GATE , an opening into any enclosure for entrance or exit, capable of being closed by a barrier at will . The word is of wide application, embracing not only the defensive entrance ways into a fortifiedplace, with which this article mainly deals, or the imposing architectural features which
See also:form the
See also:main entrances to palaces, colleges, monastic buildings, &c., but also the
See also:common five-barred barrier which closes an opening into a
See also:field . The most general distinction that can be made between "
See also:door " and " gate " is that of
See also:size, the greater entrance into a
See also:court containing other buildings being the " gate," the smaller entrances opening directly, into the particular buildings the " doors," or that of construction, the whole entrance way being a " gate " or gateway, the barrier which closes it a " door." A further distinction is
See also:drawn by applying " door " to the solid barriers or " valves " of
See also:metal, &c., made in panels and fitted to a framework, and " gate " to an openwork structure, whether of metal or wood (see further DOOR and METAL-
See also:WORK) . The ultimate origin of the word is obscure; the early forms appear with a palatalized initial
See also:letter, still surviving in such dialectical forms as " yate," or in Scots " yett." It is probably connected with the
See also:root of " get," in the sense either of " means of
See also:access " or of " holding," " receptacle "; cf . Dutch gat, hole . There maybe a connexion, however, with " gate," now usually spelled " gait," a manner of walking,' but originally a way, passage; cf . Ger . Gasse, narrow street, lane . The entrance through the enclosing walls of a city or fortification has been from the earliest times a place of the utmost importance, considered architecturally, socially or from the point of view of the military engineer . In the East the " gate " was and still is in many
See also:Mahommedan countries the central place of civic
See also:life . Here was the seat of
See also:justice and of
See also:audience, the most important market-place, the spot where men gathered to receive and
See also:news . The references in the Bible to the
See also:gates of the city in all these varied aspects are innumerable (cf .
Gen. xix . 1; Deut.
See also:xxv . 7;
See also:Ruth iv . 1; 2 Sam. xix . 8; 2
See also:Kings vii . 1) . Later the seat of justice and of
See also:government is transferred to the gate of the palace of the
See also:king (cf .
See also:Dan. ii . 49, and
See also:Esther ii . 19), and this use is preserved to-
See also:day in the official title of the seat of government of the
See also:empire at Constantinople, the "
See also:Porte," a
See also:translation of the Turkish Bab Ally (bab, gate, and
See also:alb', high) . A full account with many
See also:modern instances of Eastern customs will be found in
See also:Warren's article " Gate " in ' The spelling " gait " is confined to this meaning—the only
See also:literary one surviving . In the form " gate " it appears dialectally in this sense and in such particular meanings as a right to run
See also:cattle on common or private ground or as a passage way in mines .
See also:principal survival is in names of streets in the
See also:north and midlands of England and in Scotland, e.g . Briggate at Leeds, Wheeler Gate and
See also:Castle Gate at Nottingham, Gallow
See also:Tree Gate at
See also:Leicester, and Canongate and Cowgate at
See also:Edinburgh . Hastings's Dict. of Bible . For the " pylon," the typical gate of
See also:Egyptian architecture, see ARCHITECTURE . The gates into a walled
See also:town or other fortified place were necessarily in early times the chief points on which the attack concentrated, and the features, common throughout the ages, of flanking or surmounting towers and of galleries over the entrance way, are found in the
See also:Assyrian gate at
See also:Khorsabad (cf . 2 Chron.
See also:xxvi . 9; 2 Sam. xviii . 24) . With the coming of peaceful times to a city or the removal of the fear of sudden attack, the-gateways would take a form adapted more for ready exit and entrance than for defence, though the possibility of defending them was not forgotten . Such city gates often had
See also:separate openings for entrance and exit, and again for
See also:foot passengers and for vehicles . The Gallo-
See also:Roman gate at
See also:Autun has four entrances, two just wide enough to admit carriages, and two narrow alleys for foot passengers . A
See also:fine example of a Roman city gate, dating from the
See also:time of
See also:Constantine, is at Treves .
It is four storeys high, with ornamental windows, and decorated with columns on eachstorey . The two
See also:outer wings project beyond the central
See also:part, the two entrance ways are 14 ft. wide, and could be closed by doors and a
See also:portcullis . The
See also:chambers in the storeys above were used for the purposes of
See also:civil administration . In more modern times city gateways have often followed the type of the Roman triumphal arch, with a single wide opening and purely ornamental superstructure . On the other
See also:hand, the defensive'gate formed by an archway entering as it were through a tower has been constantly followed as a type of entrance to buildings of an entirely peaceful character . A fine example of such a gateway, originally built for defence, is at
See also:Battle Abbey; this was built by
See also:Abbot Retlynge in 1338, when
See also:Edward III. granted a licence to fortify and crenellate the abbey . Such gateways are typical of Tudor palaces, as at St
See also:James's or at Hampton Court, and are the most common form in the colleges of
See also:Oxford and Cambridge . The Tom Gate at Christ
See also:Church, Oxford, with its surmounted domed
See also:bell tower, or the cupola resting on columns at
See also:College, Oxford, are further examples of the gate architecturally considered . The changes the fortified gateway has undergone in construction and the varying relative importance it has held in the
See also:scheme of defence follow the lines of development taken by the
See also:history of FORTIFICATION AND SIEGECRAFT (q.v.) . The following is a
See also:sketch of the main stages in its history . A
See also:good example of the Roman fortified city gate still remains at
See also:Pompeii . Here there is one passage way for vehicles, 14 ft. wide; this is open to the
See also:sky .
