See also:world's literature . Its usefulness to
See also:Luther in his propaganda was no accident in its histcry; it originated in a controversy, and the varying views of the momentous struggle depicted in Gal. ii. and Acts xv. have naturally determined, from
See also:time to time, the conception of the
See also:epistle's aim and date . Details of the long critical discussion of this problem cannot be given here . (See PAUL.) It must suffice to say that to the
See also:present writer the
See also:identification of Gal. ii . 1-ro with Acts xi . 28 f. and not with Acts xv. appears quite untenable, while a
See also:fair exegesis of Acts xvi . 1-6 implies a distinction between such towns as Lystra, Derbe and
See also:Iconium on the one
See also:hand and the Galatian xc'epa with
See also:Phrygia upon the other.2 A further visit to the latter
See also:country is mentioned, upon this view, in Acts xviii . 23 . The Christians to whom the epistle was addressed were thus inhabitants, for the most
See also:part (iv . 8) of
See also:birth, belonging to the
See also:northern section of the province, perhaps mainly in its south-western
See also:district adjoining
See also:Bithynia and the province of
See also:Asia . The scanty allusions to this
See also:mission in Acts cannot be taken as any objection to the theory .
Nor is there any valid
See also:geographical difficulty . The country was quite accessible from
See also:Antioch . Least of all does the
See also:historical evidence at our disposal justify the inference that the
See also:civilization of
See also:Galatia, during the 1st century A.D., was Romano-Gallic rather than Hellenic; for, as the coins and inscriptions indicate, the Anatolian culture which predominated throughout the province did not exclude the infusion either of Greek religious conceptions or of the Greek language . The degree of elementary Greek culture needful for the understanding of
See also:Galatians cannot be shown to have been
See also:foreign to the in-habitants of north Galatia . So far as any trustworthy evidence is available, such Hellenic notions as are presupposed in this epistle might well have been intelligible to the Galatians of the northern provinces . Still less does the acquaintance with
See also:jurisprudence in iii . 15-1V . 2 imply, as Halmel contends (Uber rom . Recht
See also:im Galaterbrief, 1895), not merely that Paul must have acquired such knowledge in Italy but that he wrote the epistle there . A popular acquaintance with the outstanding features of Roman
See also:law was widely diffused by this time in Asia Minor . The epistle can hardly have been written therefore until after the
See also:period described in Acts xviii . 22, but the
See also:terminus ad quem is more difficult to
See also:fix.3 The composition may be placed (cf. the present writer's Historical New Testament, pp .
124 f. for details) either during the earlier part of Paul'sresidence at Ephesus (Acts xix . 1, ro, so most editors and scholars), or on his way from Ephesus to Corinth, or at Corinth itself (so Lightfoot, Bleek, Salmon) . The epistle was not written until Paul had visited Thessalonica, 2 The historical and geographical facts concerning Galatia, which lead other writers to support the south Galatian theory, are stated in the preceding article on Galatia; and the question is still a
See also:matter"of controversy, the division of opinion being to some extent dependent on whether it is approached from the point of view of the archaeologist or the Biblical critic . The ablest re-statements of the north Galatian theory, in the
See also:light of
See also:recent pleas for south Galatia as the destination of this epistle, may be found by the
See also:English reader in P . W . Schmiedel's exhaustive article in Encycl . Biblica (1592–1616) and Prof . G . H .
See also:Gilbert's Student's
See also:Life of Paul (1902), pp . 260—272 . Schmiedel's arguments are mainly directed against
See also:Sir W .
See also:Ramsay, but a recent Roman Catholic
See also:scholar, Dr A . Steinmann, takes a wider survey in a pamphlet on the north Galatian side of the controversy (Die A bfassungszeit
See also:des Galaterbriefes, Munster, i . W., 1906), carrying forward the points already urged by Sieffert and Zockler amongst others, and especially refuting his
See also:fellow-churchman, Prof .
See also:Valentine Weber . The tendency among adherents of the south Galatian theory is to put the epistle as early as possible, making it contemporaneous with, if not
See also:prior to, 1
See also:Thessalonians . So
See also:Round in The Date of St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians (1906) . but the Galatian churches owed their origin to a mission of Paul sections in the epistle (i . 6-ii . 21) . In the closing passage he drifts over from an account of this interview with
See also:Peter into a sort of monologue upon the incompatibility of the
See also:Mosaic law with the Christian
See also:gospel (ii . 15-2I),' and this starts him afresh upon a trenchant expostulation and
See also:appeal 12) regarding the alternatives of law and spirit .
