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JEAN IGNACE ISIDORE GERARD (1803-1847)

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Originally appearing in Volume V11, Page 766 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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JEAN IGNACE ISIDORE GERARD (1803-1847), French caricaturist, generally known by the pseudonym of Grandville—the professional name of his grandparents, who were actors—was born at Nancy on the 13th of September 1803. He received his first instruction in drawing from his father, a miniature painter, and at the age of twenty-one came to Paris, where he soon afterwards published a collection of lithographs entitled Les Tribulations de la petite propriete. He followed this by Les Plaisirs de touldge and La Sibylle des salons; but the work which first established his fame was Metamorphoses du jour, published in 1828, a series of seventy scenes in which individuals' with the bodies of men and faces of animals are made to play a 'human comedy. These drawings are remarkable for the extra-ordinary skill with which human characteristics are represented in animal features. The success of this work led to his being engaged as artistic contributor to various periodicals, such as La Silhouette, L' Artiste, La Caricature, Le Charivari; and his political caricatures, which were characterized by marvellous fertility of was captured by Alexander Jannaeus (c. 83 B.C.), rebuilt by the Romans (c. A.D. 65), burned by the Jews in revenge for the massacre at Caesarea, and again plundered and depopulated by Annius, the general of Vespasian; but, in spite of these disasters, it was still in the 2nd and 3rd centuries of the Christian era one of the wealthiest and most flourishing cities of Palestine. It was a centre of Greek civilization, devoted especially to the worship of Artemis, and producing famous teachers, of whom Stephen the Byzantine mentions Ariston, Kerykos and Plato. As late as 1121 the soldiers of Baldwin II. found it defended by a castle built by a king of Damascus; but at the beginning of the following century the Arabian geographer Yaqut speaks of it as deserted and overthrown. The ruins of Jerash, discovered about 18o6, and since then frequently visited and described, still attest the splendour of the Roman city. They are distributed along both banks of the Kerwan, a brook which flows south through the Wadi-ed-Der to join the Zerka or Jabbok; but all the principal buildings are situated on the level ground to the right of the stream. The town walls, which can still be traced and indeed are partly standing, had a circuit of not more than 2 m., and the main street was less than half a mile in length; but remains of buildings on the road for fully a mile beyond the south gate, show that the town had outgrown the limit of its fortifications. The most striking feature of the ruins is the pro-fusion of columns, no fewer than 230 being even now in position; the main street is a continuous colonnade, a large part of which is still entire, and it terminates to the south in a forum of similar formation. Among the public buildings still recognizable are a theatre capable of accommodating hobo spectators, a naumachia (circus for naval combats) and several temples, of which the largest was probably the grandest structure in the city, possessing a portico of Corinthian pillars 38 ft. high. The desolation of the city is probably due to earthquake; and the absence of Moslem erections or restorations seems to show that the disaster took place before the Mahommedan period. The town is now occupied by a colony of Circassians, whose houses have been built with materials from the earlier buildings, and there has been much destruction of the interesting ruins. " The country of the Gerasenes " (Matt. viii. 28 and parallels; other readings, Gadarenes, Gergesenes) must be looked for in another quarter—on the E. coast of the Sea of Galilee, probably in the neighbourhood of the modern Khersa (C. W. Wilson in Recovery of Jerusalem, p. 369). (R. A. S. M.) GERAULT-RICHARD, ALFRED LEON (186o- ), French journalist and politician, was born at Bonnetable in the department of Sarthe, of a peasant family. He began life as a working upholsterer, first at Mans, then at Paris (188o), where his peasant and socialist songs soon won him fame in the Montmartre quarter. Lissagaray, the communist, offered him a position on La Bataille, and he became a regular contributor to the advanced journals, especially to La Petite Republique, of which he became editor-inchief in 1897. In 1893 he founded Le Chambard, and was imprisoned for a year (1894) on account of a personal attack upon the president, Casimir-Perier. In January 1895 he was elected to the chamber as a Socialist for the thirteenth arrondissement of Paris. He was defeated at the elections of 1898 at Paris, but was re-elected in 1902 and in 1906 by the colony of Guadeloupe.
End of Article: JEAN IGNACE ISIDORE GERARD (1803-1847)
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