Online Encyclopedia

GRADE B

Online Encyclopedia
Originally appearing in Volume V28, Page 1035 of the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica.
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GRADE B. Metazoa. Branch a. Parazoa. Phylum'. Porifera (se- SPONGES). Sub-phylum'. Calcarea. Class. CALCAREA. Orders : Homocoela, Heteracoela. Sub-phylum 2. Non-Calcarea. Class I. MYXOSPONGIDA. Order: Myxospongida. Class 2. TRIAXONIDA (= HEXACTINELLIDA). Orders: Amphidiscophora, Hexasterophora. Class 3. TETRAXONIDA. Sub-Class'. Tetractinellida. Orders: Homosclerophora, Astrophora, Sigmatophora. Sub-class 2. Lithistida. No Orders. Sub-class 3. Monaxonellida. Orders: Astromonaxonellida, Sigmatomonaxonel- lida. Class 4. EUCERATOSA. Order: Euceratosa. Branch b. Enterozoa. Grade'. ENTEROCOELA (see COELENTERA). Phylum 2. Hydromedusae or Hydrozoa (q.v.). Class. HYDROMEDUSAE, (q.v.). Orders: Eleutheroblastea, Hydroidae seu Leptolinae (Sub-orders: Anthomedusae, Leptomedusae), Hy- drocorallinae, Greptolitoidea Trachylinae (Sub- orders: Trachomedusae, Narcomedusae), Siphono- phora. Phylum 3. Scyphomedusae (q.v.). Class. SCYPHOMEDUSAE. Orders: Cubomedusae, Stauromedusae, Coronata, Discophora. Phylum 4. Anthozoa (q.v.). Class. ANTHOZOA. Sub-class I. Alcyonaria. Orders: Stolonifera, Akyonacea, Pseudaxonia, Axifera, Stelechotokea, Coenothecalia. Sub-class 2. Zoantharia. Orders: Zoanthidea, Cereanthidea, Antipathidea, Actiniidea (Sub-orders: Malacactinias and Scleractiniae or Madreporia). Phylum 5. Ctenophora. Class. CTENOPHORA. Sub-class I. Tentaculata. Orders: Cydippidea, Lobata, Cestoidea. Sub-class 2. Nuda. No Orders. Grade 2. COELOMOCOELA. Phylum 6. Platyelmia (q.v.). Class I. PLANARIA (see PLANARIANS). Order: Turbellaria. Class 2. TEMNOCEPHALOIDEA (see appendix to PLANARIANS). No Orders. Class 3. TREMATODA (see TREMATODES). Orders: Heterocotylea, Aspidocotylea, Malacocotylea. Class 4. CESTODA (see TAPEWORMS). Orders: Monozoa, Merozoa. Phylum 7. Nematoidea. Class'. NEMATODA (see NEMATODE). No Orders. Class 2. CHAETOSOMIDAE (see CHAETOSOMATIDA). No Orders. Class 3. DESMOSCOLECIDA (Q.V.). No Orders. Class 4. NEMATOMORPHA (Q.V.). No Orders. Phylum 8. Chaetognatha (q.v.). No Orders. Phylum 9. Nemertina. Class. NEMERTINA (q.v.). Orders: Protonemertini, Mesonemertini, Meta- nemertini, Heteronemertini. Phylum lo. Mollusca (q.v.). Grade A. ISOPLEURA. Class'. AMPHINEURA (see CHITON). Orders: Polyplacophora, Aplacophora. Grade B. PRORHIPIDOGLOSSOMORPHA. Class 2. GASTROPODA (q.v.). Sub-class I. Streptoneura. Orders: Aspidobranchia, Pectinibranchia. Sub-class 2. Euthyneura. Orders: Opisthobranchia, Pulmonata. Class 3. SCAPHOPODA (Q.V.). No Orders. Class 4. LAMELLIBRANCHIA (q.v.). Orders: Protobranchia, Filibranchia, Eulamellibranchia, Septibranchia. Grade C. SIPHONOPODA. Class 5. CEPHALOPODA (q.v.). Orders : Tetrabranchia, Dibranchia. Phylum II. Appendiculata. Sub-phylum I. Rotifera (q.v.). Class. ROTIFERA. Orders : Aspianchnaceae, Melicertaceae, Trochosphaeraceae, Ploimoidaceae, Bdelloidaceae, Floscularaceae,Ploima, Seisonaceae. Sub-phylum 2. Chaetopoda (q.v.). Class I. POLYCHAETA. Orders: Nereidiformia, Cryptocephala, Capitelliformia, Terebelliformia, Spioniformia, Scoleciformia. Class 2. OLIGOCHAETA. Orders: .4phaneura, Limicolae, Moniligastres, Terricolae. Class 3. HIRUDINAE (see LEECH). Orders: Rhynchobdellidae, Gnathobdellidae, Acanthobdellidae. Class 4. MYZOSTOMIDA (q.v.). No