GERMANSOUTH-WEST AFRICA . This German possession is bounded W. by the
See also:Atlantic, N. by
See also:Angola, S. by the Cape province, E. by Bechuanaland and Rhodesia, and is the only German dependency in Africa suited to
See also:white colonization . It has an
See also:area of about 322,450 sq. m., and a population of
See also:Bantu Negroes and
See also:Hottentots estimated in 1903 at 200,000.1 The
See also:European inhabitants, in addition to the military, numbered 7110 in 1907, of whom the majority were German . Area and Boundaries.—The boundary separating the German
See also:protectorate from the Portuguese possessions of Angola is the
See also:Kunene, from its mouth in 17° 18' S., 11° 40' E. to the limit of navigability from the
See also:sea, thence in a
See also:direct lime, corresponding roughly to the
See also:lat. of 17° 20' S., to the
See also:river Okavango, which it follows eastwards until the stream turns abruptly south (towards Lake
See also:Ngami) . From this point a
See also:strip of German territory 300 m. long and about 50 m. broad, projects eastward until it reaches the
See also:Zambezi a little above the
See also:Victoria Falls . On the south this narrow strip of
See also:land (known as the Caprivi enclave) is separated from
See also:southern Rhodesia by the Kwando or
See also:Chobe river . On the east the frontier between
See also:British and German territory is in its
See also:half the 21st degree of E. longitude, in its southern half the loth degree . This frontier is
See also:drawn through
See also:country . The southern frontier is the Orange river from its mouth to the 20° E . The
See also:line between the Kunene and Orange
See also:rivers is not wholly German . Just
See also:north of the tropic of Capricorn is the British enclave of Walfish
See also:Bay (q.v.) . The northern
See also:part of the protectorate is known as Ovampoland, the central portion as Damara (or Herero) land ; the southern regions as
See also:Namaqualand .
These names are derived from those of the dominant native races inhabiting the country .
See also:Physical Features.—The coast-line is generally low and little broken by bays or promontories . In its entire length of about 800 m. it has no
See also:good natural
See also:harbour, and its bays—Angra Pequena, otherwise Luderitz Bay, Sierra Bay,
See also:Sandwich Harbour—are in danger of being filled with sand by the strong,
See also:cold, northerly coast current . Swakopmund is an artificial harbour at the mouth•of the river Swakop . The small islands which
See also:stud the coast north and south of
See also:Angra Pequena belong to Great Britain . The coast-line is bordered by a
See also:belt of sand-
See also:dunes and desert, which, about 35 m. wide in the south, narrows towards the north . This coast belt is flanked by a
See also:mountain range, which attains its highest
See also:elevation in
See also:Mount Omatako (8972 ft.), in about 21° 15' S., 16° 40' E . N.E. of Omatako is the Omboroko range, otherwise known as the Waterberg . South of Omboroko, occupying the centre of the country, the range attains its highest
See also:average altitude . The following massifs with their highest points may be distinguished:
See also:Gans (7664 ft.), Nu-uibeb (7480 ft.), Onyati (7201 ft.), Awas (6988 ft.), Komas (5331 ft.) and Ganab (4002 ft.) . In the S.E. are the Karas mountains, which attain an elevation of 6570 ft . The mountains for the
See also:main part
See also:form the escarpment of the great
See also:plateau, which, gently rising from the interior towards the west, slopes again towards the south and north from the point of its highest elevation .
