GLASS , STAINED Wailes) . Better things begin with the windows at
See also:Westminster inspired by A . C . Pugin, who exercised considerable influence over his contemporaries .
See also:Powell (Hardman & Co.) was an able artist content to walk, even after that
See also:death, reverently in his footsteps .
See also:Charles Winston, whose Hints on Glass
See also:Painting was the first real contribution towards the understanding of
See also:Gothic glass, and who, by the aid of the Powells (of Whitefriars) succeeded in getting something very like the texture and
See also:colour of old glass, was more learned in
See also:ancient ways of workmanship than appreciative of the
See also:art resulting from them . (He is responsible for the
See also:Munich glass in
See also:cathedral.) So it was that, except for here and there a window entrusted by exception to W . Dyce, E .
See also:Poynter, D . G . Rossetti,
See also:Ford Madox
See also:Brown or E . Burne-
See also:Jones, glass, from the beginning of its recovery, fell into the hands of men with a strong
See also:bias towards archaeology .
The architects foremost in the Gothic revival (W .Butterfield,
See also:Sir G .
See also:Scott, G . E . Street, &c.) were all inclined that way; and, as they had the placing of commissions for windows, they controlled the policy of glass painters . Designers were constrained to
See also:work in the pedantically archaeological manner prescribed by architectural fashion . Unwillingly as it may have been, they made
See also:medieval windows, the
See also:interest in which died with the popular illusion about a Gothic revival . But they knew their
See also:trade; and when an artist like John
See also:Clayton (master of a whole school of later glass painters) took a window in
See also:hand (St Augustine's, Kilburn; Truro cathedral;
See also:Chapel, Cambridge) the result was a work of art from which, tradework as it may in a sense be, we may gather what such men might have done had they been
See also:free to follow their own
See also:artistic impulse . It is necessary to refer to this because it is generally supposed that whatever is best in
See also:recent glass is due to the romantic
See also:movement . The charms of Burne-Jones's design and of
See also:Morris's colour, place the windows done by them among the triumphs of
See also:modern decorative art; but Morris was neither foremost in the reaction, nor quite such a master of the material he was working in as he showed himself in less exacting crafts . Other artists to be mentioned in connexion with glass design are:
See also:Clement Heaton, Bayne, N . H .
J . Westlake and
See also:Holiday, not to speak of a younger generation of able men .
See also:Foreign work shows, as compared with
See also:English, a less just appreciation of glass, though the foremost draughtsmen of their
See also:day were enlisted for its design . In Germany, King
See also:Louis of
See also:Bavaria employed P. von Cornelius and W. von
See also:Kaulbach (
See also:Aix-la-Chapelle, Cologne, Glasgow); in France the Bourbons employed J . A . D . Ingres, F . V . E . Delacroix,
See also:Vernet and J . H .
See also:Flandrin (
See also:Dreux); and the execution of their designs was entrusted to the most expert painters to be procured at Munich and Sevres; but all to little effect .
They either used potmetal glass of poor quality, or relied upon enamel—with the result that their colour lacks the qualities of glass . Where it is not heavy with paint it is thin and crude . InBelgium happier results were obtained . In the chapel of the
See also:Sacrament at Brussels there is one window by J . B . Capronnier not unworthy of the
See also:fine series by B.
See also:Orley which it supplements . At the best, however, foreign artists failed to appreciate the quality of glass; they put better draughtsmanship into their windows than English designers of the
See also:mid-Victorian era, and painted them better; but they missed the
See also:glory of translucent colour . Modern facilities of manufacture make possible many things which were hitherto out of the question .
See also:colours are richer; their range is extended; and it may be possible, with the improved kilns and greater chemical knowledge we possess, to make them hold permanently fast . It was years ago demonstrated at Sevres how a picture may be painted in colours upon a
See also:sheet of
See also:plate-glass measuring 4 ft. by 2 ft . We are now no doubt in a position to produce windows painted on much larger sheets . But the results achieved, technically wonderful as they are, hardly
See also:warrant the waste of
See also:time and labour upon work so costly, so fragile, so lacking in the qualities of a picture on the one hand and of glass on the other .
See also:America, John la Farge, finding
See also:European material not French treatment of glass in the 16th century is not entirely due to a preference on the one
See also:part for colour and on the other for
See also:light and shade, but is partly owing to the circumstance that, whilst in France design remained in the hands of craftsmen, whose trade was glass painting, in the
See also:Netherlands it was entrusted by the emperor to his
See also:court painter, who concerned himself as little as possible with a technique of which he knew nothing . If in France we come also upon the names of well-known artists, they seem, like
See also:Cousin, to have been closely connected with glass painting: they designed so like glass painters that they might have begun their artistic career in the workshop . The attribution of fine windows to famous artists should not be too readily accepted; for, though it is a foible of modern times to
See also:father whatever is noteworthy upon some
See also:great name, the masterpieces of medieval art are due to unknown craftsmen . In Italy, where glass painting was not much practised, and it seems to have been the
See also:custom either to import glass painters as they were wanted or to get work done abroad, it may well be that designs were supplied by artists more or less distinguished .
