See also:born of humble parents at
See also:Brunswick on the 3oth of
See also:April 1777, and was indebted for a liberal
See also:education to the
See also:notice which his talents procured him from the reigning duke . His name became widely known by the publication, in his twenty-fifth
See also:year (18ot), of the Disquisitiones arithmelicae . In 1807 he was appointed director of the
See also:observatory, an
See also:office which he retained to his
See also:death: it is said that he never slept away from under the roof of his observatory, except on one occasion, when he accepted an invitation from Baron von Humboldt.to attend a
See also:meeting of natural philosophers at Berlin . In ',Soo he published at
See also:Hamburg his Theoria motus corporum coelestium, a
See also:work which gave a powerful impulse to the true methods of astronomical observation; and his astronomical workings, observations, calculations of orbits of
See also:planets and comets, &c., are very numerous and valuable . He continued his labours in the theory of numbers and other
See also:analytical subjects, and communicated a long series of
See also:memoirs to the Royal Society of Sciences (Konigliche Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften) at Gottingen . His first memoir on the theory of magnetism, Intensitas vis magneticae terrestris ad mensuram absolutam revocata, was published in 1833, and he shortly afterwards proceeded, in conjunction with Wilhelm Weber, to invent new apparatus for observing the
See also:earth's magnetism and its changes; the
See also:instruments devised by them were the declination instrument and the bifilar
See also:magnetometer . With Weber's assistance he' erected in 1833 at Gottingen a magnetic observatory
See also:free from iron (as Humboldt and F . J . D . Arago had previously done on a smaller scale), where he made magnetic observations, and from this same observatory he sent telegraphic signals to the neighbouring
See also:town, thus showing the practicability of an electromagnetic telegraph . He further instituted an association (Magnetischer Verein), composed at first almost entirely of Germans, whose continuous observations on fixed
See also:term-days extended from
See also:Holland to
See also:Sicily . The volumes of their publication, Resultate aus den Beobachtungen
See also:des magnetischen Vereins, extend from 1836 to 1839; and in those for 1838 and 1839 are contained the two important memoirs by
See also:Gauss, Allgemeine Theorie des Erd- . magnetismus, and the Allgemeine Lehrsatze—on the theory of forces attracting according to the inverse square of the distance .
The instruments and methods thus due to him are substantially those employed in the magnetic observatories throughout the
See also:world.' He co-operated in the Danish and Hanoverian measurements of an arc and trigonometrical operations (1821-1848), and wrote (1843, 1846) the two memoirs Uber Gegenstande der hoheren Geoddsie . Connected with observations in general we have (1812-1826) the memoir Theoria combinationis observationum erroribus minimis obnoxia, with a second
See also:part and a supplement . Another memoir of applied
See also:mathematics is the Dioptrische Untersuchungen (1840) . Gauss was well versed in general literature and the chief
See also:languages of
See also:Europe, and was a member of nearly all the leading scientific
See also:societies in Europe . He died at Gottingen on the 23rd of
See also:February 1855 . The
See also:centenary of his
See also:birth was celebrated (1877) at his native place, Brunswick . Gauss's collected
See also:works were published by the Royal Society of Gottingen, in 7 vols . 4to (Gott., 1863-1871), edited by E . J.Schering —(1) the Disquisitiones arithmeticae, (2) Theory of Numbers, (3) Analysis, (4)
See also:Geometry and Method of Least Squares, (5) Mathematical Physics, (6) Astronomy, and (7) the Theoria motus corporum coelestium . Additional volumes have since been published, Fu'zdamente der Geometrie usw . (1900), and Geodatische Nachtrage zu
See also:Band iv . (1903) .
They include, besides his various works and memoirs, notices by him of many of these, and of works of other authors in the Gottingen gelehrte Anzeigen, and a considerable amount of previously unpublished
See also:matter, Nachlass . Of the memoirs in pure mathematics, comprised for the most part in vols. ii., iii. and iv . (but to these must be added those on Attractions in vol. v.), it may be safely said there is not one which has not signally contributed to the progress of the branch of mathematics to which it belongs, or which would not require to be carefully analysed in a
See also:history of the subject .
See also:Running through these volumes in
See also:order, we have in the second the memoir, Summatio quarundam serierum singularium, the memoirs on the theory of biquadratic residues, in which the notion of complex numbers of the
See also:form a+bi was first introduced into the theory of numbers; and included in the Nachlass are some valuable tables . That for the conversion of a fraction into decimals (giving the
See also:period for all the
See also:prime numbers up to 997) is a specimen of the extraordinary love which Gauss had for long arithmetical calculations; and the amount of work gone through in the construction of the table of the number of the classes of binary quadratic forms must also have been tremendous . In vol. iii. we have memoirs
See also:relating to the
See also:proof of the theorem that every numerical equation has a real or imaginary
See also:root, the memoir on. the Hypergeometric Series, that on
See also:Interpolation, and the memoir Determinatio attractionis—in which a planetary mass is considered as distributed over its orbit according to the
See also:time in which each portion of the orbit is described, and the question (having an implied reference to the theory of secular perturbations) is to find the attraction of such a
See also:ring . In the solution the value of an elliptic
See also:function is found by means of the arithmetico-geometrical mean . The Nachlass contains further re-searches on this subject, and also researches (unfortunately very fragmentary) on the lemniscate-function, &c., showing that Gauss was, even before 'Soo, in possession of many of the discoveries which have made the names of N . H .
See also:Abel and K . G . J .
See also:Jacobi illustrious . In vol. iv. we have the memoirAllgemeine Auflosung, on the graphical
See also:representation of one
See also:surface upon another, and the Disquisitiones generales circa superficics curvas . (An account of the treatment of surfaces which he originated in this paper will be found in the article SURFACE.) And in vol. v. we have a memoir On the Attraction of Homogeneous Ellipsoids, and the already mentioned memoir Allgemeine Lehrsdtze, on the theory of forces attracting according to the inverse square of the distance . (A .
GAUR, or LAKHNAUTI
FRANCOIS SAMUEL ROBERT LOUIS GAUSSEN (1790-1863)
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