The Kalahari plateau changes the undulatingcharacter it has in the west to a perfect plain in the far east, where the watered and habitable country merges into the sterile Kalahari desert . In the northern half of the country the central plateau contains much
See also:rich grass-land, while in the north-eastern region the Omaheke desert has all the characteristics of the Kalahari . There are no rivers of importance wholly within German South-West Africa . The Kunene (q.v.) has but a small portion of the southern
See also:bank in the colony, and similarly only part of the northern 1 As the result of
See also:wars with the natives, the population greatly decreased . The number of adult (native)
See also:males in the colony at the beginning of 1908 was officially estimated at 19,900, a figure indicating a
See also:total population of little more than
See also:Ioo,000 . existing types of that
See also:race, are divided into numerous tribes,
See also:independent of one another, such as the Witbois, Swartzbois, Bondelzwarts . The
See also:Bushmen are found scattered over the eastern parts of the country (see HOTTENTOTS and BusIHMEN) . The second class consists of the mountain Damara (Hau-Khoin), a race of doubtful
See also:affinities, probably of Bantu-
See also:Negro origin, but speaking the Hottentot language . The third class belongs to the Bantu-Negro stock, and came from the north-east, expelling and enslaving the mountain Damara, and settling in various parts of the country under different names . The most prominent are the Herero, thorough nomads and
See also:cattle-breeders; while the Ovampo (Ovambo or
See also:Ambo), in the northern part of the protectorate, are agriculturists . The Herero (q.v.) are also known by the Hottentot name Damara, and by this name their country is generally called . The Bastaards, who live in Namaqualand, are a small tribe originating from a mingling of Cape Boers with Hottentots .
They are Christians, and able to read and write . The other natives are spirit-worshippers,save for the comparatively few converts of the
See also:missions established in the country . Of white races represented the chief are Germans and Boers . In the S.E,
See also:Boer settlers form the bulk of the white population . There are also numbers of British colonists in this region—emigrants from the Cape . The immigration of Germans is encouraged by subsidies and in other ways . Towns.—The chief
See also:port is Swakopmund, built on the northern bank of the Swakop river (the southern bank belonging to the British territory;of Walfish Bay) . The harbour is partially protected by a
See also:breakwater . There are also settlements at Luderitz Bay (white pop . 1909, over
See also:I000) and at Sandwich Harbour . Swakopmund is connected by a narrow
See also:gauge railway with Windhoek, the administrative capital of the colony, situated in a hilly
See also:district 18o m. due east of the port, but 237 in. by the railway . Karibib is the only place of consequence on the line .
Otyimbingue is a
See also:government station 70 in . W.N.W. of Windhoek, and Tsumeb a
See also:mining centre 240 M . N.N.E. of the same place . Olukonda is a government
See also:post in Ovampoland . In the S.E. corner of the colony, 30 M . N. of the Orange river, is the
See also:town of Warmbad . Keetmanshoop,
See also:loo m . N. of Warmbad and 18o m . E. of Luderitz Bay, is the centre of a small mining
See also:industry .
See also:Gibeon is a government station and missionary settlement about midway between Keetmanshoop and Windhoek . Besides these places there are numbers of small native towns at which live a few white traders and missionaries . The missionaries have given Biblical names to several of their stations, such as
See also:Bethany and
See also:Beersheba in Namaqualand, and Rehoboth in
See also:Damaraland .
In the Caprivi enclave are a German residency and the site of the town of Linyante, once the capital of the Makololo
See also:dynasty of Barotseland (see
See also:Industries.—Agriculture is followed by the natives in the northern districts, but the chief industry is stock-raising . The scarcity of
See also:water in the southern parts is not favourable for agricultural pursuits, while the good grazing lands offer splendid pasturage for cattle, which the Herero raise in numbers amounting to many
See also:hundred thousands .
See also:Sheep and goats thrive well . Horses have been imported from the Cape . Unfortunately the
See also:climate does not suit them everywhere, and they are subject to a virulent distemper . Cattle and sheep also suffer from the diseases which are
See also:common in the Cape Colony . Camels have been imported, and are doing well . Wheat,
See also:maize and
See also:sorghum are the chief crops raised, though not enough is grown to meet even
See also:local requirements . Near the coast the natives collect the kernels of the
See also:nara, a
See also:pumpkin which, in the words of an early traveller, C . J . Andersson, are eaten by oxen, mice, men, ostriches and lions." About half the European settlers are engaged in
See also:agriculture . They raise maize, wheat,
See also:tobacco, fruit and vegetables .
