GEOMETRY , thegeneral
See also:term for the branch of
See also:mathematics which has for its province the study of the properties of space . From experience, or possibly intuitively, we characterize existent space by certain fundamental qualities, termed axioms, which are insusceptible of
See also:proof; and these axioms, in conjunction with the mathematical entities of the point, straight
See also:surface and solid, appropriately defined, are the premises from which the geometer draws conclusions . The geometrical axioms are merely conventions; on the one
See also:hand, the
See also:system may be based upon inductions from experience, in which case the deduced geometry may be regarded as a branch of
See also:physical science; or, on the other hand, the system may be formed by purely logical methods, in which case the geometry is a phase of pure mathematics . Obviously the geometry with which we are most
See also:familiar is that of existent space—the three-dimensional space of experience; this geometry may be termed Euclidean, after its most famous expositor . But other geometries exist, for it is possible to
See also:frame systems of axioms which definitely characterize some other kind of space, and from these axioms to deduce a series of non-contradictory propositions; such geometries are called non-Euclidean . It is convenient to discuss the subject-
See also:matter of geometry under the following headings: I . Euclidean Geometry: a discussion of the axioms of existent space and of the geometrical entities, followed by a synoptical account of Euclid's Elements . II . Projective Geometry: primarily Euclidean, but differing from I. in employing the notion of geometrical continuity (q.v.)—points and lines at infinity . IV .
See also:Analytical Geometry: the
See also:representation of geometrical figures and their relations by algebraic equations . V .
Line Geometry: an analytical treatment of the line regarded as the space
See also:element . VI . Non-Euclidean Geometry: a discussion of geometries other than that of the space of experience . of geometry .
See also:Special subjects are treated under their own. headings: e.g .
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