with solvent liquids, such as alcohol, amyl acetate, camphor and other auxiliaries, in which state they can be readily moulded and fashioned at will. They have taken an important place as structural materials both in useful and artistic applications. The acetates of cellulose have recently been perfected, and are used in coating fine wires for electrical purposes. especially in instrument-making; this use depends upon their electrical properties of high insulation and low inductive capacity. Hydrated forms of cellulose, which result from treatment with various reagents, are the bases of the following industries: vegetable parchment results from the action of sulphuric acid upon cellulose (cotton) in the form of paper, followed by that of water, which precipitates the partially colloidalized cellulose. This industry is carried out on " continuous " machinery, the cellulose, in the form of paper, being treated in rolls. Vulcanized fibre is produced by similar processes, as for instance by treating paper with zinc chloride V. 20solvents and cementing together a number of sheets when in the colloidal hydrated state; the goods are exhaustively washed to remover last traces of soluble electrolytes; this is necessary, as the product is used for electrical insulation. The solvent action of cupro-ammonium is used in treating cellulose goods, cotton and paper, the action being allowed to proceed. sufficiently to attack the constituent fibres and convert them into colloidal cupro-ammonium compounds, which are then dried, producing a characteristic green-coloured finish of colloidal cellulose and rendering the goods impervious to water. The important industry of mercerization has been mentioned above; this is carried out on both yarns and cloth of cotton goods chiefly composed of Egyptian cottons. A high lustrous finish is produced, giving the goods very much the appearance of silk. Of special importance are the more recent developments in the production of artificial fibres of all dimensions, by spinning or drawing the solutions of cellulose or derivatives. Three such processes are in course of evolution. (1) The first is based on the nitrates of cellulose which are dissolved in ether-alcohol, and spun through fine glass jets into air or water, the unit threads being afterwards twisted together to constitute the thread used for weaving (process of Chardonnet and Lehner). These processes were developed in the period-1883 to 1897, at which later date they had assumed serious industrial proportions. (2) The cupro-ammonium solution of cellulose is similarly employed, the solution being spun or drawn into a strong acid bath which instantly regenerates cellulose hydrate in continuous length. (3) Still more recently the " viscose " solution of cellulose, i.e. of the cellulose xanthogenic acid, has been perfected for the production of artificial silk or lustra-cellulose; the alkaline solution of the cellulose derivative being drawn either into concentrated ammonium salt solutions or into acid baths. This product, known as artificial silk, prepared by the three competing processes, was in 1908 an established textile with a total production in Europe of about 5000 tons a year, a quantity which bids fair to be very largely increased by the advent of the viscose process, which will effect a very considerable lowering in the cost of production. The viscose solution of cellulose is also used for a number of industrial effects in connexion with paper-sizing, paper-coating, textile finishes, and the production of book cloth and leather cloth, and, solidified in solid masses, is used in preparing structural solids which can be moulded, turned and fashioned. For the special literature of cellulose treated from the general point of view of this article, the reader may consult the following works by C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan: Cellulose (1895, 2nd ed. 1903), Researches on Cellulose, i. (1901), Researches on Cellulose, ii. (1906). (C. F. C.)
End of Article: FODDER
FOCUS (Latin for " hearth " or " fireplace ")

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