GEOGRAPHICALDISTRIBUTION The class Hexapoda has a
See also:world-wide range, and so have most of its component orders . The
See also:Aptera have perhaps the most extensive distribution of all animals, being found in
See also:Franz Josef
See also:Land and South
See also:Victoria Land, on the snows of Alpine glaciers, and in the depths of the most extensive caves . Most of the families and a large proportion of the genera of
See also:insects are exceedingly widespread, but a study of the genera and
See also:species in any of the more important families shows that faunas can be distinguished whose headquarters agree fairly with the regions that have been proposed to
See also:express the distribution of the higher vertebrates . Many insects, however, can readily extend their range, and a careful study of their distribution leads us to discriminate between faunas rather than definitely to map regions . A large and dominant Holoarctic
See also:fauna, with numerous sub-divisions, ranges over the
See also:northern continents, and is characterized by the abundance of certain families like the Carahidae and Staphylinidae among the
See also:Coleoptera and the Tenthredinidae among the Hymenoptera . The
See also:southern territory held by this fauna is invaded by genera and species distinctly tropical .
See also:Oriental types range far northwards into
See also:China and
See also:Japan . Ethiopian forms invade the Mediterranean
See also:area . Neotropical and distinctively Sonoran insects mingle with members of the Holoarctic fauna across a wide " transition zone " in
See also:America . "
See also:line " dividing the Indo-Malayan and Austro-Malayan sub-regions is frequently transgressed in the range of Malayan insects . The Australian fauna is
See also:rich in characteristic and
See also:peculiar genera, and New Zealand, while possessing some remarkable insects of its own, lacks entirely several families with an almost world-wide range—for example, the Notodontidae, Lasiocampidae, and other families of Lepidoptera . Interesting relationships between the Ethiopian and Oriental, the Neotropical and West
See also:African, the Patagonian and New Zealand faunas suggest great changes in the distribution of land and
See also:water, and throw doubt on the
See also:doctrine of the permanence of
See also:continental areas and oceanic basins .
Holoarctic types reappear on the
See also:Andes and in South Africa, and even in New Zealand . The study of the Hexapoda of oceanic islands is full of
See also:interest . After the determination of a number of cosmopolitan insects that may well have been artificially introduced, there remains a large proportion of 'endemic species—sometimes referable to distinct genera—which suggest a high antiquity for the truly insular faunas .
JULIEN LOUIS GEOFFROY (1743-1814)
GEOGRAPHY (Gr. yil, earth, and ypiickty, to write)
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