Faith dominates this section; faith in its historical career and as the vantage-ground of
See also:Christianity . The much-vaunted law is shown to be merely a provisional episodes culminating in the gospel (iii . 7-28) as a
See also:message of filial confidence and freedom (iii . 29-iv . II) . The genuine "sons of Abraham" are not legalistic Jewish Christians but those who simply possess faith in Jesus Christ . A passionate outburst then follows (iv . 12 f.), and, harping still on Abraham, the apostle essays, with fresh rabbinic
See also:dialectic, to establish Christianity over legalism as the
See also:free and final religion for men, applying this to the moral situation of the Galatians themselves (v . 1-12) . This conception of freedom then leads him to define the moral responsibilities of the faith (v . 13-vi . 10), in
See also:order to prevent misconception and to enforce the claims of the gospel upon the individual and social life of the Galatians .
See also:epilogue (vi . 11-21) reiterates, in a handful of abrupt, emphatic sentences, the
See also:main points of the epistle . The allusion in vi . 11 (b5sm 3r'gXiKOLS 47.P 'ypaµµaow eypa¢a Tp Eµ ii Xespr) is to the large bold
See also:size 9 of the letters in Paul's
See also:handwriting, but the
See also:object and
See also:scope of the reference are matters of dispute . It is "a sensational heading" (Findlay), but it may either refer 10 to the whole epistle (so Augustine,
See also:Chrysostom, &c., followed by Zahn) or, as most hold (with
See also:Jerome) to the postscript (vi . 11-18) . Paul commonly dictated his letters . His use of the autograph here may have been to prevent any suspicion of a forgery or to mark the
See also:personal emphasis of his message . In any case it is assumed that the Galatians knew his handwriting . It is unlikely that he inserted this postscript from a feeling of ironical playfulness, to make the Galatians realize that, after the sternness of the early chapters, he was now treating them like
See also:children, " playfully hinting that surely the large letters will
See also:touch their
See also:hearts " (so Deissmann, Bible-Studies (1901), 346 f.) . The earliest allusion to the epistlers is the
See also:notice of itsinclusion in
See also:canon, but almost verbal echoes of iii . 10-13 are to be heard in
See also:Dial. xciv.-xcv.; it was certainly known to
See also:Polycarp, and as the 2nd century advances the evidence of its popularity multiplies on all sides, from
See also:Ptolemaeus and the Ophites to
See also:Irenaeus and the Muratorian canon (cf .
See also:Gregory's Canon and Text of N.T., 1907, pp . 201-203) . It is no longer necessary for serious
See also:criticism to refute the objections to its authenticity raised during the 19th century in certain quarters;', as Macaulay said of the authenticity of Caesar's commentaries, " to doubt on that subject is the mere rage of scepticism." ' Cf . T . H .
See also:Works, iii . 186 f . Verses 15-17 are the indirect abstract of the speech's
See also:argument, but in verses 18-21 the apostle, carried away by the thought and barrier of the moment as he dictates to his
See also:amanuensis, forgets the
See also:original situation . 8 Thus Paul reverses the ordinary rabbinic
See also:doctrine which taught (cf . Kiddushim, 30, b) that the law was given as the divine remedy for the evil yezer of man . So far from being a remedy, he argues, it is an aggravation . 0 According to Plutarch,
See also:Cato the elder wrote histories for the use of his son, h3tg xeapi Kai µeyaXots ypaµgavav (cf .
See also:Field's Notes on
See also:Translation of the New Testament, p . 191) . If the point of Gal. vi . 11 lies in the size of the letters, Paul cannot have contemplated copies of the epistle being made . He must have assumed that the autograph would reach all the
See also:local churches (cf . 2 Thess. iii . 17, with E . A .
See also:Abbott, 7ohannine Grammar, pp . 530-532) . 10 For typalka, the epistolary aorist, at the close of a
See also:letter, cf . Xen .
Anab. i . 9 . 25, Thuc. i . 129 . 3,
See also:Ezra iv . 14 (LXX) and Lucian, Dial . Meretr. x . 11 Hermann Schulze's attempt to bring out the filiation of the later N.T. literature to Galatians (Die Urspriinglichkeit des Galaterbriefes,
See also:Leipzig, 1903) involves repeated exaggerations of the
See also:literary evidence . 12 Cf. especially J . Gloe's Die jiingste Kritik des Galaterbriefes (Leipzig, 189o) and Baljon's reply to Steck and Loman (Exeg.-kritische verhandeling over den Brief
See also:van P. aan de Gal., 1889) . The English reader may consult Schmiedel's article (already referred to) and Dr R . J .