See also:Cotton cultivation and viticulture-are carried on in some districts . Minerals, especially copper, are plentiful in the country . The chief copper deposits are at Tsumeb, which is 4230 ft. above the sea, in the Otavi district . Diamonds are found on and near the
See also:surface of the
See also:soil in the Luderitz Bay district, and diamonds have also been found in the neighbourhood of Gibeon . A little pottery is made, and the Hottentot
See also:women are
See also:clever in making fur cloths . In the north the Ovampo do a little
See also:work and grass-plaiting . The
See also:trade of the country was of slow growth . The exports, previous to the opening up of the Otavi mines, consisted chiefly of live stock—sent mainly to Cape Colony—guano, ivory, horns, hides and
See also:ostrich feathers . The chief imports are
See also:food stuffs, textiles and metals, and hardware . In 1903 the value of the exports was £168,560, Inhabitants.—Among the natives of German South-West that of the imports £388,210 . The war which followed (see below,
See also:History) led to a great shrinking of exports, rendering the figures for the
See also:period 1904–1907 useless for purposes of comparison . About 85% of the imports are from Germany .
Communications.—The economic development of the country is largely dependent on transport facilities . The railway from II bank of the Orange river (q.v.) is in German territory . Several streams run south into the Orange; of those the chief is the Great
See also:Fish river, which has a course of nearly 500 m . Both the Kunene and the Orange carry water all the
See also:round, but are not navigable . Neither is the Great Fish river, which, however, is rarely dry . The Okavango, which comes from the north and runs towards Ngami (q.v.), is perennial, but like the Kunene and Orange, belongs only partly to the hydrographic
See also:system of the country . From the inner slopes of the coast chain many streams go N.E. to join the Okavango . They
See also:cross the Omaheke waste and are usually dry . Ovampoland has a hydrographic system connected with the Kunene, and, in seasons of great
See also:flood, with that of Ngami . Before the Kunene breaks through the
See also:outer edge of the plateau, it sends divergent channels south-east to a large
See also:marsh or lake called Etosha, which is cut by 17° E. and 19° S . Of these channels the Kwamatuo or Okipoko, which is perennial, enters Etosha at its N.W. corner . The lake when full extends about 8o m .
W. to E. and 5o in . N. to S . From its S.E. corner issues the Omuramba, which divides into two branches, known respectively as the Omaheke and the Ovampo . These streams have an easterly direction, their beds, often dry, joining the Okavango . The other rivers of the protectorate have as a
See also:rule plenty of water in their upper courses in the
See also:season, though some river beds are dry for years together . After a heavy thunderstorm such a river
See also:bed will be suddenly filled with a turbid current half a mile wide . The water is, however, before long absorbed by the thirsty land . Only in exceptionally rainy years do the streams which cross the sand belt carry water to the ocean . But in the sand which fills the river beds water may be obtained by digging . Of rivers
See also:running direct to the Atlantic the Little Fish river enters the sea at Angra Pequena and the Kuisip in Walfish Bay . The Swakop rises in the hills near the Waterberg, and north of it is the Omaruru, which carries water for the greater part of the year . Hot springs are numerous, and it is remarkable that those of Windhoek flow more copiously during the dry than the rainy season .
There are also many cold springs, and
See also:wells which contain water all the year . Geology.—Gneiss and schist, with intrusive granites and porphyries, overlain to a great extent by sand and lateritic deposits, occupy the coast belt, coast mountains and the plateau of Damaraland . In the Huib and Han-ami plateaus of Great Namaqualand the crystalline rocks are overlain by sandstones, slates, quartzites and
See also:jasper rocks, and these in turn by
See also:dolomites . They are probably
See also:equivalent to the
See also:Transvaal and
See also:Pretoria series (see TRANSVAAL: Geology) . The next
See also:oldest rocks are of
See also:geological date . The Kalahari
See also:Kalk, which extends over large areas to the south-east of Ovampoland, may be of
See also:Miocene age, but it has not yielded fossils . Extensive tracts of
See also:alluvium occur in the
See also:basin of the Ovampo, while the dunes and sand-tracts of the Kalahari occupy the eastern regions . Climate.—On the coast the mean temperature is low, and there is little rainfall . Moisture is supplied by dense fogs, which rise almost daily . South-west winds prevail . Inland the climate is temperate rather than tropical, with bracing, clear atmosphere . There are considerable differences of temperature between
See also:day and
See also:night, and two well-marked seasons, one cold and dfy from May to
See also:September, the other hot and rainy from
See also:October to
See also:April .