Orders. Class 5. SACCOCIRRIDA. No Orders. Class 6. HAPLODRILI (q.v.). No Orders. Class 7. EcHIUROIDEA (q.v.). No Orders. Sub-phylum 3. Arthropoda (q.v.). Grade I. CERATOPHORA. Class'. PERIPATIDEA (see PERIPATUS). No Orders. Class 2. CHILOPODA (see CENTIPEDE). Sub-class I. Pleurostigma. Orders: Geophilomorpha, Scolopendromorpha, Craterostigmomorphe, Lithobiomorpha. Sub-class 2. Notostigma. Order: Scutigeromorpha. Class 3. DIPLOPODA (see MILLIPEDE). Sub-class I. Pselaphognatha. Order : Penicillata. Sub-class 2. Chilognatha. Orders: Oniscomorpha, Limacomorpha, Colobognatha, Ascospermophora,Proterospermophora, Merochaeta, Opisthospermophora. Class 3. PAUR.OPODA (see MILLIPEDE). No Orders. Class 4. SYMPHYLA (see MILLIPEDE). No Orders. Class 5. HEXAPODA (q.v.). Sub-class'. Apterygota. Order: Aptera. Sub-class 2. Exopterygota. Orders: Dermaptera, Orthoptera, Pleceptera, Isoptera, Corrodentia, Ephemoptera, Odonata, Thysanoptera, Hemiptera, Anoplura. Sub-class 3. Endopterygota. Orders: Neuroptera, Coleoptera, Mecaptera, Trichoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera, Siphonaptera, Hymenoptera. Grade 2. ACERATA. Class I. CRUSTACEA (q.v.). Sub-class I. Entomostraca (q.v.). Orders: Branchiopoda (Sub-orders: Phyllopoda, Cladocera, Branchiura), Ostracoda, Copepoda. Sub-class 2. Thyrostraca (q.v.) = (Cirripedia). No Orders. Sub-class 3. Leptostraca. No Orders. Sub-class 4. Malacostraca (q.v.). Orders: Decapoda (Sub-orders: Branhyura, Mac- aura), Schizopoda (including Anaspides), Stoma- topoda, Sympoda (Cumacea), Isopoda (including Tanaidacea), Amphipoda. Class 2. ARACHNIDA (q.v.). Grade A. TRILOBITAE (see TRILOBITE). (Orders not determined.) Grade B. NOMOMERISTICA. Sub-class I. Pantopoda. Orders: Nymphonomorpha, 4scorhynchomorpha, Pycnogonomorpha. Sub-class 2. Eu-Arachna. Grade a. Delobrancha (or Hydropneusta). Orders: Xiphosura, Gigantosiraca. Grade b. Embolobranchia (or Aeropneusta). Section. Pectinifera. Order: Scorpionidea. Section. Epectinata. Orders: Pedipalpi, Araneae, Palpigradi, Solifugae, Pseudoscorpiones, Podogona, Opiliones, Rhynchostomi (Atari). Class 3. TARDIGRADA (q.v.). No Orders. Class 4. LINGU.ATALINA (see PENTASTOMIDA). No Orders. Phylum 12. Echinoderms (see ECHINODERMS). Branch A. PELMATOZOA. Class I. CYSTIDEA. Orders: Amphoridea, Carpoidea, Rhombifera, Aporita, Diploporita. Class 2. BLASTOIDEA. Divisions: Protoblastoidea, Eublastoidea. No Orders. Class 3. CRINOIDEA. Orders: Monocyclica Inadunata, Adunata, Monocyclica Camerata, Dicyclica Inadunata, Flexibilia, Dicyclica Camerata. Class 4. EDRIOASTEROIDEA. No Orders. Branch B. ELEUTHEROZOA. Class I. HOLOTHUROIDEA. Orders: A s pidochirota, Dendrochirota. Class 2. STELLIFORMIA. Sub-class 1. Asterida. Orders: Phanerozonia, Cryptozonia. Sub-class 2. Ophiurida. Orders: Sireptophiurae, Zygophiurae, Cladophiurae. Class 3. ECHINOIDEA. Orders: Bothriocidaroida, Meloniloida, Cystocidaroida, Cidaroida, Diademoida, Holectypoida, Spatangoida, Clypeastroida. Phylum 13. Vertebrata (q.v.). Sub-phylum a. Hemichorda (q.v.). Class. ENTEROPNEUSTA (see BALA.NOGLOSSUS). No Orders. Sub-phylum b. Urochorda. Class. TUNICATA (q.v.). Orders: Larvacea, Thaliacea (Sub-orders: Cyclomyaria, Hemimyaria), Ascidiacea (Sub-orders: A scidiae Simplices, A scidiae Compositae, Ascidiae Luciae). Sub-phylum c. Cephalochorda (see AMPHIOxos). Class. CEPHALOCHORDA. No Orders. Sub-phylum d. Craniata.I Class I. PISCES (See ICHTHYOLOGY). Sub-class