See also:Palestine consisting of an expansion of the
See also:Jordan, on the latitude of Mt .
See also:Carmel . It is 13 M. long, 8 m. broad, 64 sq. m. in
See also:area, 68o ft. below the level of the Mediterranean, and, according to
See also:Merrill and
See also:Barrois (who have corrected the excessive
See also:depth said to have been found by Lortet at the
See also:northern end), 15o ft. in maximum depth . It is
See also:pear-shaped, the narrow end pointing southward .. In the
See also:Hebrew Scriptures it is called the
See also:Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth (prebably derived from a
See also:town of the same name mentioned in
See also:Joshua xi . 2 and elsewhere; the etymology that connects it with Ii13, " a harp," is very doubtful.) In
See also:Josephus and the
See also:book of Maccabees it is named Gennesar; while in the Gospels it is usually called Sea of Galilee, though once it is called Lake of Gennesaret (Luke v. i) and twice Sea of
See also:Tiberias (
See also:John vi. i, xxi . 1) . The
See also:modern Arabic name is
See also:Bahr Tubariya, which is often rendered " Lake of Tiberias." Pliny refers to it as the Lake of Taricheae . Like the Dead Sea it is a " rift " lake, being
See also:part of the
See also:fault that formed the Jordan-Araba depression . Deposits show that originally it formed part of the great inland sea that filled this depression in
See also:Pleistocene times . The
See also:district on each side of the lake has a number of hot springs, at least one of which is beneath the sea itself, and has always shown indications of volcanic and other subterranean disturbances . It is especially liable to earthquakes .
See also:water of the sea, though slightly brackish and not very clear, is generally used for drinking . The shores are for the greater part formed of
See also:gravel; some yards from the
See also:shore the
See also:bed is uniformly covered with fine greyish mud . The temperature in summer is tropical, but after
See also:noon falls about to° F. owing to strong
See also:north-west winds . This range of temperature affects the water to a depth of about 49 ft.; below that depth the water is uniformly about 59° F . The sea is set deep in hills which rise on the east side to a height of about 2000 ft . Sudden and violent storms (such as are described in Matt. viii . 23, xiv . 22, and the parallel passages) are often produced by the changes of temperature in the air resulting from these great differences of level . The Sea of Galilee is best seen from the top of' the western precipices . It presents a desolate appearance . On the north the hills rise gradually from the shore, which is fringed with oleander bushes and indented with small bays . The ground is here covered with black
See also:basalt .
On the west the
See also:plateau known as
See also:Sahel el-Ahma terminates in precipices 1700 ft. above the lake, and over these the black rocky tops called " the Horns of Hattin " are conspicuous.
See also:objects . On the south is a broad valley through which the Jordan flows . On the east are furrowed and rugged slopes, rising to the great plateau of the Jaulan (Gaulonitis) . The Jordan enters the lake through a narrow
See also:gorge between
See also:lower hills . A marshy plain, 2i m. long and i4 broad, called el-Batihah, exists immediately east of the Jordan inlet . There is also on the west side of the lake a small plain called el-Ghuweir, formed by the junction of three large valleys . It
See also:measures 3; m. along the shore, and is i m. wide . This plain, naturally fertile, but now almost uncultivated, is supposed to be the plain of Gennesareth, described by Josephus (B . J.iii. to, 8) . On the east the hills approach in one place within 40 ft. of the water, but there is generally a width of about of a mile from the hills to the
See also:beach . On the west the
See also:flat ground at the
See also:foot of the hills has an
See also:average width of about 200 yds . A few scattered palms dot the western shores, and a palm
See also:grove is to be found near Kefr.Harib on the south-east .