See also:Ghiberti and Donatello may have had a hand in the cartoons for the windows of the Duomo at Florence; but it is not to any sculptor that we can give the entire
See also:credit of design so absolutely in the spirit of colour decoration . The employment of artists not connected with glass design would go far to explain the great difference of
See also:Italian glass from that of other countries . The 14th-century work at
See also:Assisi is more correctly described as " Trecento than as Gothic, and the " Quattrocento " windows at Florence are as different as could be from Perpendicular work . One compares them instinctively with Italian paintings, not with glass elsewhere . And so with the 15th-century Italian glass . The superb 16th-century windows of William of
See also:Marseilles at
See also:Arezzo, in which painting is carried to the furthest point possible
See also:short of sacrificing the pure quality of glass, are more according to contemporary French technique . Both French and Italian influence may be traced in
See also:Spanish glass (Avila,
See also:Burgos, Granada, Leon, Seville, Toledo) . Some of it is said to have been executed in France .
If so it must have been done to Spanish
See also:order . The coarse effectiveness of the design, the strength of the colour, the general robustness of the art, are characteristically Spanish; and nowhere this side of the Pyrenees do we find detail on a scale so enormous . We have passed by, in following the progressive course of craftsmanship, some forms of design,
See also:peculiar to no one
See also:period but very characteristic of glass . The "
See also:quarry window," barely referred to, its
See also:diamond-shaped or oblong panes painted, richly bordered, relieved by bosses of coloured
See also:ornament often heraldic, is of
See also:constant occurrence . Entire windows, too, were from first to last given up to
See also:heraldry . The " Jesse window " occurs in every
See also:style . According to the fashion of the time the "
See also:Stem of Jesse " burst out into conventional foliage,
See also:vine branches or arbitrary scrollwork . It appealed to the designer by the
See also:scope it gave for freedom of design . He found vent, again, for fantastic
See also:imagination in the
See also:representation of the "Last
See also:Judgment," to which the west window was commonly devoted . And there are other schemes in which he delighted; but this is not the place to dwell upon them . The glass of the 17th century does not count for much . Some of the best in England is the work of the Dutch van Linge
See also:family (Wadham and Balliol Colleges,
See also:Oxford) .
What glass painting came to in the 18th century is nowhere better to be seen than in the great west window of the ante-chapel at New College, Oxford . That is all Sir
See also:Reynolds and the best
See also:china painter of his day could do between them . The very. idea of employing a china painter shows how entirely the art of the glass painter-had died out . It re-awoke in England with the Gothic revival of the 16th century; and the Gothic revival determined the direction modern glass should take . Early Victorian doings are interesting only as marking the steps of recovery (cf. the work of T.Willement in the
See also:choir of the
See also:church; of
See also:Ward and
See also:Nixon, lately removed from the south
See also:transept of Westminster Abbey; of dense enough, produced potmetal more heavily charged with colour . This was wilfully streaked, mottled and quasi-accidentally varied; some of it was opalescent; much of it was more like
See also:agate or
See also:onyx than jewels . Other forms of
See also:American enterprise were : the making of into flakes; the ruckling it; the shaping it in a molten state, or the pulling it out of shape . It takes an artist of some reserve to make judicious use of glass like this . La Farge and L . C . Tiffany have turned it to beautiful account; but even they have put it to purposes more pictorial than it can properly fulfil . The design it calls for is a severely abstract
See also:form of ornament verging upon restrained from self-expression .
Moreover, the recognition of the artistic position of craftsmen in general makes it possible for aman to devote himself to glass without sinking to the
See also:rank of a mechanic; and artists begin to realize the scope glass offers glass in lumps, to be chipped them . What they lack as yet is experience in their craft, and Examples of Important
See also:Historical Stained Glass . There are remains of the earliest known glass: in France—at Le Mans,
See also:Chartres, Chalons-sur-
See also:Angers and
See also:Poitiers cathedrals, the abbey church of St Denis and at St Remi, Reims: in England—at
See also:York minster (fragments): in Germany—at Augsburg and Strassburg cathedrals: in Austria—in the cloisters of Heiligen Kreuz . The following is a classified
See also:list of some of the most characteristic and important windows, omitting for the most part isolated examples, and giving by preference the names of churches where there is a
See also:fair amount of glass remaining; the
See also:country in which at each period the art throve best is put first .
GLASITES, or SANDEMANIANS
GLASS (O.E. glees, cf. Ger. Glas, perhaps derived f...
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