See also:saint of England,
See also:Aragon and
See also:Portugal . According to the
See also:legend given by Metaphrastes the
See also:Byzantine hagiologist, and substantially repeated in the
See also:Roman Acta sanctorum and in the
See also:Spanish breviary, he was
See also:born in
See also:Cappadocia of
See also:noble Christian parents, from whom he received a careful religious training . Other accounts place his
See also:birth at Lydda, but preserve his Cappadocian parentage . Having em-braced the profession of a soldier, he rapidly
See also:rose under
See also:Diocletian to high military
See also:rank . In Persian Armenia he organized and energized the Christian community at Urmi (Urumiah), and even visited Britain on an imperial expedition . When Diocletian had begun to manifest a pronounced hostility towards
See also:George sought a
See also:personal interview with him, in which he made deliberate profession of his faith, and, earnestly remonstrating against the persecution which had begun, resigned his commission . He was immediately laid under arrest, and after various tortures, finally put to
See also:death at
See also:Nicomedia (his
See also:body being afterwards taken to Lydda) on the 23rd of
See also:April 303 . His festival is observed on that anniversary by the entire Roman Catholic
See also:Church as a semi-duplex, and by the Spanish Catholics as a duplex of the first class with an octave . The
See also:day is also celebrated as a
See also:principal feast in the Orthodox Eastern Church, where the saint is distinguished by the titles peyaXopaprvp and r•porratorbOpos . The
See also:historical basis of the tradition is particularly unsound, there being two claimants to the name and
See also:honour .
See also:Eusebius, Hist. eccl. viii . 5, writes: " Immediately on the promulgation of the edict (of Diocletian) a certain man of no mean origin, but highly esteemed for his temporal dignities, as soon as the decree was published against the churches in Nicomedia, stimulated by a divine zeal and excited by an ardent faith, took it as it was openly placed and posted up for public inspection, and tore it to shreds as a most profane and wicked
See also:act .
This, too, was done when the two Caesars were in thecity, the first of whom was the eldest and chief of all and the other held
See also:fourth grade of the imperial dignity after him . But this man, as the first that was distinguished there in this manner, after enduring what was likely to follow an act so daring, preserved his mind,
See also:calm and serene, until the moment when his spirit fled." Rivalling this
See also:martyr, who is often supposed to have been St George, is an earlier martyr briefly mentioned in the Chronicon Pascale: " In the
See also:year 225 of the Ascension of our
See also:Lord a persecution of the Christians took place, and many succession of
See also:great French mathematicians, for example, G .
See also:Monge, Geometrie descriptive (1800); J . V .
See also:Poncelet, Traite
See also:des proprietes projectives des figures (1822); M . Chasles, AperQu historique sur l'origine et le developpement des methodes en geometric (Bruxelles, 1837), and Traite de geometrie superieure (
See also:Paris, 1852) ; and many others . But the
See also:works which have been, and are still, of decisive influence on thought as a
See also:house of ideas relevant to the
See also:foundations of
See also:geometry are K . G . C. von Staudt's two works, Geometrie der Lage (Nurnberg, 1847) ; and Beitrdge zur Geometrie der Lage (Nurnberg, 1856, 3rd ed . 1860) . The final
See also:period is characterized by the successful production of exact systems of axioms, and by the final solution of problems which have occupied mathematicians for two thousand years . The successful analysis of the ideas involved in serial continuity is due to R .
Dedekind, Stetigkeit and irrationale Zahlen (1872), and to G . Cantor, Grundlagen einer allgemeinen Mannigfaltigkeitslehre (
See also:Leipzig, 1883), and Acta math. vol . 2 .
See also:Complete systems of axioms have been stated by M . Pasch, loc. cit . ; G . Peano, loc. cit . ; M . Pieri, loc. cit . ; B .
See also:Russell, Principles of
See also:Mathematics; O . Veblen, loc. cit.; and by G .
Veronese in his
See also:treatise, Fondamenti di geometria (
See also:Padua, 1891; German transl. by A . Schepp, Grundzuge der Geometrie, Leipzig, 1894) . Most of the leading
See also:memoirs on
See also:special questions involved have been cited in the text; in addition there may be mentioned M . Pieri, " Nuovi principii di geometria projettiva complessa," Trans . Accad . R. d . Sci . (
See also:Turin, 1905); E . H .
See also:Moore, " On the Projective Axioms of Geometry," Trans . Amer . Math .
See also:Soc., 1902; O . Veblen and W . H . Bussey, " Finite Projective Geometries," Trans . Amer . Math . Soc., 1905; A . B .
See also:Kempe, " On the Relation between the Logical Theory of Classes and the Geometrical Theory of Points," Proc . Lond . Math . Soc., 1890; J .
Royce, " The Relation of the Principles 'ofLogic to the Foundations of Geometry," Trans. of Amer . Math . Soc., 1905; A . Schoenflies, " Ober die Moglichkeit einer projectiven Geometrie bei transfiniter (nichtarchimedischer) Massbestimmung," Deutsch . M.-V . Jahresb., 1906 . For general expositions of the
See also:bearings of the above investigations, cf . Hon . Bertrand Russell, loc. cit . ; L . Couturat,
See also:Les Principes des mathematiques (Paris, 19o5); H . Poincar6, loc. cit .
; Russell and
See also:Whitehead, Principia mathematica (Cambridge, Univ .
See also:Press) . The philosophers whose views on space and geometric truth de-serve especial study are
See also:Descartes, Leibnitz, Hume,
See also:Kant and J . S .
See also:Mill . (A . N .
GEORGES DE SCUDERY (16or-1667)
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