See also:baths south of Tiberias include seven springs, the largest of which has a temperature of 137° F . In these springs a distinct rise in temperature was observed in 1837, when Tiberias and Safed were destroyed by an
See also:earthquake . The plain of Gennesareth, with its environs, is the best-watered part of the lake-
See also:basin . North of this plain are the five springs of et-Tabighah, the largest of which was enclosed about a century ago in an octagonal
See also:reservoir by '
See also:Ali, son of Dhahr el-Amir, and the water led off by an aqueduct 52 ft. above the lake . The Tabighah springs, though abundant, are warm and brackish . At the north end of the plain is '
See also:Ain et-Tineh ("
See also:spring of the fig-
See also:tree "), also a brackish spring with a
See also:good stream; south of the plain is 'Ain el-Bardeh (" the
See also:cold spring "), which is sweet, but scarcely lower in temperature than the others . One of the most important springs is 'Ain el-Madawwera (" the
See also:round spring "), situated I m. from the south end of the plain and
See also:half a mile from the shore . The water rises in a circular well 32 ft. in diameter, and is clear and sweet, with a temperature of 73 ° F . The bottom is of loose sand, and the
See also:fish called coracinus by Josephus (B.J. iii. io, 8) is here found (see below) . Dr Tristram was the first explorer to identify this fish, and on account of its presence suggested the
See also:identification of the " round spring " with the fountain of Capharnaum, which, according to Josephus, watered the plain of Gennesareth . There is, however, a difficulty in this identification; there are no ruins at `Ain el-Madawwera .
See also:Fauna and
See also:Flora.—For half the
See also:year the hillsides are
See also:bare and steppe-like, but in spring are clothed with a subtropical vegetation .
Oleanders flourish round the lake, and the large
See also:papyrus grows at 'Ain et-Tin as well as at the mouth of the Jordan . The lake swarms with fish, which are caught with nets by a gild of fishermen, whose boats are the only representatives of the many
See also:ships and boats which plied on the lake as
See also:late as the loth century . Fishing was a lucrative
See also:industry at an early date, and the Jews ascribed the
See also:laws regulating it to Joshua . The fish, which were classed as clean and unclean, the good and
See also:bad of the parable (Matt. xiii . 47, 48), belong to the genera Chromis, Barbus, Capoeta, Discognalhus, Nemachilus,'SEA OF 405 Blennius and Clarias; and there is a great
See also:affinity between them and the fish of the East
See also:African lakes and streams . There are eight
See also:species of Chromis, most of which hatch their eggs and raise their
See also:young in the buccal cavities of the
See also:males . The Chromis slaloms is popularly supposed to be the fish from which
See also:Peter took the piece of
See also:money (Matt. xvii . 27) . Clarias macracanthus (Arab . Burbur) is the coracinus of Josephus . It was found by Lortet in the springs of 'Ain el-Madawwera, 'Ain et-Tineh and 'Ain et-Tabighah, on the lake shore where muddy, and in Lake Huleh . It is a scaleless, snake-like fish, often nearly 5 ft. long, which resembles the C. anguillaris of
See also:Egypt .
See also:absence of scales it was held by the Jews to be unclean, and some commentators suppose it to be the serpent of Matt. vii. so and Luke xi. ii . Large numbers of grebes—great crested, eared, and little,—gulls and pelicans frequent the lake . On its shores are tortoises, mud-turtles,
See also:crayfish and innumerable sand-hoppers; and at varying depths in the lake several species of Melania, Melanopsis, Neritina, Corbicula and Unio have been found . Antiquities.—The
See also:principal sites of
See also:interest round the lake may be enumerated from north to west and from south to east . Kerazeh, the undoubted site of Chorazin, stands on a rocky
See also:spur goo ft. above the lake, 2 M. north of the shore .
See also:Foundations and scattered stones cover the slopes and the flat valley below . On the west is a rugged gorge . In the
See also:middle of the ruins are the scattered remains of a synagogue of richly ornamental
See also:style built of black basalt . A small spring occurs on the north . Tell Hum (as the name is generally spelt, though Talhum would probably be preferable for several reasons) is an important ruin on the shore, south of the last-mentioned site . The remains consist of foundations and piles of stones (in springconcealed by gigantic thistles) extending about half a mile along the shore . The foundations of a fine synagogue, measuring 75 ft. by 57, and built in
See also:limestone, have been excavated .
See also:building has been erected close to the water, from the fragments of the Tell Hum synagogue . Since the 4th century Tell Hum has been pointed out by all the Christian writers of importance as the site of Capernaum . Some modern geographers question this identification, but without sufficient reason (see CAPERNAUM) . Minyeh is a ruined site at the north end of the plain of Gennesareth, 22 M. from the last, and close to the shore . There are extensive ruins on flat ground, consisting of mounds and foundations .
