See also:Indian peninsula . The word properly applies to the passes through the mountains, but from an early date was transferred by Europeans to the mountains themselves . The Eastern Ghats run in fragmentary spurs and ranges down the
See also:coast . They begin in the
See also:district of
See also:Balasore, pass southwards through
See also:Cuttack and
See also:Puri, enter the Madras
See also:presidency in
See also:Ganjam, and sweep southwards through the districts of
See also:Chingleput, South
See also:Trichinopoly and
See also:Tinnevelly . They run at a distance of 5o to 150 M. from the coast, except in Ganjam and Vizagapatam, where in places they almost abut on the
See also:Bay of Bengal . Their
See also:geological formation is granite, with
See also:gneiss and
See also:slate, with
See also:clay slate,
See also:hornblende and
See also:limestone overlying . The
See also:elevation is about 1500 ft., but several hills in Ganjam are between 4000 and 5000 ft. high . For the most
See also:part there is a broad expanse of low
See also:land between their
See also:base and the
See also:sea, and their
See also:line is pierced by the Godavari, Kistna and
See also:rivers . The Western Ghats (
See also:Sahyadri in
See also:Sanskrit) start from the south of the
See also:Tapti valley, and run south through the districts of
See also:Nasik, Thana,
See also:Kanara and
See also:Malabar, and the states of
See also:Cochin and
See also:meeting the Eastern Ghats at an
See also:angle near Cape
See also:Comorin . The range of the Western Ghats extends uninterruptedly, with the exception of a
See also:gap or valley 25 M. across, known as the
See also:Palghat gap, through which runs the
See also:principal railway of the south of India . The length of the range is 800 m. from the Tapti to the Palghat gap, and south of this about 200 M. to the extreme south of the peninsula . In many parts there is only a narrow
See also:strip of coast between the hills and the sea; at one point they rise in magnificent precipices and headlands out of the ocean .
The average elevation is 3000 ft., precipitous on the westernside facing the sea, but with a more gradual slope on the east to the plains below . The highest peaks in the
See also:northern section are Kalsubai, 5427 ft.; Harischandragarh, 4691 ft.; and
See also:Mahabaleshwar, where is the summer capital of the
See also:government of Bombay, 4700 ft . South of Mahabaleshwar the elevation diminishes, but again increases, and attains its maximum towards
See also:Coorg, where the highest peaks vary from 5500 to 7000 ft., and where the
See also:main range joins the interior Nilgiri hills . South of the' Palghat gap, the peaks of the Western Ghats rise as high as 8000 ft . The geological; formation is
See also:trap in the northern and gneiss in the
See also:southern section . GHAZAL ! [Muhammad
See also:ibn Muhammad
See also:Abu IJamid al-Ghazali] (ro58-1III), Arabian philosopher and theologian, was
See also:born at Tus, and belonged to a
See also:family of Ghazala (near Tus) distinguished for its knowledge of
See also:law . Educated at first in 'Pas, then in Jorjan, and again in 'Pas, he went to
See also:college at Nishapur, where he studied under Juwaini (known as the Sixty-nine
See also:works are ascribed to Ghazali (cf . C . Brockelmann's Gesch. d. arabischen Litteratur, i . 421-426,
See also:Weimar, 1898) . The most important of those which have been published are: a
See also:treatise on
See also:eschatology called Ad-durra ul-fakhira (" The precious pearl "), ed .
L .Gautier (
See also:Geneva, 1878) ; the
See also:work, Ihya ul-' Ulum (" Revival of the sciences ") (Bulaq, 1872; Cairo, 1889); see a commentary by al-Murtada called the Ithaf, published in 13 vols. at
See also:Fez, 1885-1887, and in to vols. at Cairo, 1893; the Bidayat ul-Hidaya (Bulaq, 187o, and often at Cairo); a compendium of ethics, Mizan ul-'
See also:Amal, translated into
See also:Hebrew, ed . J . Goldenthal (
See also:Paris, 1839) ; a more popular treatise on ethics, the Kimlya us-Sa'ada, published at
See also:Lucknow, Bombay and Constantinople, ed . H . A . Homes as The
See also:Alchemy of Happiness (Albany, N.Y., 1873) ; the ethical work 0
See also:Child, ed. by
See also:Hammer-Purgstall in Arabic and German (Vienna, 1838) ; the Destruction of Philosophers (Tahafut ul-Falasifa) (Cairo, 1885, and Bombay, 1887) . Of this work a French
See also:translation was begun by Carra de
See also:Vaux in Museon, vol. xviii . (1899) ; the Magasid ul-Falasifa, of which the first part on logic was translated into Latin by Dom . Gundisalvi (Venice, i5o6), ed. with notes by G .
See also:Beer (
See also:Leiden, 1888) ; the Kitab ul-Munqid, giving an account of the changes in his philosophical ideas, ed. by F . A .
Schmelders in his Essai sur
See also:les ecoles philosophiques chez les Arabes (Paris, 1842), also printed at Constantinople, 1876, and translated into French by Barbier de Meynard in the Journal asiatique (1877, i . 1-93); answers to questions asked of him ed. in Arabic and Hebrew, with German translation and notes by H .
See also:Matter (
See also:Frankfort, 1896); Eng. trans., Confessions of al-Ghazzali, by Claud
See also:Field (1909) . For Ghazali's
See also:life see McG. de Slane's translation of Ibn Khallikan, ii . 621 ff . ; R . Gesche's Uber Ghazzali's Leben and Werke (Berlin, 1859) ; D . B .
See also:Macdonald's " Life of al-Ghazzali," in Journal of
See also:Oriental Society, vol. xx . (f899), and Carra de Vaux's Gazali (Paris, 1902) ; see ARABIAN PHILOSOPHY . (G . W .
GHAT, or RHAT
GHAZI (an Arabic word, from ghazd, to fight)
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