Knowling's The Testimony of St Paul to Christ (1905), 28 f . undertaken some time before he crossed from Asia to
See also:Europe . When he composed this letter, he had visited the churches twice . On the former of these visits (iv . 13 To 3rparepov), though broken down by illness (2
See also:Cor. xii . 7-9?) he had been enthusiastically welcomed, and the immediate result of his mission was an outburst of religious fervour (iii . 1-5, iv . 14 f.) . The local Christians made a most promising start (v . 7) . But they failed to maintain their ardour . On his second visit (iv .
13, i . 7, v . 21) the apostle found in many of them a disheartening slackness, due to discord and incipient legalism . Hisplain-speaking gave offence in some quarters (iv . 16), though it was not wholly ineffective . Otherwise, this second visit is
See also:left in the
See also:shadow' So far as it was accompanied by warnings, these were evidently general rather than elicited by any definite and imminent peril to the churches . Not long afterwards, however, some judaizing opponents of the apostle (note the contemptuous anonymity of the
See also:rives in i . 7, as in Col. ii . 4 f.), headed by one prominent and influential individual (v. to), made their appearance among the Galatians, promulgating a " gospel " which meant fidelity to, not freedom from, the Law (i . 6-1o) . Arguing from the Old Testament, they represented Paul's gospel as an imperfect creed which required to be supplemented by legal exactitude,, including ritual observance (iv. so) and even circumcision,3 while at the same time they sought to undermine his authority 4 by pointing out that it was derived from the apostles at Jerusalem and therefore that his teaching must be open to the checks and tests of that orthodox
See also:primitive standard which they themselves claimed to embody . The
See also:sole valid
See also:charter to Messianic privileges was observance of the Mosaic law, which remained obligatory upon pagan converts (iii .
6-9, 16) . When the
See also:news of this relapse reached Paul, matters had evidently not yet gone too far . Only a few had been circumcised . It was not too
See also:late to arrest the Galatians on their down-
See also:plane, and the apostle, unable or unwilling to re-visit them, despatched this epistle . How or when the information came to him, we do not know . But the gravity of the situation renders it unlikely that he would delay for any length of time in writing to counteract the intrigues of his opponents; to
See also:judge from allusions like those in i . 6 (rax&ws and µerarLBeuOe—the lapse still in progress), we may conclude that the
See also:interval between the reception of the news and the composition of the letter must have been comparatively brief . After a
See also:short introduction' (i . 1-5), instead of giving his usual word of
See also:commendation, he plunges into a personal and historical vindications of his apostolic independence, which,
See also:developed negatively and positively, forms the first of the three main 1 It is not quite clear whether traces of the Judaistic agitation were already found by Paul on this visit (so especially Holsten, Lipsius, Sieffert,
See also:Weiss and
See also:Weizsacker) or whether they are to be dated subsequent to his departure (so
See also:Renan and
See also:Hofmann, among others) . The
See also:tone of surprise which marks the opening of the epistle tells in favour of the latter theory . Paul seems to have been taken aback by the news of the Galatians' defection . 2 Apparently they were
See also:clever enough to keep the Galatians in
See also:ignorance that the entire law would require to be obeyed (v .
3) . ' The critical dubiety about obIE in ii . 5 (cf . Zahn's excursus and Prof .Lake in Expositor,
See also:March 1906, p . 236 f.) throws a slight doubt on the
See also:interpretation of ii . 3, but it is clear that the
See also:agitators had quoted Paul's practice as an authoritative sanction of the rite . ' This depreciation is voiced in their catch-word oa Iosovvrss (" those of repute," ii . 6), while other echoes of their talk can be overheard in such phrases as " we are Abraham's seed " (iii . 16), " sinners of Gentiles " (ii . 15) and " Jerusalem which is our
See also:mother " (iv . 26), as well as in their charges against Paul of " seeking to please men " (i .
'o) and "preaching circumcision " (v . Is) . ' Not only is the address " to the churches of Galatia " unusually
See also:bare, but Paul associates no one with himself, either because he was on a
See also:journey or because, as the attacked party, he desired to concentrate
See also:attention upon his personal commission . Yet the *ads of i . 8 indicates colleagues like
See also:Silas and Timothy . 0 Cf .
See also:History of the N.T . Times (iii. pp . 181-199), with the
See also:fine remarks, on vi . 17, that " Paul stands before us like an
See also:ancient general who bares his
See also:breast before his mutinous legions, and shows them the scars of the wounds that proclaim him not unworthy to be called Imperator." Even the problems of its integrity are quite secondary . Marcion (cf . Tert .