I. Cyclostomata (q.v.). Orders: Myxinoides (or Hyperotreti), Petromyzontes (or Hyperoartii). Sub-class 2. Selachia or Elasmobranchii (see SELACHIANS). Orders: Pleuropterygii, Acanthodii, Ichthyotomi, Plagiostomi, Holocephali. Sub-class 3. Teleostoma. Orders: Ganoidea, Crossopterygii, Dipneusii, Teleostei. Class 2. BATRACHIA (qv.). Orders: Stegocephalia, Apoda (or Peromela), Caudata • (or Urodela), Ecaudata (or Anura). Class 3. REPTILIA (See REPTILES). Orders: Anomodontia, Chelonia, Samopterygia, Ichthyopterygia, Rhyncocephalia, Dinosauria, Crocodilia, Ornithosauria, Squamata. Class 4. AYES (see BIRD and ORNITHOLOGY). Sub-class I. Archaeornithes. No Orders. Sub-class 2. Neornithes. Division I. Ratitae. Orders: Struthiones, Rheae, Casuariae, Apteryges, Dinornithes, Aepyornithes. Division 2. Odontolcae. No Orders. Division 3. Carinatae. Orders: Ichthyornes, Colymbiformes, Sphenisciformes, Procellariiformes, Ciconiiformes, (Sub-orders: Steganopodes, Ardeae, Ciconiae, Phoenicopteri). Anseriformes (Sub-orders: Palamedeae, Anseres), Falconiformes (Sub-orders: Cathartae, I Craniata may be usefully divided into 3 grades: (a) Branchiata lieterodactyla, which includes Pisces except Cyclostomes. (b) Branchiata Pentadactyla, which includes Batrachia. (c) Lipobranchia Pentadactyla, which includes Reptiles, Birds and Mammals. 1035 Accipitres), Tinamiformes, Galliformes (Sub orders: Mesites, Turnices, Galli, Opisthocomi), Gruiformes, Charadriiformes (Sub-orders: Linzicolae, Lari, Pterocles, Columbae), Cuculiformes (Sub-orders: Cucuii, Psiltaci), Coraciiformes (Sub-orders: Coraciae, Striges, Caprimulgi, Cypseli, Colii, Trogones, Rid), Passeriformes (Sub-orders: Passeres Anisomyodae, Passeres Diacromyodae). Class 4. MAMMALIA (q.v.). Sub-class I. 1Vlonotremata (q.v.) (Prototheria). No Orders. Sub-class 2. Marsupialia (q.v.) (Metatheria). One Order: Marsupialia. Sub-orders: Polyprotodonta, Paucituberculata, Diprotodonta. Sub-class 3. Placentalia (Monodelphia, q.v. ; or Eutheria). Orders: Insectivore, Chiroptera, Dermoptsra, Edentate (Sub-orders: Xenarthra, Pholidota, Tubulidentata), Rodentia (Sub-orders: Duplicidentata, Simplicidentata), Tillodontia, Carnivora (Sub-orders: Fissipedia, Pinnipedia, Creodonta), Cetacea (Sub- orders: Archaeoceti, Odontoceti, Mystacoceti), Sirenia, Ungulata (Sub-orders: Proboscidea, Hyracoidea, Barypoda, Toxcdontia, Amblypoda, Litopterna, Ancylopoda, Condylarthra, Perissodactyla, Artiodactyla), Primates (Sub-orders: Prosinziae, Anthropoidea). Phylum 14. Mesozoa (q.v.). Class I. RIIOMBOZOA. No Orders. Class 2. ORTHONECTIDA. No Orders. Phylum 15. Polyzoa (q.v.). Class I. ENTOPROCTA. No Orders. Class 2. ECTOPROCTA. Orders: Gymnolaemata (Sub-orders: Tripostomata, Cryptostomata, Cyclostomata, Ctenostomata, Cheilostomata), Phylactolaemata. Phylum 16. Acanthocephala (q.v.). Class. ACANTHOCEPIIALA. No Orders. Phylum 17. Podaxonia. Class I. SIPUNCULOIDEA (q.v.). No Orders. Class 2. PRIAPULOIDEA (q.v.). No Orders. Class 3. PHORONIDEA (q.v.). No Orders. Class 4. PTEROBRACHIA (q.v.). No Orders. Class 5. BRACHIOPODA (q.v.). Sub-class 1. Ecardines (Inarticulata). Orders: Atremata, Neotremata. Sub-class 2. Testicardines (Articulata). Orders: Protremata, Telotremata. Phylum 18. Gastretricha (q.v.). Class. GASTROTRICHA. Sub-orders: Ichthydina, Cepodina. (Possibly Kinorhyncha (q.v.) with only Echinoderes is to be placed here).
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