Online Encyclopedia


Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 925 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GENEALOGICAL TABLE OF THE HOUSE OF YORK Edward III. Edward, the William Lionel, = Elizabeth. d. Gf Black Prince. of Hatfield duke of I William de Burgh, (died young). Clarence. earl of Ulster. Richard II. (dethroned 1399). Edmund Mortimer, =Philippa. third earl of March. I Roger Mortimer, =Eleanor Holland, fourth earl of March. eldest daughter of Thomas, second earl of Kent. Edmund Mortimer, Anne Mortimer =Richard, earl of Cambridge fifth earl of March. I (executed 1415). Cecily Neville, daughter of =Richard, duke of York Ralph, earl of Westmoreland. (killed in battle 1460). 925 John of Gaunt, Edmund, Thomas William duke of Lancaster. duke of York. of Woodstock, of Windsor duke of Gloucester. (died young). Henry IV. 1 Edward, Henry V. duke of York. Henry VI. Edward, prince of Wales. Richard III. Anne, married Henry Holland, duke of Elizabeth=John de la Pole, (killed in battle 1485). Exeter, and had no child by him. By duke of Suffolk her second husband, Sir Thomas St (d. 1491). Edward, Leger ,she had a daughter married to Sir prince of Wales Geo. Manners, Lord Roos, and mother (d. 1484). of the first earl of Rutland. Edward IV. (d. 1483). George, duke' of Clarence (attainted 1478). Edward V. Richlard, (murdered 1483). duke of York (murdered 1483). Edward, Margaret, =Sir Richard Pole. earl of Warwick countess of Salisbury (executed 1499). (executed 1541). Henry Pole, Sir Geoffrey Pole, Arthur Pole. Reginald Pole, Lord Montague of Lordington, cardinal. ( executed 1539 ). Sussex. Five sons and one daughter.' Among the former were Arthur and Edmund, who were prisoners in the Tower. children, a son and a daughter, and the attainder of their father could not be a greater bar to the crown than the attainder of Henry VII. himself. Seeing this, Henry had, immediately after his victory at Bosworth, secured the person of the son, Edward, earl of Warwick, and kept him a prisoner in the Tower of London. Yet a formidable rebellion was raised in his behalf by means of Lambert Simnel, who was defeated and taken prisoner at the battle of Stoke in 1487. The earl of Warwick lived for twelve years later in unjust confinement, and was ultimately put to death in 1499 because he had consented to a plot for his own liberation. As to his sister Margaret, she was married to one of Henry VII.'s Welsh followers, Sir Richard Pole (or Poole), and could give no trouble, so that, when Henry VIll. came to the throne, he thought it politic to treat her with kindness. He made her countess of Salisbury, reversed her brother's attainder, created her eldest son, Henry, Lord Montague, and caused one of her younger sons, Reginald, who displayed much taste for learning, to he carefully educated. This, however, was the very thing which involved the whole family in ruin. For Henry looked to the learning and abilities of Reginald Pole to vindicate before Europe the justice of his divorce from Catherine of Aragon; and, when Pole was conscientiously compelled to declare the very opposite, the king's indignation knew no bounds. Pole himself was safe, having secured some time before a retreat in Italy. He was even made a cardinal by the pope. But this only made matters worse for his family at home: his brother, Lord Montague, and even his mother, the aged countess of Salisbury, were beheaded as traitors because they had continued to correspond with him. Cardinal Pole, however, came back to his own country with great honour in the reign of Queen Mary, and was made archbishop of Canter-bury on the deprivation of Cranmer. Early in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, two nephews of the cardinal, Arthur and Edmund Pole, being ardent young men, conspired to go over to the duke of Guise in France, hoping to return with an army into Wales and so promote the claims of Mary Queen of Scots to the crown of England, for which service the elder, Arthur, expected to be restored to the dukedom of Clarence. The result was that they were condemned to death, but were only imprisoned for the rest of their clays in the Tower, where they both carved inscriptions on the walls of their dungeon, which are still visible in the Beauchamp tower. Another branch of the house of York might have given troubleJohn de la Pole, Edmund Humphrey and Richard Four earl of Lincoln de la Pole Edward, de la Pole daughters. (d. 1487). (d. 1513). churchmen. (d. 1525). Ursula, married to Henry, Lord Stafford, son of Edward, duke of Buckingham. to the Tudors if they had not been narrowly watched and ultimately extinguished. Of the sisters of Edward IV., the eldest, Anne, who married the duke of Exeter, left only one daughter by her second husband, Sir Thomas St Leger; but the second, Elizabeth, married John de la Pole, duke of Suffolk, and had several children. Their eldest son was created earl of Lincoln during his father's life, and Richard III., after the death of his own son, had designated him as his successor. Disappointed of a kingdom by the success of Henry VII., he joined in Simnel's rebellion and was killed at the battle of Stoke. His brother Edmund thus became heir to his father; but in the reduced circumstances of the family he agreed to forbear the title of duke and take that of earl of Suffolk. He continued for some years in favour with the king, who made him a knight of the Garter; but, having killed a man in a passion, he fled abroad and was entertained at the court of the emperor Maximilian, and after-wards at that of Philip, king of Castile, when resident in the Low Countries before his departure for Spain. Philip, having been driven on the English coast when going to take possession of his Spanish kingdom, was entertained at Windsor by Henry VII., to whom he promised to deliver up the fugitive on condition that his life should be spared. Edmund de la Pole accordingly was brought back to England and lodged in the Tower. Though the promise to spare his life was kept by the king who gave it, his son Henry VIII. caused him to be executed in 1513, when war broke out with France, apparently for treasonable correspondence with his brother Richard, then in the French service. After his death Richard de la Pole, remaining in exile, called himself earl of Suffolk, and was flattered occasionally by Francis I. with faint hopes of the crown of England. He was killed at the battle of Pavia in 1525. There were no more De Ia Poles who could advance even the most shadowy pretensions to disturb the Tudor dynasty. (J. GA.)

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