See also:Masonry of well-dressed stones has also been here discovered in course of excavation . Near the ruins are remains of an old khan, which appears to have been built in the middle ages . This is another suggested identification for Capernaum; but all the remains belong to the Arab
See also:period . Between Tell IJum and Minyeh is Tell `Oreimeh, the site of a forgotten Amorite city . South of the supposed plain of Gennesareth is Mejdel, commonly supposed to represent the New Testament town of
See also:Magdala: A few
See also:lotus trees and some
See also:rock-cut tombs are here found beside a miserable mud
See also:hamlet on the
See also:hill slope, with a modern
See also:house (kubbeh) . Passing beneath rugged cliffs a recess in the hills is next reached, where stands Tubariya, the
See also:ancient Tiberias or Rakkath, containing 3000 inhabitants, more than half of whorl] are Jews . The walls, flanked with round towers, but partly destroyed by the earthquake of 1837, were built by Dhahr el-Amir, as was the
See also:court-house .
The two mosques, now partly ruinous, were erected by his sons . There are remains of a Crusaders'
See also:church, and the tomb of the celebrated
See also:Maimonides is shown in the town, while
See also:Rabbi Agiba and Rabbi
See also:Meir lie buried outside . The ruins of the ancient city, including granite columns and traces of a sea-
See also:wall with towers, stretch southwards a mile beyond the modern town . An aqueduct in the cliff once brought water a distance of g m. from the south .
See also:Kerak, at the south end of the lake, is an important site on a peninsula surrounded by the water of the lake, by the Jordan, and by a broad water ditch, while on the north-west a narrow
See also:neck of
See also:land remains . The plateau thus enclosed is partly artificial, and banked up 50 or 6o ft. above the water . A ruined citadel remains on the north-west, and on the east was a
See also:bridge over the Jordan; broken pottery and fragments of sculptured
See also:stone strew the site . The ruin of Kerak answers to the description given by Josephus of the city of Taricheae, which
See also:lay 3o stadia from Tiberias, the hot baths being between the two cities . Taricheae was situated, as is Kerak, on the shore below the cliffs, and partly surrounded by water, while before the city was a plain (the
See also:Ghor) . Pliny further informs us that Taricheae was at the south end of the Sea of Galilee . Sinn en-Nabreh, a ruin on a spur of the hills close to the last-mentioned site, represents the ancient Sennabris, where
See also:Vespasian (Josephus, B.J. iii . 9, 7) fixed his
See also:camp, advancing from Scythopolis (Beisen) on Taricheae and Tiberias .
Sennabris was 3o stadia from Tiberias, or about the distance of the ruin now existing . The eastern shores of the Sea of Galilee have been less fully explored than the western, and the sites are not so perfectly recovered . The site of Hippos, one of the cities of
See also:Decapolis, is fixed by Clermont-Ganneau at Khurbet Susieh .
See also:Kalat el-Hosn ("
See also:castle of the stronghold ") is a ruin on a rocky spur opposite Tiberias . Two large ruined buildings remain, with traces of an old street and fallen columns and capitals . A strong wall once surrounded the town; a narrow neck of land exists on the east where the rock has been scarped . Rugged valleys enclose the site on the north and south; broken sarcophagi and rock-cut tombs are found beneath the ruin . This site is not identified; the
See also:suggestion that it is Gamala is doubtful, and not
See also:borne out by Josephus (War, iv . 1, I), who says Gamala was over against Taricheae . Kersa, an insignificant ruin north of the last, is thought to represent the
See also:Gerasa or Gergesa of the 4th century, situated east of the lake; and the projecting spur of hill south of this ruin is conjectured to be the place where the
See also:swine " ran violently down a steep place" (Matt. viii . 32) . (C .
R . C.; C . W . W.; R . A . S .
GALILEE (Heb. 5'S?, " border " or " ring," Gr. I'aX...
GALILEO GALILEI (1564-1642)
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