Inwinter ice frequently forms during the night on open water on the plateau, but it never remains all day . The yearly rainfall is about 20 in. in the Damara Hills; there is more
See also:rain in the north than in the south, and in the east than in the west . In the greater part of the colony the climate is favourable for European settlement .
See also:Flora and
See also:Fauna.—The vegetation corresponds exactly with the climate . In the dry littoral region are
See also:plants able to exist with the minimum of moisture they derive from the daily fog—Amarantaceae, Sarcocaula,
See also:Aloe dicholoma, Aristida subacaulis and the wonderful Welwitschia . Farther inland are plants which
See also:spring up and dis- appear with the rain, and others whose roots reach permanent water . The former are chiefly
See also:grasses, the latter exist almost solely in or near river-beds . Amongst the
See also:fine trees often seen here, the
See also:tree (
See also:Acacia albida) is the most noteworthy, its seeds being favourite
See also:fodder for all domestic animals . Acacia giraffae, Ac . horrida, A dansonia sterculia, near the Ku none the Hyphaene ventricosa, deserve
See also:notice . The vegetation in the mountain valleys is luxuriant, and towards the north is of a tropical character . The palm zone extends a considerable distance south of the Kunene, and here vegetation spreads over the sand-dunes of the coast plain, which are covered with grasses .
See also:game, formerly abundant, especially pachyderms, is scarce . Of antelopes the following
See also:species are plentiful in parts: springbok, steenbok,
See also:kudu, rietbok, pallah; of monkeys, the Cynocephalus porcarius is frequent . Various kinds of hyenas and jackals with fine fur (Canis mesomelas), also Felis caracal, abound . The spring„ hare (Pedestea caller) and
See also:rabbit (Hyrax capensis) may often be observed . Of birds there are 728 species . Crocodiles, turtles and
See also:snakes are numerous . Africa three classes may be distinguished . In the first class are the Namaqua (Hottentots) and Bushmen . The Namaqua probably came from the south, while the Bushmen may be looked upon as an indigenous race . The Hottentots, the purest XI . 26 Swakopmund to Windhoek, mentioned above, was begun in 1897, and was opened for
See also:traffic in
See also:July 1902 . It cost nearly £700,000 to build .
Another narrow gauge railway, to serve the Otavi copper mines, was begun in 1904 and completed in 1908 . It starts from Swakopmund and is 400 M. long, the
See also:terminus being at Grootfontein, 40 M . S.E. of Tsumeb . The highest point on this line is 5213 ft. above the sea . In 1906–1908 a railway, 18o m. long, was built from Luderitz Bay to Keetmanshoop . This line is of the standard South
See also:African gauge (3 ft . 6 in.), that gauge being adopted in view of the eventual linking up of the line with the British railway systems at Kimberley . A branch from Seeheim on the Keetmanshoop line runs S.E. to Kalkfontein . Besides
See also:railways, roads have been made between the chief centres of population . Along these, in the desert districts, wells have been dug . Across the Awas Mountains, separating Windhoek from the central plateau, a wide road has been cut . In 1903 the colony was placed in telegraphic communication with
See also:Europe and Cape Colony by the laying of submarine cables having their terminus at Swakopmund .
