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WILLIAM FULLER (1670--c. 1717)

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Originally appearing in Volume V11, Page 298 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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WILLIAM FULLER (1670--c. 1717), English impostor, was born at Milton in Kent on the loth of September 1670. His paternity is doubtful, but he was related to the family of Herbert. After 1688 he served James II.'s queen, Mary of Modena, and the Jacobites, seeking at the same time to gain favour with William III.; and after associating with Titus Oates, being imprisoned for debt and pretending to reveal Jacobite plots, the House of Commons in 1692 declared he was an " imposter, cheat and false accuser." Having stood in the pillory he was again imprisoned until 1695, when he was released; and at this time he took the opportunity to revive the old and familiar story that Mary of Modena was not the mother of the prince of Wales. In 1701 he published his autobiographical Life of William Fuller and some Original Letters of the late King James. Unable to prove the assertions made in his writings he was put in the pillory, whipped and fined. He died, probably in prison, about 1717. Fuller's other writings are Mr William Fuller's trip to Bridewell, with a full account of his barbarous usage in the pillory; The sincere and hearty confession of Mr William Fuller (1704); and An humble appeal to the impartial judgment of all parties in Great Britain (1716). He must be distinguished from WILLIAM FULLER (1608-1675), dean of St Patrick's (166o), bishop of Limerick (1663), and bishop of Lincoln (1667), the friend of Samuel Pepys; and also from William Fuller (c. 1580-1659), dean of Ely and later dean of Durham. FULLER'S EARTH (Ger. Walkererde, Fr. terre d foulon, argile smectique)—so named from its use by fullers as an absorbent of the grease and oil of cloth,—a clay-like substance, which from its variability is somewhat difficult to define. In colour it is most often greenish, olive-green or greenish-grey; on weathering it changes to a brown tint or it may bleach. As a rule it falls to pieces when placed in water and is not markedly plastic; when dry it adheres strongly to the tongue; since, however, these properties are possessed by many clays that do not exhibit detergent qualities, the only test of value lies in the capacity to absorb grease or clarify oil. Fuller's earth has a specific gravity of 1.7–2.4, and a shining streak; it is usually unctuous to the touch. Microscopically, it consists of minute irregular-shaped particles of a mineral that appears to be the result of a chloritic or talcose alteration of a felspar. The small size of most of the grains, less than •07 mm., makes their determination almost impossible. Chemical analysis shows that the peculiar properties of this earth are due to its physical rather than its chemical nature. The following analyses of the weathered and unweathered condition of the earth from Nutfield, Surrey, represent the composition of one of the best known varieties: Blue Earth (dried at loo° C.).Yellow Earth (dried at Iota° C.). Insoluble residue . 69.96 Insoluble residue Fe2O3 . . .. 2.48 SiO2 . . . 62.81 Al2O3 . . 3.46 Al203 . . 3.46 CaO . 5.87 Fe203 . I.30 MgO. . . 1.41 CaO . . 1.53 P2O6 .. . 0.27 MgO . o.86 SO3 .. . 0.05 NaCl .. . 0.05 69.96
End of Article: WILLIAM FULLER (1670--c. 1717)
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LADY GEORGIANA CHARLOTTE FULLERTON (1812-1885)

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