The two footways on eitherside are arched, with openings in the centre on to the central way . The doors of the gate are on the city side, but a portcullis (calaracta) closed it on the
See also:country side . The gateways of the Roman permanent camps (castra stativa) were four in number, the Aorta praetoria and Decumana at either end, with principalis dextra and sinistra on the side (see also
See also:CAMP) . At
See also:Pevensey (
See also:Anderida) a small
See also:postern on the north side of the Roman walls was laid
See also:bare in 1906-19o7, in which the passage curves in the thickness of the
See also:wall, and from a width admitting two men abreast narrows so that one alone could
See also:block it . Flanking towers or bastions guarded the main entrances, while in front were built outworks, of palisades, &c., to protect it; these were known as procastra or antemuralia, and the entrances to these were placed so that they could be flanked from the main walls . In the defence of a fortified place the gate had not only to be protected from sudden surprise, but also had to undergo protracted attacks concentrated upon it during a
See also:siege . Thus until the coming of
See also:gunpowder, the ingenuity of military
See also:engineers was exhausted in accumulating the most complicated defences
See also:round the gateways, and the strength of a fortified place could be estimated by the fewness of its gates .
See also:Viollet-le-Duc (
See also:Diet. de Parch. du moyen age, s.v . Porte) takes the
See also:Narbonne and
See also:Aude gates (E. and W.) of
See also:Carcassonne as typical instances of this complication . The following brief account of the Narbonne Gate (fig . I), one of the principal parts of the work on the fortifications begun by
See also:Philip the Bold in 1285, will give some idea of the varied means of defence, which may be found individually ifnot always in such collective abundance in the fortified gateways of the
See also:middle ages . Two massive towers flanked the actual entrance and were linked across by an iron chain; over the entrance (E) was a
See also:machicolation, further added to in time of war by a hoarding of
See also:timber; and an outer portcullis fell in front of the heavy iron-lined doors .
On to the passage way between the first and second doors opened a square machicolation (G) from which the defenders in the upper chambers of the gate could attack an enemy that had succeeded in breaking through the first entrance or had been trapped by the falling of the first portcullis . Another machicolation (I) opened from the roof in front of the second portcullis and second door . So much for the gate itself; but before an attack could reach that point, the following defences had to be passed: an immense circularbarbican (A) protected the entrance across the
See also:moat and through the outer
See also:enceinte of the city . This entrance was flanked by a masked return of the wall (C), while palisades (P) still further hampered the assailant in his passage across the " lists " to the foot of the gate towers . Here sappers would find themselves exposed to a
See also:fire from the loopholes and from the machicolated hoardings above them, while the projecting horns with which The Ctty the
See also:face of the towers terminated forced them to uncover them-selves to a flanking fire from the indents in the main
See also:curtain on either side of the towers . The later history of the gateway is merged in that of modern fortification . The more elaborate the gate defences the greater was the inducement for the besieger to attack the walls, and improvements in methods of siegecraft ultimately compelled the defender to develop the enceinte from its
See also:medieval form of a
See also:ring wall with flanking towers to the 17th century form of bastions, curtains, tenailles and ravelins, all intimately connected in one general scheme of defence . By
See also:Vauban's time there is little to distinguish the position and defences of the gateways from the
See also:rest of the fortifications surrounding a town . A road from the country usually entered one of the ravelins, sinking into the
See also:crossing the ditch of the ravelin and piercing the
See also:parapet almost at right angles to its proper direction (see fig . 2, which also shows a typical arrangement of minor communications such as ramps and staircases) . From the interior of the ravelin it passed across the main ditch to a gate in the curtain of the enceinte . The road was in fact artificially made to
See also:wind in such a way that it was kept under fire from the defences throughout, while the part of it inside the
See also:works was bent so as to place a covering mass between the enemy's fire and troops using the road for a sortie .
Thus the gate itself was merely a barrier against a coup de main and to keep out unauthorized persons . In conditions precluding the making of a
See also:breach in the walls, i.e. in surprises and assaults de vive force, the gateway and accompanying drawbridge continue to
See also:play their part in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, but they seldom or never appear as the objectives of a siege en regle . In Vauban's works, and those of most other engineers, there was generally a postern giving access to the
See also:floor of the main ditch, in the centre of the curtain escarp . The gates of Vauban's and later fortresses are strong heavy wooden doors, and the gateways more or less ornamental archways, exactly as in many private mansions of castellar form . In modem fortresses the gate of a detached fort or an enceinte de
See also:surety is intended purely as a defence against an unexpected rush . The usual method is to have two gates, the outer one a lattice or portcullis of iron bars and the inner one a
See also:plate of
See also:armour, backed by wood and loopholed . The defenders of the gate can by this arrangement fire from the inner loopholes through the outer gate upon the approaches, and also keep the enemy under fire whilst he is trying to force the outer gate Fig . 2.-Plan of Gate Arrangements of an 18th Century Fortress . itself . The ditches are crossed either by drawbridges or by ramps leading the road down to the floor of the ditch . The " gate " as a barrier to be removed and as an entrance to be passed is of
See also:constant occurrence in figurative language and in symbolical usage . The gates of the
See also:temple of
See also:Janus (q.v.) at Rome stood open in war and closed in peace .
The pylon of
See also:Egypt had a symbolical meaning in the
See also:Book of the Dead, and religious significance attaches to the torii, one of the outward signs of the Shinto religion in
See also:japan, the Buddhist
See also:toran, and to the
See also:Chinese pai-
See also:loo, the honorific gateways erected to ancestors . The gates of
See also:heaven and
See also:hell, the gates of
See also:death and darkness, the wide and narrow gates that lead to destruction and life (Matt. vii . 13 and 14), are
See also:familiar metaphorical phrases in the Bible . In Greek and Roman
See also:legend dreams pass through gates of transparent
See also:horn if true, if deceptive and false through opaque gates of ivory (Horn . Od. xix . 56o sq.; Virg . Aen. vi . 893) . (C .
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