There is a fairly
See also:complete inland telegraphic service . There is
See also:regular steamship communication between
See also:Hamburg and Swakopmund, Walfish Bay and Luderitz Bay . Regular communication is also maintained between Cape Town and the ports of the colony . Administration.—At the
See also:head of the administration is an imperial
See also:governor, responsible to the colonial
See also:office in Berlin, who is assisted by a council consisting of chiefs of departments . The country is divided into various administrative districts . In each of these there is a Bezirksamtmann, with his
See also:staff of officials and
See also:police force . In each district is a
See also:court, to whose jurisdiction not alone the whites, but also the Bastaards are subject . As in all German colonies, there is a court of
See also:appeal at the residence of the governor . The government maintains
See also:schools at the chief towns, but
See also:education is principally in the hands of missionaries . The armed force consists of regular troops from Germany and a militia formed of Bastaards . The local revenue for some years before 1903 was about £130,000 per annum, the
See also:expenditure about £400,000, the difference between local receipts and expenditure being made good by imperial subsidies . In 1908 local revenue had risen to 250,000, but the imperial authorities incurred an expenditure of over £2,000,000, largely for military purposes .
On articles of export, such as feathers and hides, 5% ad valorem
See also:duty has to be paid; on cattle and horses an export tax per head . There is a To % ad valorem duty on all imports, no difference being made between German' and
See also:foreign goods . The sale of spirituous liquors is subject to a licence . History.—The coast of south-west Africa was discovered by Bartholomew Diaz in 1487, whilst endeavouring to find his way to the Indies . He anchored in a bay which by reason of its smallness he named Angra Pequena .
See also:Portugal, however, took no steps to acquire possession of this inhospitable region, which remained almost unvisited by Europeans until the early years of the loth century . At this
See also:time the country was devastated by a Hottentot chief known as Afrikander, who had fled thither with a
See also:band of outlaws after murdering his
See also:master, a Boer
See also:farmer by whom he had been
See also:ill-treated, in 1796 . IU 1805 some missionaries (of German
See also:nationality) went into Namaqualand in the service of the
See also:London Missionary Society, which society subsequently transferred its missions in this region to the Rhenish
See also:mission, which had had agents in the country since about 1840 . The chief station of the missionaries was at a Hottentot settlement renamed Bethany (182o), a place 125 M . E. by Angra Pequena . The missionaries had the satisfaction of stopping Afrikander's career of bloodshed . He became a convert, a great friend of the mission, and took the name of Christian .
The proximity of Great Namaqualand to Cape Colony led to visits from British and Dutch farmers and hunters, a few of whom settled in the country, which thus became in some sense a dependency of the Cape . In 1867 the islands along the coast north and south of Angra Pequena, on which were valuableguano deposits, were annexed to Great Britain . At this time a small trade between the natives and the outside
See also:world was
See also:developed at Angra Pequena, the merchants engaged in it being British and German . The
See also:political influence of the Cape spread meantime northward to the land of the Herero (Damara) . The Herero had been subjugated by Jonker Afrikander, a son of Christian Afrikander, who followed the early footsteps of his sire and had renounced
See also:Christianity, but in 1865 they had recovered their independence . The Rhenish missionaries appealed (1868) to the British government for
See also:protection, and asked for the annexation of the country . This
See also:request, although supported by the Prussian government,was refused . In 1876, however, a special
See also:commissioner (W . Coates Palgrave) was sent by the Cape government " to the tribes north of the Orange river." The commissioner concluded
See also:treaties with the Namaqua and Damara which fixed the limits of the territories of the two races and placed the whole country now forming German South-West Africa within the sphere of British influence . In the central part of Damaraland an area of some 35,000 sq. m. was marked out as a British reservation . The instrument by which this arrangement was made was known as the treaty of Okahandya . Neither it nor the treaty
See also:relating to Great Namaqualand was ratified by the British government, but at the request of
See also:Sir Bartle
See also:Frere, then high commissioner for South Africa, Walfish Bay (the best harbour along the coast) was in 1878 annexed to Great Britain .
