See also:silver strips, threads and
See also:gimp used in connexion with varieties of
See also:weaving, embroidery and twisting and plaiting or
See also:work . To this
See also:day, in many
See also:oriental centres where it seems that early traditions of the knowledge and the use of fabrics wholly or partly
See also:woven, ornamented, and embroidered with gold and silver have been maintained, the passion for such brilliant and costly textiles is still strong and prevalent . One of the earliest mentions of the use of gold in a woven fabric occurs in the description of the
See also:ephod made for
See also:Aaron (Exod. xxxix . 2, 3), " And he made the ephod o#; gold, blue, and
See also:purple, and
See also:scarlet, and
See also:fine twined
See also:linen . And they did
See also:beat the gold into thin plates, and cut it into wires (strips), to work it in the blue, and in the purple, and in the scarlet, and in the fine linen, with cunning work." This is suggestive of early Syrian or Arabic in-darning or weaving with gold strips or tinsel . In both the Iliad and the Odyssey allusion is frequently made to inwoven and embroidered
See also:golden textiles .
See also:Assyrian sculpture gives an elaborately designed
See also:ornament upon the robe of
See also:King Assur-nasir-
See also:pal (884 B.c.) which was probably an interweaving of gold and coloured threads, and testifies to the consummate skill of Assyrian or Babylonian workers at that date . From Assyrian and Babylonian weavers the conquering Persians of the
See also:time of Darius derived their celebrity as weavers and users of splendid stuffs .
See also:Herodotus describes the corselet given by
See also:Amasis king of
See also:Egypt to the
See also:Minerva of Lindus and how it was inwoven or embroidered with gold . Darius, we are told, wore a war
See also:mantle on which were figured (probably inwoven) two golden
See also:hawks as if pecking at each other .
See also:Alexander the
See also:Great is said to have found Eastern
See also:kings and princes arrayed in robes of gold and purple .
More than two
See also:hundred years later than Alexander the Great was the king of Pergamos (the third bearing the name Attains) who gave much
See also:attention to working in metals and is mentioned by Pliny as having invented weaving with gold, hence the historic Attalic cloths . There are several references in
See also:Roman writings to costumes and stuffs woven and embroidered with gold threads and the Graeco-Roman chryso-phrygium and the Roman auri-phrygium are evidences not only of Roman work with gold threads but also of its indebtedness to Phrygian
See also:sources . The famous tunics of
See also:Agrippina and those of
See also:Heliogabalus are said to have been of tissues made entirely with gold threads, whereas the robes which
See also:Marcus Aurelius found in the
See also:treasury of
See also:Hadrian, as well as the costumes sold at the dispersal of the
See also:wardrobe of Commodus, were different in character, being of fine linen and possibly even of silken stuffs inwoven or embroidered with gold threads . The same description is perhaps correct of the reputedly splendid hangings with which King Dagobert decorated the early
See also:medieval oratory of St Denis . Reference to these and many such stuffs is made by the respectively contemporary or almost contemporary writers; and a very full and interesting work by Monsieur Francisque Michel (
See also:Paris, 1852) is still a standard
See also:book for consultation in respect of the
See also:history of
See also:silk, gold and silver stuffs . From indications such as these, as well as those of later date, one
See also:sees broadly that the
See also:art of weaving and embroidering with gold and silver threads passed from one great city to another, travelling as a
See also:rule westward .
See also:Damascus, the islands of Cyprus and
See also:Sicily, Constantinople, Venice and
See also:southern Spain appear successively in the
See also:process of time as famous centres of these much-prized manufactures . During the
See also:middle ages
See also:European royal personages and high ecclesiastical dignitaries used
See also:cloth and tissues of gold and silver for their state and ceremonial robes, as well as for costly hangings and decoration; and various names—ciclatoun, tartarium, naques or nac, baudekin or baldachin (Bagdad) and tissue—were applied to textiles in the making of which gold threads were almost always introduced in combination with others . The thin flimsy paper known as tissue paper is so called because it originally was placed between the folds of gold " tissue " (or weaving) to prevent the contiguous surfaces from fraying each other . Under the articles dealing with carpets, embroidery, lace and
See also:tapestry will be found notices of the occasional use in such productions of gold and silver threads . Of early date in the history of European weaving are
See also:rich stuffs produced in Southern Spain by Moors, as well as by Saracenic and
See also:Byzantine weavers at Palermo and Constantinople in the 12th century, in which metallic threads were freely used . Equally esteemed at about the same
See also:period were corresponding stuffs made in Cyprus, whilst for centuries later the merchants in such fabrics eagerly sought for and traded in Cyprus gold and silver threads .
Later the actual manufacture of them was not confined to Cyprus, but was also carried on by
See also:thread and trimming makers from the 14th century onwards . For the most
See also:part the gold threads referred to were of silver gilt . In rare instances of middle-age Moorish or Arabian fabrics the gold threads are made with strips of
See also:parchment or paper gilt and still rarer are instances of the use of real gold
See also:wire . In India the preparation of varieties of gold and silver threads is an
See also:ancient and important art . The " gold wire " of the-manufacturer has been and is as a rule silver wire gilt, the silver wire being, of course, composed of pure silver . The wire is
See also:drawn by means of
See also:simple draw-plates, with
See also:rude and simple appliances, from rounded bars of silver, or gold-plated silver, as the case may be . The wire is flattened into
See also:strip, tinsel or ribbon-like
See also:form, by passing fourteen or fifteen strands simultaneously, over a fine, smooth,
See also:anvil and 20I beating each as it passes with a heavy
See also:hammer having a slightly
See also:surface . Such strips or tinsel of wire so flattened are woven into
See also:Indian soniri, tissue or cloth of gold, the
See also:web or warp being composed entirely of golden strips, and ruperi, similar tissue of silver . Other gold and silver threads suitable for use in embroidery, pillow and needlepoint lace making, &c., consist of fine strips of flattened wire
See also:wound round cores of orange (in the case of silver,
See also:white) silk thread so as to completely cover them . Wires flattened or partially flattened are also
See also:twisted into exceedingly fine spirals and much used for heavy embroideries . Spangles for embroideries, &c., are made from spirals of comparatively stout wire, by cutting them down
See also:ring by ring, laying each C-like ring on an anvil, and by a
See also:blow with a hammer flattening it out into a thin round disk with a slit extending from the centre to one edge . The demand for many kinds of
See also:loom-woven and embroidered gold and silver work in India is immense, and the variety of textiles so ornamented is also very great, chief amongst which are the golden or silvery tinsel fabrics known as kincobs .
Amongst Western communities the demand for gold and silver embroideries andbraid lace now exists chiefly in connexion with
See also:naval, military and other
See also:uniforms, masonic insignia,
See also:court costumes, public and private liveries, ecclesiastical robes and draperies, theatrical dresses, &c . The proportions of gold and silver in the gold thread for the woven braid lace or ribbon
See also:trade varies, but in all cases the proportion of gold is exceedingly small . An ordinary gold braid wire is drawn, from a
See also:bar containing 90 parts of silver and 7 of copper, and plated with 3 of gold . On an
See also:average each
See also:ounce troy of a bar so plated is drawn into 1500 yds. of wire; and there-fore about 16 grains of gold cover r m. of wire . (A . S .
atomic weight 195.7 GOLD [symbol Au (H = 1),197.2(0...
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