GAUL . the
See also:form of the
See also:Roman Gallia, the name of the two chief districts known to the Romans as inhabited by
See also:Celtic-speaking peoples, (a) Gallia Cisalpina (or Citerior, " Hither "), i.e.
See also:north Italy between
See also:Alps and Apennines and (b) the far more important Gallia Transalpina (or Ulterior, " Further "), usually called Gallia (Gaul) simply, the
See also:land bounded by the Alps, the Mediterranean, the Pyrenees, the
See also:Atlantic, the Rhine, i.e. modern France and Belgium with parts of
See also:Holland, Germany and
See also:Switzerland . The Greek form of Gallia was raxaria, but
See also:Galatia in Latin denoted another Celtic region in central
See also:Asia Minor, sometimes styled Gallograecia . (a) Gallia Cisalpina was mainly conquered by Rome by 222 B.c.; later it adopted Roman
See also:civilization; about 42 B.C. it was
See also:united with Italy and its subsequent
See also:history is merged in that of the peninsula . Its chief distinctions are that during the later Republic and earlier
See also:Empire it yielded excellent soldiers, and thus much aided the success of Caesar against
See also:Pompey and of Octavian against Antony, and that it gave Rome the poet Virgil (by origin a Celt) ,the historian
See also:Livy, the lyrist Catullus, Cornelius Nepos, the elder and the younger Pliny and other distinguished writers ?. ( b) Gaul proper first enters
See also:ancient history when the Greek colony of Massilia was founded (?600 B.C.) . Roman armies began to enter it about 218 B.C . In 121 B.C. the
See also:coast from 1 When Cisalpine Gaul became completely Romanized, it was often known as " Gallia Togata," while the Province was distinguished as " Gallia Bracata " (bracae, incorrectly braccae, "
See also:trousers "), from the long trousers worn by the inhabitants, and the
See also:rest of Gaul as " Gallia Comata," from the inhabitants wearing their hair long .
GILBERT WILLIAM GAUL (1855— )
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