In 188o fighting between the Namaqua, who were led by
See also:Jan Afrikander, son of Jonker and
See also:grandson of Christian Afrikander, and the Damara broke out afresh, and was German not ended until the
See also:establishment of European rule . In rule 1883 F . A . E . Luderitz (1834-1886), aBremen
See also:merchant, estabwith the approval of
See also:Prince Bismarck, established a fished. trading station at Angra Pequena . This step led to the annexation of the whole country to Germany (see AFRICA, § 5) with the exception of Walfish Bay and the islands actually British territory . On the establishment of German rule Jonker Afrikander's old headquarters were made the seat of administration and renamed Windhoek . The Hottentots, under a chieftain named Hendrik Witboi, offered a determined opposition to the Germans, but after a protracted war peace was concluded in 1894 and Hendrik became the ally of the Germans . Thereafter, notwithstanding various local risings, the country enjoyed a measure of prosperity, although, largely owing to economic conditions, its development was very slow . In October 1903 the Bondelzwarts, who occupy the district immediately north of the Orange river,
See also:rose in revolt . This
See also:act was the beginning of a struggle between the Germans Herero and the natives which lasted over four years, and cost war . Germany the lives of some 5000 soldiers and settlers, and entailed an expenditure of £15,000,000 .
Abuses committed by white traders, the brutal methods of certain officials and the occupation of tribal lands were among the causes of the war, but impatience of white rule was believed to be the chief reason for the revolt of the Herero, the most formidable of the opponents of the Germans . The Herero had accepted the German protectorate by treaty—without fully comprehending that to which they had agreed . To crush the Bondelzwarts, an
See also:object attained by
See also:January 1904, the governor, Colonel Theodor Leutwein, had denuded Damaraland of troops, and
See also:advantage was taken of this fact by the Herero to begin a long-planned and well-prepared revolt . On the 12th of January 1904 most of the German farmers in Damaraland were attacked, and settlers and their families murdered and the farms devastated . Reinforcements were sent from Germany, and in
See also:June General von Trotha arrived and took command of the troops . On the 11th of
See also:August von Trotha attacked the Herero in their stronghold, the Water-
See also:berg, about 200 M . N. of Windhoek, and inflicted upon them a severe defeat . The main
See also:body of the enemy escaped, however, from the encircling columns of the Germans, and thereafter the Herero, who were under the leadership of
See also:Samuel Maherero, maintained a guerrilla warfare, rendering the whole countryside unsafe . The Germans found pursuit almost hopeless, being crippled by the lack of water and the
See also:absence of means of trans-port . To add to their troubles a Herero
See also:bastard named Morenga, with a following of Hottentots, had, in July, recommenced hostilities in the south . On the 2nd of October 1904 von Trotha, exasperated at his want of success in crushing the enemy, issued a proclamation in which he said: " Within the German frontier every Herero with or without a
See also:rifle, with or without cattle, will be shot . I will not take over any more women and
See also:children .
But I will either drive them back to your
See also:people or have them fired on." In a later
See also:order von Trotha instructed his soldiers not to
See also:fire into, but to fire over the heads of the women and children, and Prince Billow ordered the general to repeal the whole proclamation . Whenever they had the
See also:chance, however, the Germans hunted down the Herero, and thousands perished in the Omaheke desert, across which numbers succeeded in passing to British territory near Ngami . On the day following the issue of von Trotha's proclamation to the Herero, i.e. on the 3rd of October 1904, Hendrik Witboi sent a formal declaration of war to the Germans . Hendrik had helped to suppress the Bondelzwarts rising, and had received a German decoration for his services, and his hostility is said to have been kindled by the supersession of Colonel Leutwein, for whom he entertained a great admiration . The Witbois were joined by other Hottentot tribes, and their first act was to
See also:murder some sixty German settlers in the Gibeon district . Both British and Boer farmers were spared—the Hottentots in this
See also:matter following the example of the Herero . In
See also:November, considerable reinforcements having come from Germany, the Witbois were attacked, and Hendrik's headquarters; Reitmont, captured . Another defeat was inflicted on Hendrik in January 1905, but, lacking
See also:ammunition and water, the Germans could not follow up their victory . As in Damaraland, the warfare in Namaqualand now assumed a guerrilla character, and the Germans found it almost impossible to meet their elusive enemy, while small detachments were often surprised and sometimes annihilated . In May 1905 von Trotha tried the effect on the Hottentots of another of his proclamations . He invited them to surrender, adding that in the contrary event all rebels would be exterminated . A price was at the same time put on the heads of Hendrik Witboi and other chiefs .