Adv . Marc . 2-4) removed what he judged to be some interpolations, but van Manen's attempt to prove that Marcion's text is more original than the canonical (Theolog . Tijdschrift, 1887, 400 f . 451 f.) has won no support (cf . C . Clemen's refutation in Die Einheitlichkeit der paulin . Briefe, 1894, pp . 100 f. and Zahn's Geschichte d . N.T.
See also:lichen Kanons, ii . 409 f.), and little or no
See also:weight attaches to the attempts made (e.g. by J . A .
See also:Cramer) to disentangle a Pauline nucleus from later accretions . Even D . Volter, who applies this method to the other Pauline epistles, admits that Galatians,whether authentic or not, is substantially a literary unity (Paulus and
See also:seine Briefe, 1905, pp . 229-285) . The frequent roughnesses of the traditional text suggest, however,that here and there marginal glosses may have crept in . Thus iv . 25a (re yap lwa opos Errly iv T17 'Apa/3i¢) probably represents the explanatory and prosaic
See also:gloss of a later editor, as many scholars have seen from Bentley (Opuscula philologica, 1781, pp . 533 f.) to H . A . Schott, J . A . Cramer, J .
M . S . Baljon and C . Holsten . The general
See also:style of the epistle is vigorous and unpremeditated, " one continuous rush, a veritable torrent of genuine and inimitable Paulinism, like a
See also:mountain stream in full
See also:flood, such as may often have been seen by his Galatians " (J . Macgregor) . But there is a certain rhythmical
See also:balance, especially in the first
See also:chapter (cf . J . Weiss, Beitrage zur paulin . Rhetorik, 1897, 8 f.); here as elsewhere the rush and flow of feeling carry with them some care for rhetorical
See also:form, in the shape of antitheses, such as a
See also:pupil of the
See also:schools might more or less unconsciously retain.' All through, the letter shows the breaks and pauses of a mind in
See also:direct contact with some personal crisis . Hurried, unconnected sentences, rather than sustained argument, are its most characteristic features.2 The trenchant remonstrances and fiery outbursts make it indeed " read like a dithyramb from beginning to end." 'Compare the minute analysis of the whole epistle in F .
See also:Blass, Die Rhythmen der asianischen and romischen Kunstprosa (1905), pp .
43-53, 204-216, where, however, this feature is exaggerated into unreality . The comic trimeter in Philipp. iii . 1 (Epos LEI'
See also:OVK 6KVI7pbv, billy 5' au4,axk) may well be, like that in 1 Cor. xv . 33, a reminiscence of Menander . I This affects even the vocabulary which has also " einen gewissen vulgaren Zug " (Nageli, Der Wortschatz des Apostels Paulus, 1905, PP . 78-79).is admirably expounded from different standpoints by C .
See also:Holster, (Das Evangelium Paulus, Tell I., i., 1880), A . B .
See also:Bruce (St Paul's Conception of Christianity, 1894, pp . 49-70) and Prof . G . G .
Findlay (Expositor's Bible) . Or, the historical aspects, Zimmer (Galat. and Apostelgeschichte, 1882) and M .
See also:Thomas (Melanges d'histoire et de lift. religieuse,
See also:Paris, 1899, pp . 1-195) are excellent; E . H . Askwith's
See also:essay (Epistle to the Galatians, its Destination and Date, 1899)
See also:advocates ingeniously the south Galatian theory, and W . S .
See also:Wood (Studies in St Paul's Epistle to the Galatians, 1887) criticizes Lightfoot . General studies of the epistle will be found in all
See also:biographies of Paul and histories of the apostolic age, as well as in works like
See also:Sabatier's The Apostle Paul (pp . 187 f.), B . W .
See also:Story of St Paul (pp .
116 f.), Dr R . D .
See also:Shaw's The Pauline Epistles (2nd ed., pp . 6o f.), R . Mariano, Il Cristianesimo
See also:nei primi secoli (1902), i. pp . 111 f.. and Volkmar's Paulus vom Damaskus bis zum Galaterbrief (1887), to which may be added a series of papers by
See also:Haupt in Deutsche Evang.-Bldtter (1904), 1-16, 89-108, 161-183, 238-259, and an earlier set by Hilgenfeld in the Zeitschrift fiir wiss . Theologie (" Zur Vorgeschichte des Gal." 186o, pp . 206 f., 1866, pp . 301 f.,1884, pp . 303 f.) . Other monographs and essays have been noted in the course of this article . See further under PAUL .
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