See also:term for what• is eaten by man and other creatures for the sustenance of
See also:life . The scientific aspect of human
See also:food is dealt with under
See also:NUTRITION and
See also:DIETETICS .
See also:Infancy.—The influence of a normal
See also:diet upon the
See also:health of man (we exclude here the question of diet in illness, which must depend on the abnormal conditions existing) begins at the earliest stage of his life . No food has as yet been found so suitable for the
See also:young of all animals as their
See also:mother's milk . This, however, has not been from want of seeking . Dr Brouzet (Sur l'
See also:education medicinale
See also:des enfants, i. p . 165) had such a
See also:bad opinion of human mothers, that he expressed a wish for the state to interfere and prevent them from suckling their
See also:children, lest they should communicate immorality and disease ! A still more determined pessimist was the famous chemist
See also:Van Helmont, who thought life had been reduced to its
See also:present shortness by our inborn propensities, and proposed to substitute
See also:bread boiled in
See also:beer and
See also:honey for milk, which latter he calls " brute's food." Baron Justus von Liebig, as the result of his chemical researches, introduced a " food for infants," which in more
See also:modern days has been followed by a multiplication of patent foods . A close imitation of human milk may also be made by the addition to fresh cow's milk of
See also:half its bulk of soft
See also:water, in each
See also:pint of which has been mixed a heaped-up teaspoonful of powdered "
See also:sugar of milk " and a pinch of phosphate of lime . These artificial substitutes for the natural nutriment have their value where for any reason it is not available . The wholesomest food, however, for the first six months is certainly mother's milk alone . A vigorous baby can indeed bear with impunity much rough usage, and often appears none the worse for a certain quantity of farinaceous food; but the majority do not get habituated to it without an
See also:exhibition of dislike which indicates
See also:rebellion of the bowels .
It is only when theteeth are on their way to the front, as shown by dribbling, that the parotid glands secrete an active saliva capable of digesting bread stuffs . Till then anything but milk must be given tentatively, and considered in the
See also:light of a means of education for its future mode of nutrition . The
See also:time for weaning should be fixed partly by the
See also:child's age, partly by the growth of the teeth . The first
See also:group of teeth nine times out of ten consists of the
See also:lower central front teeth, which may appear any time during the
See also:sixth and seventh
See also:month . The mother may then begin to diminish the number of suckling times; and by a month she can have reduced them to twice a
See also:day, so as to be ready when the second group makes its way through the upper front gums to cut off the supply altogether . The third group, the lateral incisors and first grinders, usually after the first anniversary of
See also:birth, give
See also:notice that solid food can be chewed . But it is prudent to let
See also:dairy milk
See also:form a considerable portion of the fare till the
See also:eye-teeth are cut, which seldom happens till the eighteenth or twentieth month . Childhood and Youth.—At this stage of life the diet must obviously be the best which is a transition from that of infancy to that of adult age . Growth is not completed, but yet entire surrender of every
See also:consideration to the claim of growth is not possible, nor indeed desirable . Moreover, that abundance of adipose tissue, or reserve new growth, which a baby can bear is an impediment to the due education of the muscles of the boy or girl . The supply of nutriment need not be so continuous as before, but at the same time should be more frequent than for the adult . Up to at least fourteen or fifteen years of age the
See also:rule should be four meals a day, varied indeed, but nearly equal in nutritive power and in quantity, that is to say, all moderate, all sufficient .
The maturity the
See also:body then reaches involves a hardening and enlargement of the bones and cartilages, and a strengthening of the
See also:organs, which in healthy young persons enables us to dispense with some of the watchful care bestowed upon their diet . Three full meals a day are generally sufficient, and the requirements of
See also:mental training may be allowed to a certain extent to modify the
See also:attention to nutrition which has hitherto been paramount . Adults.—It is only necessary here to refer to the article on DIETETICS (see also
See also:VEGETARIANISM) for a discussion of the food of normal adults; and to such headings as
See also:DIETARY (for fixed allowances) or
See also:COOKERY . Different
See also:staple articles of food are dealt with under their own headings . For animals other than man see the respective article; on them . Among numerous books on the subject, in addition to those enumerated under DIETETICS, see
See also:Thompson's Foods and Feeding (1894);
See also:Hart's Diet in Sickness and Health (1896); Knight, Food and its Functions (1895) .
FOOD AND MILK
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