This proclamation was unheeded by the Hottentots, who were in fact continuing the war with rifles and ammunition seized from the Germans, and replenishing their stock with cattle taken from the same source . In the north, however, Samuel Maherero had fled to British territory, and the resistance of the Herero was beginning to collapse . Concentration camps were established in which some thousands of Herero women and children were cared for . Meanwhile, the administration of von Trotha, who had assumed the governorship as well as the command of the troops, was severely criticized by the civilian population, and the non-success of the operations against the Hottentots provoked strong military
See also:criticism . In August 1905 Colonel (afterwards General) Leutwein, who had returned to Germany, formally resigned the governorship of the protectorate, and Herr von Lindequist,
See also:late German
See also:consul-general at Cape Town, was nominated as his successor . Von Trotha, who had publicly criticized Prince
See also:Bulow's order to repeal the Herero proclamation, was superseded . He had in the summer of 1905 instituted a series of "drives" against the Witbois, with no particular results . Hendrik always evaded the columns and frequently attacked them in the
See also:rear . In November 19o5 von Lindequist arrived at Windhoek . The new governor issued a general amnesty to the Herero, and set aside two large reserves for those who surrendered . His conciliatory policy was in the end successful, and the Ovampo, who threatened to give trouble, were kept in
See also:hand . The task of pacifying Damaraland was continued throughout 1906, and by the close of that year about 16,000 Herero had been established in the reserves .
Some 3000 had sought
See also:refuge in British territory, while the number who had perished may be estimated at between 20,000 and 30,000 . In Namaqualand von Lindequist found an enemy still unbroken . On the 3rd of November, however, Hendrik Witboi died, aged seventy-five, and his son and successor Samuel Isaac The Hottentots Witboi shortly afterwards surrendered, and the subdued, hostility of the tribe ceased . Morenga now became the chief of the
See also:rebel Hottentots, and " drives " against him were organized . Early in May 1906 an encounter between Morenga and a German
See also:column was fought close to the British frontier of the Bechuanaland protectorate . Morenga fled, was pursued across the frontier, and wounded, but escaped . On the 16th of May he was found hiding by . British patrols and interned . Other Hottentot chiefs continued the conflict, greatly aided by the immense difficulty the Germans had in transporting supplies; to remedy which defect the
See also:building of a railway 803 from Luderitz Bay to Kubub was begun early in 1906 . A camel transport
See also:corps was also organized, and Boer auxiliaries engaged . Throughout the later half of 1906 the Hottentots maintained the struggle, the Karas mountains forming a stronghold from which their dislodgment was extremely difficult . Many of their leaders and numbers of the tribesmen had a considerable
See also:strain of white (chiefly Dutch)
See also:blood and were fairly educated men, with a knowledge not only of native, but European ways; facts which helped to make them formidable opponents .
Gradually the resistance of the Hottentots was overcome, and in
See also:December 1906 the Bondelzwarts again surrendered . Other tribes continued the fight for months longer, but by
See also:March 1907 it was found possible to reduce the troops in the protectorate to about 5000 men . At the height of the
See also:campaign the Germans had 19,000 men in the
See also:field . In August 1907 renewed alarm was created by the
See also:escape of Morenga from British territory . The Cape government, regarding the chief as a political refugee, had refused to extradite him and he had been assigned a residence near Upington . This place he
See also:left early in August and, eluding the frontier
See also:guards, re-entered German territory . In September, however, he was again on the British side of the border . Meantime a force of the Cape Mounted Police under Major F . A . H . Eliott had been organized to effect his arrest . Summoned to surrender, Morenga fled into the Kalahari Desert .
