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GENERAL HISTORIES OF

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Originally appearing in Volume V07, Page 312 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GENERAL HISTORIES OF COUNCILS: C. J. von Hefele, Conciliengeschichte (Freiburg i. B., 1855); English translation of the earlier volumes to A.D. 787, from A.D. 326 on, based on the second German edition (Edinburgh, 1871 ff.) ; French, by Delarc (Paris, 1869-1874, Io vols.). This first edition not entirely superseded by the second, made after the Vatican council, and continued by Knopfler and by Hergenrother (Freiburg, 1873-1890, 9 vols.); a French translation, with continuation and critical and bibliographical notes, par un religieux benedictin de Farnborough, tome i. 1" partie (Paris, Letouzey, 1907) ; Paul Viollet, Examen de l'histoire des conciles de Mgr Hefele (Paris, 1876) (Extrait de la Revue historique) ; W. P. du Bose, The Ecumenical Councils (New York, 1896) (popular) ; P. Guerin, Les Conciles generaux et particuliers (Paris, 1868, 3rd impression, 1897, 3 tom.) ; see also A. Harnack, History of Dogma (Boston, 1895–1900, q vols.) ; F. Loofs, Leitfaden der Dogmengeschichte (4th ed., enlarged, Halle, 1906). LITERATURE: Dictionnaire universel et complet des conciles, redige par A. C. Peltier, publie par Migne (Paris, 1847, 2 vols.) (Migne, Encyclopedie theologique, vol. 13 f.) ; Z. Zitelli-Natali, Epitome historico-canonica conciliorum generalium (Rome, 1881) ; F. X. Kraus, Realencyklopddie der christlichen Altertiimer, vol. i. (Freiburgi.-B., 1882) (art. " Concilien " by Funk); William Smith and S. Cheetham, Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (London, 1876-188o, 2 vols.) (erudite detail); Wetzer and Welte's Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. by Hergenrother and Kaulen (Freiburg i. B., 1882-1903, 13 vols.) (art. " Concil " by Scheeben) ; La Grande Encyclopedia (Paris, s.d., 31 vols.) (numerous articles) ; P. Hinschius, Das Kirchenrecht der Katholiken and Protestanten in Deutschland, vol. 3 (Berlin, 1883) (fundamental and masterly) ; R. von Scherer, Handbuch des Kirchenrechtes, vol. i. (Graz, 1886) (excellent notes and references) ; E. H. Landon, A Manual of Councils of the Holy Catholic Church, (revised ed., London, [18931, 2 vols.) (paraphrases chief canons; needs revision) ; Martigny, Dictionnaire des antiquites chretiennes (3rd ed., Paris, 1889) (for ceremonial) ; R. Sohm, Kirchenrecht, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1892) (brilliant) ; A. Kneer, Die Entstehung der konziliaren Theorie (Rome, 1893) ; Realencyklopddie fiir protestantische Theologie and Kirche, begrundet von J. J. Herzog, 3rd revised ed. by A. Hauck ( Leipzig, 1896 ff.) (in vol. 19 Hauck's excellent Synoden, 1907); F. X. Funk, Kirchengeschichtliche Abhandlungen and Untersuchungen (Paderborn, 1897) ; A. V. G. Allen, Christian Institutions (New York, 1897), chap. xi.; C. A. Kneller, " Papst and Konzil im ersten Jahrtausend " (Zeitschrift fiir katholische Theologie, vols. 27 and 28, Innsbruck, 1893 f.); F. Bliemetzrieder, Das Generalkonzil im grossen abendldndischen Schisma (Paderborn, 1904) ; Wilhelm and Scannell, Manual of Catholic Theology (3rd ed., London, 1906, sect. 32) ; J. Forget, " Conciles," in A. Vacant and E. Mangeot, Dictionnaire de theologie catholique, tome 3, 636-676 (Paris, 1906 ff.), with elaborate bibliography; The Catholic Encyclopedia (New York, 1907 ff.). (W. W. R.*)
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