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JOHN GAUDEN

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Originally appearing in Volume V11, Page 531 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JOHN GAUDEN (1605–1662); English bishop and writer, reputed author of the Eikon Basilike, was born in 16o5 at May-land, Essex, where his father was vicar of the parish. Educated at Bury St Edmunds school and at St John's College, Cambridge, he took his M.A. degree in 1625/6. He married Elizabeth, daughter of Sir William Russell of Chippenham, Cambridgeshire, and was tutor at Oxford to two of his wife's brothers. He seems, to have remained at Oxford until 163o, when he became vicar of Chippenham. His sympathies were at first with the parliamentary party. He was chaplain to Robert Rich, second "earl of Warwick, and preached before the House of Commons in 164o. In 1641 he was appointed to the rural deanery of Bocking. Apparently his views changed as the revolutionary tendency of the Presbyterian party became more pronounced, for in 1648/9 he addressed to Lord Fairfax A Religious and Loyal Protestation . . . against the proceedings of the parliament. Under the Commonwealth he faced both ways, keeping his ecclesiastical• preferment, but publishing from time to time pamphlets on behalf of the Church of England. At the Restoration he was made bishop of Exeter. He immediately began to complain to Hyde, earl of Clarendon, of the poverty of the see, and based claims for a better benefice on a certain secret service, which he explained on the loth of January 1661 to be the sole invention of the Eikon Basilike, The Pourtraicture of his sacred Majestie in his Solitudes and Sufferings put forth within a few hours after the execution of Charles I. as written by the king himself. To which Clarendon replied that he had been before acquainted with the secret and had often wished he had remained ignorant of it. Gauden was advanced in 1662, not as he had wished to the see of Winchester, but to Worcester. He died on the 23rd of May of the same year. The evidence in favour of Gauden's authorship rests chiefly on his own assertions and those of his wife (who after his death sent to her son John a narrative of the claim), and on the fact that it was admitted by Clarendon, who sould have had means of being acquainted with the truth. Gauden's letters on the subject are printed in the appendix to vol. iii. of the Clarendon Papers. The argument is that Gauden had prepared the book to inspire sympathy with the king by a representation of his pious and forgiving disposition, and so to rouse public opinion against his execution. In 1693 further correspondence between Gauden, Clarendon, the duke of York, and Sir Edward Nicholas was published by Mr Arthur North, who had found them among the papers of his sister-in-law, a daughter-in-law of Bishop Gauden; but doubt has been thrown on the authenticity of these papers. Gauden stated that he had begun the book in 1647 and was entirely responsible for it. But it is contended that the work was in existence at Naseby,i and testimony to Charles's authorship is brought forward from various witnesses who had seen Charles himself occupied with it at various times during his imprisonment. It is stated that the MS. was delivered by one of the king's agents to Edward Symmons, rector of Raine, near Bocking, and that it was in the handwriting of Oudart, Sir Edward Nicholas's secretary. The internal evidence has, as is usual in such cases, been brought forward as a conclusive argument in favour of both contentions. Doubt was thrown on Charles's authorship in Milton's Eikonoklastes (1649), which was followed almost immediately by a royalist answer, The Princely Pelican. Royall Resolves—Extracted from his Majesty's Divine Meditations, with satisfactory reasons .. . that his Sacred Person was the only Author of them (1649). The history of the whole controversy, which has been several times renewed, was dealt with in Christopher Wordsworth's tracts in a most exhaustive way. He eloquently advocated Charles's authorship. Since he wrote in 1829, some further evidence has been forthcoming in favour of the Naseby copy. A correspondence relating to the French translation of the work has also come to light among the papers of Sir Edward Nicholas. None of the letters show any doubt that King Charles was the author. S. R. Gardiner (Hist. of the Great Civil War, iv. 325) regards Mr Doble's articles in the Academy (May and June 1883) as finally disposing of Charles's claim to the authorship, but this is by no means the attitude of other recent writers. If Gauden was the author, he may have incorporated papers, &c., by Charles, who may have corrected the work and thus been joint-author. This theory would reconcile the conflicting evidence, that of those who saw Charles writing parts and read the MS. before publication, and the deliberate statements of Gauden. See also. the article by Richard Hooper in the Dict. Nat. Biog. ; Christopher Wordsworth, Who wrote Eikon Basilike? two letters addressed to the archbishop of Canterbury (1824), and King Charles the First, the Author of Icon Basilike (1828); H. J. Todd, A Letter ' See a note in Archbishop Tenison's handwriting in his copy of the Eikon Basilike preserved at Lambeth Palace, and quoted in Almack's Bibliography, p. 15.to the Archbishop of Canterbury concerning Eikon Basilike (1825); Bishop Gauden, The Author of the Icon BasiliIA (1829); W. G. Broughton, A Letter to a Friend (1826), Additional Reasons .. . (1829), supporting the contention in favour of Dr Gauden; Mr E. J. L. Scott's introduction to his reprint (1880) of the original edition; articles in the Academy, May and June 1883, by Mr C. E. Doble; another reprint edited by Mr Edward Almack for the King's Classics (1904); and Edward Almack, Bibliography of the King's Book (1896). This last book contains a summary of the arguments on either side, a full bibliography of works on the subject, and facsimiles of the title pages, with full descriptions of the various extant copies. GAUDICHAUD-BEAUPRE, CHARLES (1789--1854), French botanist, was born at Angouleme on the 4th of September 1789. He studied pharmacy first in the shop of a brother-in-law at Cognac, and then under P. J. Robiquet at Paris, where from R. L. Desfontaines and L. C. Richard he acquired a knowledge of botany. In April 1810 he was appointed dispenser in the military marine, and from July 1811 to the end of 1814 he served at Antwerp. In 1817 he joined the corvette " Uranie " as pharmaceutical botanist to the circumpolar expedition commanded by D. de Freycinet. The wreck of the vessel on the Falkland Isles, at the close of 1819, deprived him of more than half the botanical collections he had made in various parts of the world. In 1830-1833 he visited Chile, Peru and Brazil, and in 1836-1837 he acted as botanist to " La Bonite " during its circumnavigation of the globe. His theory accounting for the growth of plants by the supposed coalescence of elementary " phytons " involved him, during the latter years of his life, in much controversy with his fellow-botanists, more especially C. F. B. de Mirbel. He died in Paris on the 16th of January 1854• Besides accounts of his voyages round the world, Gaudichaud-Beaupr6 wrote " Lettres sur l'organographie et la physiologie," Arch. de botanique, ii., 1883; " Recherches genOrales sur 1'organographie," &c. (prize essay, 1835), Mem. de 1'Academie des Sciences, t. viii. and kindred treatises, with memoirs on the potato-blight, the multiplication of bulbous plants, the increase in diameter of dicotyledonous plants, and other subjects; and Refutation de toutes les objections contre les nouveaux principes physiologiques (1852).
End of Article: JOHN GAUDEN
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