Eliott's force of sixty men pursued him through a waterless country, covering 8o m. in 24
See also:hours . When overtaken (September 21st), Morenga, with ten followers; was holding a kopje and fired on the advancing troops . After a
See also:sharp engagement the chief and five of his men were killed, the British casualties being one killed and one wounded . The
See also:death of Morenga removed a serious obstacle to the complete pacification of the protectorate . Military operations continued, however, during 1908 . Herr von Lindequist, being recalled to Berlin to become under-secretary in the colonial office, was succeeded as governor (May 1907) by Herr von Schuckmann . In 19o8 steps were taken to establish German authority in the Caprivi enclave, which up to that time had been neglected by the colonial authorities . The
See also:discovery of diamonds in the Luderitz Bay district in July 1908 caused a rush of treasure-seekers . The diamonds were found mostly on the surface in a sandy soil and were of small
See also:size . The stones resemble Brazilian of covers diamonds . By the end of the year the total yield was diamonds. over 39,000 carats . One of the difficulties encountered in developing the field was the great scarcity of fresh water .
During 1909 various companies were formed to exploit the diamondiferous area . The first considerable packet of diamonds from the colony reached Germany in April 1909 . The output for the year was valued at over £1,000,000 . AuTuoRITIEs.—KarlDove, Deutsch-Sudwestafrika (Berlin, 1903) ; W . Kiilz, Deutsch-Sudafrika ... (Berlin, 1909); T . Leutwein, Elf Jahre Gouverneur in Deutsch-Sudwestafrika (Berlin, 1908). an authoritative work, largely
See also:historical; P . Rohrbach, Deutsche Kolonialwirtschaft, Band I: Sudwestafrika (Berlin, 1907), a comprehensive economic study; I . Irle, Die Herero, ein Beitrag zur
See also:Landes-, Volks- and Missionskunde (Giitersloh, 1906), a valuable
See also:summary of information concerning Damaraland; Major K .
See also:Schwabe, lm deutschen Diamantenlande (Berlin, 1909); T . Rehbock, Deutsch-Sudwestafrika,
See also:seine wirtschaftliche Erschliessung unter besonderer Beriicksichtigung der Nutzbarmachung
See also:des Wassers (Berlin, 1898) ; C. von
See also:Francois, Deutsch-Sudwestafrika: Geschichte der Kolonisation bis zum Ausbruch des Krieges mit Witbooi, April 1893 (Berlin, 1899), a history of the protectorate up to 1893; H . Schintz, Deutsch-Siidwestafrika, Forschungsreisen durch die deutschen Schutzgebiete
See also:Gross-Nama and Hereroland, nach dem Kunene, &c., 1884—1887 (
See also:Oldenburg, N.D .
11891]); H. von Francois, Nama and Damara (
See also:Magdeburg, N.D . ) . See also for
See also:Ethnology, " Die Eingeborenen Deutsch-6udwestafrikas nach Geschichte, Charakter, Sitten, Gebrtiuchen and Sprachen," in Milleilungen des Seminars fur orientalische Sprachen (Berlin and
See also:Stuttgart) for 1899 and 1900; and G . W .
See also:Stow, The Native Races of South Africa (London, 1905); ch. xvii. contains an account of the Afrikander
See also:family . For geology consult A . Schenk, " Die geologische Entwicklung Siidafrikas (mit Karte)," Peterm . Mitt . (1888); Stromer von Reichenbach, Die Geologie der deutschen Schutzgebiete in Afrika (
See also:Munich and
See also:Leipzig, 1896) . Of early books of travel the most valuable are: F .
See also:Galton, Tropical South Africa (1853; new ed . 1889);
See also:Charles J .
Andersson, Lake Ngami (1856), The Okavango River (1861) and Notes of Travel (1875) . See also Sir J . E .
See also:Alexander, An Expedition of Discovery into the Interior of Africa (London, 1838) . Reports on the German colonies are published by the British foreign office . The Kriegskarte von Deutsch-Siidwestafrika (Berlin, 1904), in nine sheets on a scale of i : 800,000, will be found useful . (F . R .
CHRISTOPHE ANTOINE GERLE (1736–c. 1801)
GERMAN BAPTIST BRETHREN, or GERMAN BRETHREN
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